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Title: see below

Total Pages: 2 Words: 605 Sources: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Essay:
In a detailed fashion, please develop a plan of action that would be effective in resolving the following scenario as well as incorporating different systems available to you and the child.

Ed is constantly being suspended from school for inappropriate behavior which includes fighting, profanity, and a disrespectful attitude towards staff and peers. You have on several occasions met with teachers to remedy this situation but Ed's behavior continues to escalate.

Excerpt From Essay:

Essay Instructions: In Assessment 1, Part 1, you should include your two (2) diary entries.
After each diary entry write a 750 word reflection using Rolfe, Freshwater and Jasper (2002, p.4 of 5) framework. Level 1 analysis ?What??
Following each reflective analysis, identify major themes within each entry. For example for a diary entry about an experience of the death of a client you might identify themes of shock, powerlessness or fear. (The diary entries are not included in the word count).
Format to be followed
? Introduction
? What is the problem/difficulty/ reason for being stuck/reason for feeling bad/reason we don?t get on/etc., etc.?
? What ? was my role in the situation?
? What ? was I trying to achieve?
? what? actions did I take?
? What ? was the response of others?
? What ? were the consequences
? ?.for the patient?
? for myself?
? for others?
What ? feelings did it evoke
? in the patient?
? in myself?
? in others?
What? was good/bad about the experience?
What was the major theme within this entry?

Diary entry 1.
This incident happened while I was on a clinical placement as a student nurse at a busy aged care facility.
It was around 08: 30am when I was asked by a staff member to go and make Mr A?s bed. I entered his room I was surprised to find the patient still in bed curled up on his side holding his left hip area. I had looked after Mr A, before and remembered that he was normally up and quite active by about this time in the morning. Instantly I was worried that something was terribly wrong. I greeted him and asked him how he was .He said that he was not good as he was up all night with an awful pain in his left hip area and he stated he wanted some more pain medication. I conducted a pain assessment as I had been taught asking various questions about Mr A?s pains such as location, intensity, duration and aggravating/alleviating factors. Mr A described his pain as a ?dull aching pain in his left hip?, which started at around 10pm the previous night. He explained that he has had this pain before, and it was due to arthritis. He said movement aggravated the pain and medications normally relieved the pain. I asked him to rate his pain on a scale of 0/10 where o was no pain and 10 was the worst pain. Mr A, rated his pain 8/10.This information indicated to me that he was in severe pain which required an intervention. I checked the medication chart to see what analgesia had been prescribed and when it was last given. The patient?s medication included oxycodone (endone) 5 mg four times daily with a breakthrough dose of oxycodone 2.5 mg prn, as required. Mr Smith had last been given 5mg of Endone at 0600hrs however I noticed no breakthrough doses had been given since the nightshift, where he had required it twice. I immediately went and explained the situation to the registered nurse in charge of Mr A?s care and promptly asked if she could give him the break through dose. To my horror she answered, ?No, he has just had some at 6 o?clock and he can bloody well wait, because I?m busy?. She then abruptly told me that I needed to go down and help the care staff finish showering some patients as they were short staffed and running behind. Shocked, I thought surely it would only take a few minutes of her time to go down and check on him and administer some pain relief. I felt intimated by not only her tone but also her seniority, so I did not push the matter further. I went informed the patient that he would need to wait just a bit longer for the medication, then like a good student went and did as I was told and helped with the showers. I spent the rest of the day feeling terrible about the incident. I believed that this patient was in server pain and he was entitled to have pain relief. Why didn?t I just say that to the nurse? Perhaps she would have changed her mind. I knew this sort of nursing care was inadequate. I knew I had contributed to this inadequately by failing to advocate for this patients right to timely pain relief. Today I feel I have more experience and more confidence and if I was put in that situation again I wouldn?t think twice about challenging another nurse if I thought it was in the best interests of my patient, id even go higher such as the nurse unit manager if I thought it was necessary to get the best result for the patient. Hindsight is always 20/20 though sometimes I think we just get stuck not knowing what to do or where to go in unfamiliar situations. I have learnt that I?m not going to get it right every single time, I will make mistakes. The main goal for me is to learn from these situations ,so I know what to do for next time to ensure that my practise is safe, efficient and has the best possible outcomes for my patients.

