Prison Overcrowding Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Prison Overcrowding College Essay Examples

Title: Prison overcrowding or typically, mass incarceration, is

  • Total Pages: 3
  • Words: 1043
  • Sources:4
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Prison overcrowding is a major issue in virtually every state and in many municipalities. This is a noted problem nationwide. The reasons are that judges are sentencing more offenders to jails and prisons. State and federal sentencing guidelines have prescribed specific sentencing ranges for various types off offenders and offenses committed. Inmate populations are increasing due to the number of repeat offenders returning to our jails and prison systems. It is a documented fact that at the local, state, and federal levels, prison and jail populations are at an all-time high. The research reported in the National Institute of Justice supports these positions and has the appropriate documentation to support these notions. While there are a great many research studies on the broad subject of prison overcrowding, making use of research findings can be a daunting task. You must consider the information needs of the various components of the criminal justice system:

Law Enforcement
Courts
Corrections
Juvenile Justice
Homeland Security

The various components of the criminal justice system really do not act independently of one another. The system is directly impacted by each component. For instance, when law enforcement arrests more individuals, the courts now have to hear and decide the cases, which impacts court dockets. Large court dockets mean that there is a backlog of cases but they are eventually heard and decided. Then, convicted offenders are given correctional sentences, ranging from probation, community service, and community corrections to jail and prison time. As a result, eventually our correctional institutions get filled up and become highly overcrowded. In essence, each criminal justice system component has a direct impact on the other parts of the system.


Locate at least two research articles on the topic of prison overcrowding from either the National Institute of Justice Data Collections or the National Criminal Justice Reference Service Databases. The studies do not necessarily have to agree on conclusions or recommendations.
Prepare a 3?4 page paper that includes a summary of the research articles and describes how you would present the findings of the studies for each of the five components of the criminal justice system listed above.
Be sure to support your recommendations with authoritative sources and cite all references in the APA style.

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References

Pettit, B., & Western, B. (January 01, 2004). Mass Imprisonment and the Life Course: Race and Class Inequality in U.S. Incarceration. American Sociological Review, 69, 2, 151.

The Philadelphia Inquirer. (July 24, 2009). "Editorial: Inequality under law." Philadelphia Newspapers, LLC. Pg. A18

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Title: Prison Overcrowding: Empirical Analysis of

  • Total Pages: 25
  • Words: 6511
  • References:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: research proposal at masters level on prison overcrowding. The paper is 25 pages with 1o sourses, I would really like to speak to someone please

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References

Alexander, Elizabeth. A troubling response to overcrowded prisons. Civil Rights Journal,

Clark, R.V. & Homeal, R. "A revised classification of situational crime prevention techniques," in S.P. Lab (ed.), Crime Prevention at the Crossroads, Cincinnati: Anderson (1997): 17-27.

Gottfredson, Stephen D. & McConville, S. America's Correctional Crisis: Prison

Populations and Public Policy. New York: Greenwood Press, (1994).

Jail Overcrowding Seen Worsening: Influence of Inmates from Rented Space, Lack of Funds Compound Woes." The Washington Post, June 12, (2005), A1.

Landreville, Pierre. Prison overpopulation and strategic decarceration. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 37.1 (1995): 39-60.

Marciniak, Ed. Standing Room Only: What to do about Prison Overcrowding."

Commonwealth, 129.2 (2002): 10.

Marvell, Thomas B. "Sentencing guidelines and prison population growth."

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 85.3: (1995):696-709.

McMahon, Mary. The persistent prison? Rethinking decarceration and penal reform.

Toronto: University of Toronto Press, (1992).

McCormick, Patrick T. Just Punishment and America's Prison Experiment. Theological Studies, 61(3): (2000): 508.

Montaldo, Charles. "Mandatory Sentencing Fuels Prison Overcrowding." Crime and Punishment, Retrieved June 29, (2006): http://crime.about.com/od/prison_families/a/famm040811.htm

Poyner, B. "What works in crime prevention: An overview of evaluations," in, R.V.

Clarke (ed.), Crime Prevention Studies (vol. 1), Monsey: Criminal Justice Press (1993): 7-34.

Wortley, Richard. Situational Prison Control: Crime Prevention in Correctional

Institutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, (2002).

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Title: Prison Overcrowding Prisoners' rights Allegations

  • Total Pages: 12
  • Words: 3768
  • Works Cited:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: I would like Azam Khan to write this paper. Please write a paper on prison overcrowding and how different areas of the criminal justice system can help reduce this problem by working together. Whether it be through treatment programs to outreach programs. Include only references that can be verified at a library or if using online sources ensure that the sources are not password protected. Use footnotes sparingly. Number sequentially. Type footnotes double- spaced on a separate page at the end of the article. Include a detailed outline please it can count to the total number of pages.

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Barnes, Christopher. (March 8, 2004) "UConn Poll on Prison Overcrowding." Retrieved June 3, 2005 at http://www.news.uconn.edu/2004/mar2004/rel04028.htm.

Carr, Joyce. (July 13, 2001) "California bishops' report proposes prison reforms." National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved June 3, 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1141/is_34_37/ai_76697370.

Katz, Catherine. (November 2004). Prison Overcrowding. Valencia West Campus Library Tutorial Series. Retrieved June 4, 2005 at http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ckatz/pathfinders/prison%20overcrowding.

Mandatory Sentencing Fuels Prison Overcrowding." (2005). Families Against Mandatory Minimums. Retrieved June 4, 2005 at http://crime.about.com/od/prison_families/a/famm040811.htm.

Paul, M. (1991). When Words Are Bars. Kitchener, Ohio: Core Literacy.

Procunier v. Martinez. (1975). 416 U.S. 396, 428.

Shethar, a. (1993). Literacy and Enpowerment? A case Study of Literacy Behind Bars. Anthology and Education Quarterly 24(4), 357-372.

United States Bill of Rights. (1791). Amendment VIII.

What the capitalists really want - public-private partnerships." (July 2, 2001) New Statesman. Retrieved June 3, 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FQP/is_4544_130/ai_76780645.

Wilson, Donna. (October 18, 1996) "Prison Overcrowding." Retrieved June 3, 2005 at http://net.unl.edu/swi/pers/prisons.html.

Footnotes

United States Bill of Rights. Amendment VIII. 1791.

Christopher Barnes. (March 8, 2004) "UConn Poll on Prison Overcrowding." Retrieved June 3, 2005 at http://www.news.uconn.edu/2004/mar2004/rel04028.htm.

Procunier v. Martinez. (1975). 416 U.S. 396, 428.

Donna Wilson. (October 18, 1996) "Prison Overcrowding." Retrieved June 3, 2005 at http://net.unl.edu/swi/pers/prisons.html.

Catherine Katz. (November 2004). Prison Overcrowding. Valencia West Campus Library Tutorial Series. Retrieved June 4, 2005 at http://faculty.valenciacc.edu/ckatz/pathfinders/prison%20overcrowding.

Mandatory Sentencing Fuels Prison Overcrowding." (2005). Families Against Mandatory Minimums. Retrieved June 4, 2005 at http://crime.about.com/od/prison_families/a/famm040811.htm.

Paul, M. (1991). When Words Are Bars. Kitchener, Ohio: Core Literacy (ED 334-371).

Shethar, a. (1993). Literacy and Enpowerment? A case Study of Literacy Behind Bars. Anthology and Education Quarterly 24(4), 357-372.

What the capitalists really want - public-private partnerships." (July 2, 2001) New Statesman. Retrieved June 3, 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FQP/is_4544_130/ai_76780645.

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Title: Public Policy Analysis Prison Overcrowding

  • Total Pages: 10
  • Words: 3248
  • Bibliography:10
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Public Policy Analysis Project
It is for this policy analysis to address the issue of prison overcrowding. Prison overcrowding has escalated in the United States to dwarf the comparative prison populations of other countries throughout the world. There must be a resolution to the growing epidemic.
Overcrowding in prisons does not produce the desired results of rehabilitation, reintegration, and recidivism reduction. There are numerous public policies that all collectively add to the direct causation of prison overcrowding. Among them is the “tough on crime” policies, sentencing guidelines, the lack of alternative methods, and funding.
The purpose of this public policy analysis paper will be to identify and evaluate public policy in the area of criminal justice that lead to prison overcrowding. The paper will also attempt to inform policy makers in the area of criminal justice on some steps that can be taken in the form of policy that will reduce prison populations. The hope of this policy paper is that policy makers in criminal justice will select the best policy to solve prison overcrowding.

Instructions:

A resource in the form of a PDF policy analysis guide will follow.

The paper must focus on structure, organization, grammar, clarity of presentation, and thoroughness in analyzing the policy.

Also, it must contain the following sections:
1. Policy Environment
2. Policy Effectiveness and Efficiency
3. Policy Alternatives
4. Summary of Comparison
5. Listing of sources in APA format


Every source cited must come from an academically peer reviewed journal, e.g. Journal of Criminal Justice.
US Governmental websites may be okay for some references, but not all.
Every source must be from 1999 or later.


At least 6 of the following sources should be used:

Applegate, B. K., Surette, R., & McCarthy, B. J. (1999). Detention and desistance from crime: Evaluating the influence of a new generation jail on recidivism. Journal of Criminal Justice, 27, 539??"548.

The Pew Center on the States (2008). One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008. Retrieved on May 23, 2011 at http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/uploadedFiles/8015PCTS_Prison08_FINAL_2-1-1_FORWEB.pdf.