Diary entry 2
As part of my second year bachelor of nursing degree, I was placed on a busy medical surgical ward with another student who I knew from my classes. From the first day it seemed apparent we weren?t welcome or wanted. Nervous and excited to have the opportunity to work on a surgical ward ,L and myself presented at the nurses? station. It was quite crowded with several nurses talking amongst each other. We approached and introduced our self?s as students. To which a nurse responded with the comment ?Oh no not more of them?. Shocked and not knowing how to react I stood there quietly With L, waiting to be told what to do and where to go. We waited there for a good 40mins, during this time nobody spoke to us and the nurses just seem to carry on like we weren?t there. I felt quite uncomfortable as I noticed two of the nurses whispering to each other and looking over at us. I tried to reassure myself that I was just being paranoid that they probably weren?t whispering about us at all. However this did little to ease my discomfort. Still to this day I can remember standing there as one of the most humiliating experiences of my life. Finally the nursing unit manager came down and allocated both of us to the supervised of a registered nurse, who did not even bother to look up from her paperwork when she told us to ?Just follow the enrolled nurses around for the day?. We did this, until one of the enrolled nurses suggested we go and do the medication round with the registered nurse. We found her at the nurses? station and L asked if we could accompany her on the round. The registered nurse said ?what did you just say; I can?t understand a *profanity*, word you said. I was floored I could believe what I had just herd. L had an Asian accent but spoke perfect English. I had never had any trouble understanding her. L walked off and I found her several minutes later crying in the tea room. I felt angry at how she was treated and later reported it to our university facilitator.

This action resulted in a prompt apology from the registered nurse. However the rest of the placement did not get any better. I can?t speak for L, but personally there were quite a number of times where I felt excluded and bullied by staff. Because it happened so frequently I stop reporting these incidents and just ended accepting it as part of that particular wards culture. Students were not welcome and not wanted and that was that. I think this experience has reminded me of how NOT to treat students. In the future when I am a registered nurse I aim to be a patient, respectful and supportive teacher to new students. Bulling and exclusion should never be part of any bodies learning experience.
? Introduction
? What is the problem/difficulty/ reason for being stuck/reason for feeling bad/reason we don?t get on/etc., etc.?
? What ? was my role in the situation?
? What ? was I trying to achieve?
? what? actions did I take?
? What ? was the response of others?
? What ? were the consequences
? ?.for the patient?
? for myself?
? for others?
What ? feelings did it evoke
? in the patient?
? in myself?
? in others?
What? was good/bad about the experience?
What was the major theme within this entry?

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Narrative Story

Total Pages: 7 Words: 2043 Works Cited: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: This paper will use the story of a student who was transfered from another Middle School for having three pages of disciplinary Problems and would not improve behavior. An opportunity Transfer was the last consequence to the researchers middle school.

Here are the facts, If the writer could create the story from the facts as though the student is sharing his life story with the school.

Name- Ruben
Age 13
one older brother(Renee)always gets in trouble(doesn't go to school hangs out with his girlfriend all day. The older brother15Victor is attending college and holds a full time job.
Lives at home with mom and work long hours and is not around.
Discipline Record( these were repeated offenses)
Profanity towards teachers
Defiance Towards staff and Administrators
Uniform Violation
Phyisical fighting
Did not show up for detention after school
Tardy to class
The writer can create a story of how Ruben's behavior and lack of self-control and anger led him up to him being transfered. If the writer can create a narrative reflecting on Rubens pain dealing with not knowing dad and that how mom struggles through working long hours to support the family. Ruben attempt to run from his pain by using Cocaine and sniffing inhalents to deal with his problems. Ruben has a hard time with academics and recieved Failing grades at his previous school. Ruben often thinks of his dad and wonders where he is. Mother cleans houses for a living and does not make alot of money. Ruben is tall and skinny( most likely from the drug use) He does not eat healthy but Chips and Gatorade until his mom comes home late to cook them dinner. Ruben has a hard time with peer pressure and is easily influenced. He even pulled down his pants to a teacher because his friends dared him.
He was now labeled as an opportunity transfer student. The researcher decided to select the most uplifting supportive teachers in the school for him. Teachers wanted to know what the reasons why he was transfered because he was doing great in all classes. He has been at the school 4 months and has not gotten into any trouble and is recieving A and Bs in his classes with cooperation marks as excellent. Every morning he checks into the office and waits for the researcher at 7:00am before school to talk about any problems he is having with, school work, friends, teachers, and home. He is talks about how respect is important that the teachers give him and they are concerned for his life and he states that this is why he is doing well." Someone gave me a chance and I better take it or I will never make it" says Ruben in one of the morning sessions with the researcher.