Karberg, J.C. and Beck, A.J. (2004). New Incarceration Figures: Thirty-Three Consecutive Years of Growth, The Sentencing Project, pp. 1??"5.

Austin, J. (2004). The proper and improper use of risk assessment in corrections. Federal
Sentencing Reporter, 16, 3, 194??"199.

Bureau of Justice Statistics (2002). Correctional populations in the United States, 1998 (NCJ
192929). Retrieved from the official BJS website at
http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/cpus98.pdf.

Chaiken, J. (2000). Crunching numbers: Crime and incarceration at the end of the millennium.
National Institute of Justice Journal, January, 10??"17. Retrieved from N.I.J. website at
http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/jr000242c.pdf.

Davis, R.K., Applegate, B., Otto, C.W., Surette, R., and McCarthy, B.J. (2004). Roles and
responsibilities: Analyzing local leaders’ views on jail crowding from a systems perspective.
Crime and Delinquency, 50, 458??"482.

Huff, R.C. (2002). Wrongful convictions and public policy: The American Society of Criminology
2001 Presidential Address. Criminology, 40, 1, 1??"18.

Lab, S.P. (2004). Presidential address: Crime prevention, politics, and the art of going nowhere
fast. Justice Quarterly, 21, 4, 681??"692.

Lynch, J.P. and Sabol, W.J. (2004). Assessing the effects of mass incarceration on informal
social control in communities. Criminology and Public Policy, 3, 267??"294.

Lynch, M. (1999). Beating a dead horse: Is there any basic empirical evidence for the deterrent
effect of imprisonment? Crime, Law, and Social Change, 31:347??"362.


Mauer, M. (2005). Thinking about prison and its impact in the 21st century. Ohio State Journal of
Criminal Law, 2, 607??"618.

Moore, M.H. (2002). The limits of social science in guiding policy. Criminology and Public Policy,
2, 1, 33??"42.


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References

Applegate, B.K., Surette, R., & McCarthy, B.J. (1999). Detention and desistance from crime: Evaluating the influence of a new generation jail on recidivism. Journal of Criminal Justice, 27, 539 -- "548.

The Pew Center on the States (2008). One in 100: Behind Bars in America 2008. Retrieved on May 23, 2011 at http://www.pewcenteronthestates.org/uploadedFiles/8015PCTS_Prison08_FINAL_2-1-1_FORWEB.pdf.

Austin, J. (2004). The proper and improper use of risk assessment in corrections. Federal Sentencing Reporter, 16, 3, 194 -- "199.

Cox, V., Paulus, P., & McCain, G. (1984). Prison crowding research: The relevance of prison housing standards and a general approach regarding crowding phenomena. American Psychologist, 39, 1148-1160.

Bureau of Justice Statistics (2002). Correctional populations in the United States, 1998 (NCJ

192929). Retrieved from the official BJS website at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/cpus98.pdf.

Chaiken, J. (2000). Crunching numbers: Crime and incarceration at the end of the millennium.

National Institute of Justice Journal, January, 10 -- "17. Retrieved from N.I.J. website at http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/jr000242c.pdf.

Davis, R.K., Applegate, B., Otto, C.W., Surette, R., and McCarthy, B.J. (2004). Roles and responsibilities: Analyzing local leaders' views on jail crowding from a systems perspective.

Crime and Delinquency, 50, 458 -- "482.

Huff, R.C. (2002). Wrongful convictions and public policy: The American Society of Criminology

2001 Presidential Address. Criminology, 40, 1, 1 -- "18.

Johnston, J.C. (1991). A Psychological perspective on the new design concepts for William Head

Institution (British Columbia). Forum on Corrections Research, 3, 14-21.

Karberg, J.C. And Beck, A.J. (2004). New Incarceration Figures: Thirty-Three Consecutive Years of Growth, The Sentencing Project, pp. 15.

Lab, S.P. (2004). Presidential address: Crime prevention, politics, and the art of going nowhere fast. Justice Quarterly, 21, 4, 681,692.

Lynch, J.P. And Sabol, W.J. (2004). Assessing the effects of mass incarceration on informal social control in communities. Criminology and Public Policy, 3, 267 -- "294.

Lynch, M. (1999). Beating a dead horse: Is there any basic empirical evidence for the deterrent effect of imprisonment? Crime, Law, and Social Change, 31:347,362.

Mauer, M. (2005). Thinking about prison and its impact in the 21st century. Ohio State Journal ofCriminal Law, 2, 607 -- "618.

Moore, M.H. (2002). The limits of social science in guiding policy. Criminology and Public Policy, 2, 1, 33-42.

Rosenfeld, R., & Kempf, K. (1991) . The scope and purposes of corrections: Exploring alternative responses to crowding. Crime and Delinquency, 37, 481-505.

Toch, H. (1977). Living in prison: The ecology of survival. The Free Press.

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