The story is about how how a student labeled trouble sucessfully turns his life around when he is given support. If the writer can create a powerful story like of Ruben and his struggles and his turn around for sucess. This is for a part of Chapter 1 for the dissertation.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Immigration and the nonel Drown by Junot Diaz

Total Pages: 5 Words: 1500 Bibliography: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: ****The Directions for this paper***
Text: Drown, Junot Diaz
Topic: Immigration

Objective: The objective of the English 199 course is to analyze primary (novel) and secondary sources (articles) and write a research paper based on a THESIS that the students has developed.

Description:The text for the course will be the primary source for the paper. There is one assignment due (research paper) on August 11th without exception.

Write a 5-8-page research paper using Drown as a primary source with a minimum of 2 secondary sources to support your thesis. You will need to submit a draft of the paper for approval in order to pass the course. You need to use the MLA format to properly cite sources and include in text citations to meet the guidelines of research writing at the college level. Paper should be paginated and include a work cited page
In order to pass the course you will need to:
1. Submit a 5-8 page research paper based on the book Drown
2. Include secondary sources to support your point of view
3. Choose one of the questions below and write a documented paper supporting your thesis.
4. Provide a work cited page with all sources cited correctly in the MLA format

Consider one of following questions as the topic of you research paper. You will need to support your opinion with details from the readings and provide a thesis in the beginning of the paper.
1. Is America the land of the free? Does the American Dream exist? Do you believe that Diaz believes the American Dream applies for today?s immigrant?

2. Diaz writes in the first and last short story about a family who become divided because the father migrates to America. What are the ramifications to the nuclear family when integral family members (like mothers and fathers) chose to migrate to America and leave their children behind in their home country? Under what circumstances do people migrate? What are the living situations of the people in their country and in countries like Haiti or Mexico?

3. Do you agree with President Bush that we should put several millions dollars into border control at this moment? Do you agree with his tactics and approach to solving the immigration issue? If not, what would you do differently?

***Here is a link the professor told me to go to find some good sources on immigration***

*****all the information you need for this book******

"Drown" by Junot Diaz

About the Author

Remarkably, Junot Diaz is only the second Dominican-American to have published a book of fiction in English (Julia Alvarez was the first). He is primarily a writer of poetry and prose fiction but his work is largely autobiographical.

One of five children, Diaz was born in 1969 in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Knowing no English, he moved with his family to New Jersey at age seven. He began writing at about thirteen in an effort to escape the pain of his parents' failing marriage, his family's poverty, and his older brother's newly diagnosed leukemia. He later graduated from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, where his professors praised his talent for writing poetry and prose and encouraged him to pursue a literary career. Toward this end, he went on to complete a master of fine arts degree at Cornell University.

Before gaining success as a writer, Diaz held various jobs, including dishwasher, pool table deliverer, steelworker, and editorial assistant. His first published works consisted mainly of poetry, but he soon branched out into short stories and essays, publishing stories in The New Yorker, the Paris Review, and Best American Stories before the age of thirty. Drown, a collection of short stories that draws on his youth in Santo Domingo and in New Jersey, was his first book. A 1999 recipient of a coveted Guggenheim Fellowship, Diaz has won many literary awards. In 1997 he won a Pushcart Prize, and the following year he won the Eugene McDermott Award. More recently, The New Yorker named him one of the Twenty Writers for the Twenty-first Century. Diaz teaches creative writing at Syracuse University.


Drown is an intensely raw and realistic collection of ten short stories. Although the stories share neither one common protagonist nor one common setting, each story involves a Dominican or Dominican American adolescent male's struggle to survive in the harsh and often violent world of poverty, drugs, and petty crime. Diaz's young protagonists, who live in rural areas of the Dominican Republic or in Dominican neighborhoods of suburban New Jersey, struggle to survive in the face of absent fathers, abject poverty, and tedious jobs.


Two settings dominate these stories: the rural Dominican Republic and suburban New Jersey..Both are tough, grim settings, awash in poverty and misery. The stories that contain the most Spanish words and phrases are set in the Dominican Republic.

The stories set in the United States contain less Spanish and more English slang terms, creating a sharp narrative contrast between the two environments.

Although both settings share a defining poverty, and almost all of the families in the stories are desperately poor, the families who live in the Dominican Republic are the poorest, often lacking basic necessities and suffering related health problems. The mother in "Aguantando" is periodically forced to send her children to live with relatives because she cannot afford to feed them. She tries to ease the pain of their situation by telling her children that things could be worse: "We were poor. The only way we could have been poorer was to have lived in the campo or to have been Haitian immigrants, and Mami regularly offered these to us as brutal consolation." Still, the family cannot afford meat or beans, living off of boiled yucca, boiled plantano (plantains), pieces of cheese, and shreds of bacalao (codfish). In "No Face," the younger brother suffers never-healing scabs on his scalp, probably due to malnutrition. Poverty is inescapable for these Dominicans, except possibly through emigration.

Moving to the United States, however, provides only minimal relief from poverty.

To the characters in the stories, impoverished suburban New Jersey is the United States, with its "break-apart buildings, the little strips of grass, the piles of garbage around the cans, and the dump, especially the dump," all of which typify the impoverished Dominican neighborhoods where the characters reside. To these young immigrants and children of immigrants, life in the States involves walking along the sides of gritty highways, breaking into abandoned apartments to live for short periods of time, selling illicit drugs to teens at gas stops and public pools, and urinating freely in public.

These characters are aware that there is another New Jersey, another United States, where wealthy Caucasians swim in sterilized swimming pools in their own backyards and hire recent immigrants to clean their rambling kitchens, but this world is so unattainable that it may as well not exist.

The narrator in "Edison, New Jersey" explains how last names, which serve as ethnic background identifiers, separate the two worlds of New Jersey: "Pruitt. Most of our customers have names like this, court case names: Wooley, Maynard, Gass, Binder, but the people from my town, our names, you see on convicts or coupled together on boxing cards."

Themes and Characters

The protagonists in Drown live midway between childhood and adulthood, as do the protagonists in all classic works of young adult literature. These boys and young men vary in age from nine through about twenty.

The younger protagonists are still clearly children, climbing trees and playing ball games, yet they witness and experience decidedly adult events, such as learning of their fathers' marital infidelities and engaging in basic sexual experimentation. The older protagonists face the reality of having to support themselves to survive from day to day, yet they often retreat into more childish behaviors, dreaming of unrealistic futures and methods of escaping from the responsibilities of impending adulthood.

The title of the collection can be seen as a reference to the drowning of the young protagonists' innocence as they leave the comforting protection of childhood and enter the harsh reality of adulthood.

On the surface, these main characters appear toughened and inured to emotional pain, yet they harbor deep emotional sensitivities. The protagonist in "Boyfriend" claims to be immune to Girlfriend's obvious emotional pain: "I guess I'd gotten numb to that sort of thing. I had heartleather like walruses got blubber." He wishes his heart were hardened, yet he maintains empathy even for a total stranger's pain, as he listens to Girlfriend's crying for days, following her movements as she wanders around her apartment, wishing he could talk to her. He is also suffering from his own broken heart, further destroying his attempt to be tough and unattached. Girlfriend herself wants to be emotionally impenetrable, cutting off her luxurious hair to appear tougher, but this action is merely a response to the lasting pain she feels from Boyfriend's callous rejection of her. No matter how the characters try to toughen themselves, they still feel the pain of their disappointing lives.

Most of the families represented in Drown are broken families with no fathers. Even though the fathers are absent, the familial culture Diaz presents is still mostly patriarchal. When they are on the scene, the fathers exercise almost total authority and children fear their father's violent temper, and when they are absent, having deserted their families for a variety of reasons, the fathers' influence on the families remains strong. The specters of their missing fathers hang forever in the back of the main characters' minds. Even in "Fiesta, 1980," the only story in the book in which the protagonist lives with his father, it is clear that the family is on the brink of demise. Papi spends increasing amounts of time with his mistress as his passive wife fears their impending separation. Both sons are aware of the situation, but they are powerless to stop their father from leaving.

It is the mothers in these stories who suffer the most from this patriarchal familial culture. In "Fiesta, 1980," Mami closes her eyes as her husband pulls their son to his feet by his ear, anticipating that her husband will beat the boy. She objects in no way because "being around Papi all her life had turned her into a major-league wuss.

Anytime Papi raised his voice her lip would start trembling, like some specialized tuning fork." Similarly, life has beaten down the mother in "Drown" to such an extent that she barely continues to exist, living more as an automaton than a thinking, feeling human. She has almost turned into a part of the apartment in which she subsists: "She's so quiet that most of the time I'm startled to find her in the apartment. I'll enter a room and she'll stir, detaching herself from the cracking plaster walls, from the stained cabinets... . She has discovered the secret to silence: pouring cafe without a splash, walking between rooms as if gliding on a cushion of felt, crying without a sound."

Women generally play secondary roles in the book and are rarely mentioned except as side characters. Exceptions include Aurora and the girlfriend in "Boyfriend," who can perhaps be seen as the protagonists of their stories. Unlike the men in the book, who suffer from chronic boredom, the ever-working mothers view idle time as but a fantasy as they struggle to support their families both on the job and at home, despite the poverty and violence that rule their lives.

Violence is central to these stories, and all of the characters experience it in a variety of forms. Together, these ten stories highlight the violence in which youth often engage. Older brothers pummel their younger brothers, and the street gangs torment unpopular outsiders. Older brothers spend a lot of time training their younger brothers, often through violence. In many ways, the role of the older brothers seems to be to prepare the younger brothers for the cruelty and disappointment of the adult world.

Older brothers not only physically beat their younger siblings but harass them in other ways as well. For example, in "Aguantando," Rafa flaunts a lighter in front of Yunior and promises to give it to him if he "shuts up."

When Yunior responds with a hopeful, "Yeah?" Rafa reneges on the offer: "See....

You already lost it." Rafa is preparing Yunior for the many disappointments he will face in his adult life.

Violence is also central to the many malefemale relationships in the book. Most of the fathers threaten and beat most of the mothers; most of the young boyfriends threaten and beat most of the young girlfriends. The male characters create much of the violence in the book, yet they are occasionally victims of violence as well. In "Negocios," Papi had "been robbed twice already, his ribs beaten until they were bruised." In his home, Papi laughs with delight in response to the violence he sees in Tom and Jerry cartoons. His world is violent, both at home and on the streets, and he finds violence both repugnant and appealing, depending on whether he is the victim, the perpetrator, or the observer.

Although the males initiate most of the violence in the stories, the females also instigate violence at times. For instance, Mami slaps Yunior in "Aguantando" and makes him kneel on sharp pebbles with his face to the wall as a form of punishment.

The title character in "Aurora" is probably the most violent female in the book when she fights back in response to her boyfriend's physical abuse. When he punches her chest until it turns black and blue, Aurora tries to jam a pen into his thigh. She also often leaves deep nail scratches on his body.

And even though they have had a fairly long-term romantic relationship, the homeless, penniless Aurora steals from her boyfriend's pockets as he sleeps. Despite their obviously unhealthy relationship, the two like to fool themselves into thinking that they are "normal folks. Like maybe everything was fine." But the violence and the mistrust that characterize their relationship presage an adult life of continued relational dysfunction. Even as they fool themselves into thinking they have a "normal" relationship, violence lurks in wait. Aurora tells the boyfriend that while she was in juvenile jail she created a fantasy future for the two of them, with kids, a big blue house, and even hobbies. A week later, though, the boyfriend explains, "she would be asking me again, begging actually, telling me all the good things we'd do and after a while I hit her and made the blood come out of her ear like a worm.".

170 Drown Indeed, many of the characters try to fool themselves in a like manner to escape their miserable conditions. In "Aguantando," Yunior avoids the obvious conclusion that his father has abandoned the family, thinking of him instead only rarely, and then in vague terms as a composite of other children's fathers and of other adults he knows: On the days I had to imagine him--not often, since Mami didn't much speak of him anymore--he was the soldier in the photo. He was a cloud of cigar smoke, the traces of which could still be found on the uniforms he'd left behind. He was pieces of my friends' fathers, of the domino players on the corner, pieces of Mami and Abuelo. I didn't know him at all. I didn't know that he'd abandoned us. That this waiting for him was all a sham.

He fools himself into believing that his father will return.

Similarly, Ysreal turns to fantasizing to escape his misfortunes. He imagines himself a superhero, fighting evil and avenging wrong. Even in the face of abject poverty, tragic misfortune, and brutal social isolation, Diaz portrays in Ysreal a child whose imagination and hope remain intact. Ironically, Ysreal, the character who faces the harshest circumstances of all of the characters in the book, is portrayed with the most optimism for life.

Boredom is another important theme that runs through these stories. The characters who have jobs find them dull and unsatisfying, and even the characters who work suffer from long hours of idle time (with the exception of the mothers). The main characters in "Edison, New Jersey" are so bored with their pool table delivery jobs that they pass the time guessing what towns will be included on their delivery route the next day. Wayne's state of boredom even extends to his private life, and he has a series of extramarital affairs to relieve the routine of his home life.

Similar to boredom is the theme of waiting. Many of the characters are waiting for events that will most likely never occur.

The young protagonists are often waiting for the fathers who abandoned them to come back, but the fathers rarely return.

The deserted mothers also are often waiting for the return of their husbands. Most wait for years, never to see their spouses again.

For the characters in the book, life is disappointing and unfulfilling, with little hope for the future.

Literary Qualities

The stories in Drown are fairly short, averaging between fifteen and twenty pages.

Only "Negocios" is much longer, at fiftyfour pages. Each story is a slice of life, more a presentation of setting, character, and mood than a plot-driven tale. Many of the stories have unclear resolutions.

As Diaz himself admits, much of his work is thinly veiled autobiography. His work is definitely fiction, however, and not to be seen as accurately portraying his own life. His life serves as literary inspiration, but he freely embellishes and changes characters, settings, and events to enhance his storytelling.

Diaz's greatest literary strength is his narrative style. He creates raw prose and uses spare language in an unadorned style similar to reportage. All but two of the stories are in the first-person voice. "No Face" is told in the third person. Its smoothly flowing, dreamlike narrative style sets it apart from the other stories and makes it a story that lends itself especially well to reading aloud: "He watches the sun burn the mists from the fields and despite the heat the beans are thick and green and flexible in the breeze.... He's tired and aching but he looks out over the valley, and the way the land curves away to hide itself reminds him of the way Lou hides his dominos when they play."

"How to Date a Browngirl, Blackgirl, Whitegirl, or Halfie" is told in the secondperson voice, which allows the narrator to address the reader directly and serves to heighten the humor in the story. For example, Diaz writes, "She'll say, I like Spanish guys, and even though you've never been to Spain, say, I like you. You'll sound smooth." The second-person narration turns this satire of racial tension into a comical dating guide.

The remaining eight stories are told in the first person. Diaz's first-person narrative is colloquial and casual. For example, in "Fiesta, 1980," the narrator comments, "If Papi had walked in and caught us lounging around in our underwear, he would have kicked our asses something serious.

He didn't say nothing to nobody, not even my moms." Diaz's rather unadorned firstperson style reads almost like sociological field notes that record events while reserving commentary and analysis.

However, even the first-person stories contain occasional bursts of poetic loveliness, such as this brief description in the brutal tale "Ysreal": "Rosebushes blazed around the yard like compass points, and the mango trees spread out deep blankets of shade where we could rest and play dominos." Diaz's spare use of language enables him to create a vividly realistic scene in just one or two sentences. He develops the setting for "Drown" in just two sentences: "The heat in the apartments was like something heavy that had come inside to die. Families arranged on their porches, the glow from their TVs washing blue against the brick."

Diaz's style also includes recurrent frank discussions of sexual activities, and sexual curiosity and sexual awakening are central to the stories. For example, twelve-year-old Rafa brags about his sexual experimentation in "Ysreal." Even more sexually blunt is a scene in "Fiesta, 1980" in which Papi has sex with his mistress while Yunior sits downstairs watching television. Diaz also includes frank portrayals of the young men's homosexual experimentation in the title story, experimentation that leads the protagonist to bitterly rue his behavior.

Profanity also characterizes Diaz's narrative style, adding rhythm and tone to descriptive passages, as in the use of "ass" in the following sentence: "Homeboy's got himself an Afro and his big head looks ridiculous on his skinny-ass neck." This generous use of profanity is part of Diaz's success in authentically replicating everyday speech patterns.

In addition to profanity, Spanish words and phrases also lend the narrative an authentic tone. When Diaz incorporates Spanish into the text, he does so without using italics or quotation marks to separate the Spanish from the English. Moreover, he rarely offers contextual definitions of the Spanish words he uses, and he never offers parenthetical or footnoted translations. As a result, his mixing of Spanish and English more closely resembles naturally occurring speech than does the mixed language prose of many other authors, who present foreign words and phrases so as to stand out visually from the English.

In some cases, readers unfamiliar with Spanish might have trouble understanding significant aspects of these stories, as in the title story "Drown," in which Diaz introduces the crucial term "pato" (homosexual) in the first paragraph of the story, writing simply, "He's a pato now but two years ago we were friends." The meaning of the word becomes contextually apparent only toward the end of the story. The meanings of other Spanish words never become clear from the text, as in the use of "finca" (farm) in the following passage: "On some days I spent entire afternoons in our trees, watching the barrio in motion and when Abuelo was around (and awake) he talked to me about the good old days, when a man could still make a living from his finca."

Also unusual is Diaz's frequent incorporation of snippets of dialogue into his narrative passages, which he does without separating the dialogue with quote marks or speaker tags, and without creating new paragraphs to indicate changing speakers.

For example, all within one paragraph he writes: Sometimes the customer has to jet to the store for cat food or a newspaper while we're in the middle of a job. I'm sure you'll be all right, they say. They never sound too sure. Of course, I say. Just show us where the silver's at. The customers ha-ha and we ha-ha and then they agonize over leaving, linger by the front door, trying to memorize everything they own, as if they don't know where to find us, who we work for.

The result is a raw tone that resembles the disjointed nature of actual human speech patterns.

Diaz also uses humor to temper the painful realities of poverty, drugs, crime, and violence in his characters' lives. In "Fiesta, 1980," for instance, the young protagonist vomits on every ride in his father's beloved new van. His constant carsickness is portrayed lightheartedly, mitigating the more unpleasant central plot, in which the boy's father is preparing to abandon his mother to live with his mistress. Nonetheless, the humor does not fully alleviate the wistful feeling of loss of innocence and childhood that permeates the book. Most of the characters are likely to spend the remainder of their lives discontented with their menial jobs, possibly turning to drugs or crime, in a never-ending circle of poverty, failed relationships, and discontent.

Social Sensitivity

Drown is a candid, blunt book. Just as Diaz does not shy away from presenting the seedy side of life in poverty, he does not scrub his stories clean of racial and cultural conflicts. For the most part, the author reserves comment on the settings and cultures that he portrays, but his characters occasionally express cultural biases. In "Fiesta, 1980," for instance, Mami dislikes all things American: "In her mind, American things--appliances, mouthwash, funnylooking upholstery--all seemed to have an intrinsic badness about them." On the contrary, Papi seems to favor American luxury items, a discord that foreshadows the marital friction between the two characters. Even when he profiles drug dealers and petty criminals, Diaz refrains from moralizing, attempting only to present his characters authentically.

Racial issues underlie all of the stories.

Most of the characters are Dominican; many also have black skin. Racial issues are treated the most overtly in "How to Date a Browngirl, Blackgirl, Whitegirl, or Halfie." Diaz treats discord between racial groups with humor in this story, directly confronting the racial tension that adolescents face in schools and other community environments and tying that tension to skin color. For example, the narrator asserts that visiting the girl's family will be especially strained, and racial issues will inevitably arise: "Dinner will be tense.... A halfie will tell you that her parents met in the Movement, will say, Back then people thought it a radical thing to do. It will sound like something her parents made her memorize."

Issues of cultural adjustment also underlie the stories, but they are usually secondary to the plots. Unlike many fiction works that depict the immigrant experience in the United States, Drown does not attempt to detail the process of cultural adjustment.

Drown 173 The characters are never shown struggling to learn English, nor do they struggle against the often bewildering American governmental bureaucracy. Nonetheless, they face considerable discrimination and hardship in the United States, and their immigrant status largely defines their characters.

"Negocios" deals the most directly with cultural conflict, as Papi struggles for years to survive in a foreign land. Away from home and in an unfamiliar country, Papi is forced to rely on a woman to survive. He marries Nilda for citizenship and for financial security, not for love or companionship. He resents this dependency on a woman, a dependency that clashes with his culture's patriarchal basis. In the end, he leaves Nilda and reunites his broken first family, escaping from a second family to which he never really seemed to belong.

You can start the Introduction with the following:

Drown is an intensely raw and realistic collection of ten short stories. Although the stories share neither one common protagonist nor one common setting, each story involves a Dominican or Dominican American adolescent male's struggle to survive in the harsh and often violent world of poverty, drugs, and petty crime. Diaz's young protagonists, who live in rural areas of the Dominican Republic or in Dominican neighborhoods of suburban New Jersey, struggle to survive in the face of absent fathers, abject poverty, and tedious jobs.


Here is a statement I started to write and if you could put this in there that would be grate....

I do believe that the ?American Dream? still exists today. For example, my girlfriend?s father (Farouk) is a West Indian immigrant from Trinidad & Tabago. He got a ?VISA? to come over to the United States when he was 17 years old. He came over here with only 20 dollars in his pocket. When Farouk was in the States he transferred all of his high school credits, to a high school in the Boston area try get a High School diploma. They denied him thee diploma and told him,? in order for you to get you H.S. diploma you need to take a whole year of classes here or you can take these four books (which included trigonometry, physics, English writing, and U.S. history) home to study them for two weeks and take a five hour test in front of me using no notes. If you pass we will honor you and give you your H.S. diploma.? Farouk chose to take the books home to study for two weeks. When it was time for Farouk to take the test, He went in there and finished it in three hours. He passed with flying colors and got is diploma. After that he took night classes at Wentworth Institute of technology, in Electronic Engineering to get his associates degree. While he was taking night classes he managed to get in to realestate with no money and managed to buy a multifamily and two apartment complexes in Dorchester. When the market crashed in the 90?s he became broke and his wife and five kids were living of food stamps for a few years. He and his family held on tight for a bought five years and Farouk got a job with EMC with is associates degree. He has seven patens with the company, making a lot of money and is know living the American Dream!

***Here is a link the professor told me to go to find some good sources on immigration*** If you could use two sources on this website that would be great and my other source would be my girlfriends father farouk.

There are faxes for this order.

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