Essay Instructions: Please answer the following questions.Please number them.If you need extra places please notify me.
1. List six features of human development that humans share with other primates (and mammals) in the foetal and juvenile stages, but not as adults.
2. What is neoteny, and why is it an important key that helps us to understand human development? What are its implications about the human life cycle?
Gould, Chapter 8 (Human Babies as Embryos)
3. What is the difference between "altricial" and "precocial" patterns in the reproductive strategies of mammals? Where and how do we humans fit in, in terms of this classification?
4. How does Gould characterize the first nine months of a human infant's life? What justification does he give for this?
Gould (contains material about cecidomiyan gall midges)
5. Describe the different pathways in the life cycle of cecidomiyan gall midges. Why is this regarded as "a life cycle strategy"?
6. Why, from the point of view of evolutionary biology, can human childbirth be classified as a species-specific life history strategy?
7. How many sensory receptors packed into the surface area of the skin?
8. From which embryonic cell layer does the skin arise? How does Montagu describe the implications of this?
9. What are the seven primary functions of the skin, according to Montagu? Which additional function was discussed in lecture?
10. What is the influence of gentle handling on the development of rats, according to the Wistar study? What are some of the ways in which other species stimulate the skin of their newborn shortly after birth?
11. What is the meaning of the term "exterogestation?" Who first coined the term?
12. Describe the typical pattern of brain growth during the first three years of life. (Consult the handout in the front of your Reader after the Syllabus.) During which periods is the infant's brain growth the fastest, and at what point does the young child's brain come close to achieving the size it will be as an adult?
13. What did Harry Harlow do to investigate the nature of mothering with rhesus monkeys? What were his main findings? Describe his work with "motherless mothers." Who were they? What implications does this have for understanding mothering in the context of human development?
14 . The women of which of the world's cultures have the highest recorded level of PCB's in their breastmilk?
see "Into Our Hands," , left column
15. In the Mohawk creation myth, when the pregnant woman Yogeegeesum fell through the sky, where did she land and what did she bring with her?
see "Into Our Hands,", left column
16. Describe the Mohawk pattern of giving names to children.
see "An Interview"
17. What is the literal translation of Katsi's name in their language?
18. How do the Mohawk talk to one another when they first come together for a ceremonial gathering? How do they begin, and what things do they remind themselves of
19. Why does she say that "everything we know in midwifery we have learned from the corn?"
20. Describe the way a Mohawk Indian midwife might use dream analysis as part of her work. see "Into Our Hands,"
21. How have the Mohawk's traditional food raising techniques been drastically altered by the presence of PCB's in a nearby Superfund dump site (one of the largest in the U.S.)? What food source has been lost to them?
Pearce (Chapter 6 in your Reader)
22 What is the difference between bonding and attachment, in Pearce's view?
23. What happens when the pituitary hormone ACTH is released and hits the infant's brain shortly before birth?
24. What is the primary task of the infant at birth, and what are its five parts or phases
25. Describe in detail Pearce's critique of Western technological childbirth in hospitals? How do you evaluate it based on your own knowledge and experience?
26. What is Pearce's position on the importance of breast-feeding in human development?
Chapter 3. in your Reader (Sears on vaccines)
27. What dangerous preservative has already been removed from most vaccines? What dangerous toxin does this older preservative contain?
28. Buildup of a aluminum in the brain causes deposits similar to what human disease?
29. How much aluminum would a newborn who gets a Hepatitis B injection on day one of life receive?
30. What is the FDA position about requiring labels on vaccines requiring warnings about the dangers of aluminum toxicity?
31. What were the limitations of the Cochrane Collaboration’s study of aluminum toxicity?
Erikson, Eight Ages of Man (Chapter 1 in your Reader)
27. What is the importance of basic trust?
28. Which zone corresponds to the stage of Basic Trust vs. Basic Mistrust?
29. What is the significance of Erikson's epigenetic chart? In what way does it show a truly dynamic relationship of the eight Ages (or stages) of the human life cycle? Please be familiar, in a general sense, with the eight stages as outlined by Erikson (knowing,for instance, that Identity vs Role Confusion is Erikson's formulation for the challenges faced by adolescents.
30. What was the relationship between Spitz's work and Bowlby's work? Which came first?
31. Describe the features of the Foundling Home which made it a pathological environment for the growth of human infants.
32. What were the harmful consequences of "hospitalism" as observed by Spitz and his colleagues? Is this work relevant for understanding events in today's world? If so, give examples.
Porter, The Science of Attachment
33. Describe Porter's general summary of attachment theory (
34. Describe events from late pregnancy through the second year of life
35. What is the relationship between "stress" and "attunement" according to Porter?
35. What is "hyperarousal"? Describe its physiological correlates.
36. Are attachment behaviors adaptive or regressive?
37. How are the concepts of spoiling, controlling or attention seeking viewed by Porter? What about co-sleeping? Behavior based techniques of child training such as sleep training?
38. What is the key to the baby's healthy development?
Bowlby, A Secure Base
39. What are Bowlby's views on the kind of help needed by those with primary responsibility for caretaking of an infant or young child?
40. Is Bowlby more positive or critical toward the attitude of Western societies toward child-rearing? What are his views?
41. Describe Bowlby's concept of "the secure base."
Is this a concept that he limits to infancy and early childhood?
42. What is attachment behavior? ( What is Bowlby's terminology for describing the most positive outcome of an attachment relationship?
43. What was Mary Ainsworth's work, and how was it carried out? What experimental observational technique did she and her co-workers use?
44. What are the two main types of attachment observed in Ainsworth's work? [The most recent work is much more complex, but I would like you to be familiar with her two main categories for the purposes of this course.]
45. What does Ainsworth's work show about mothers who respond more with greater sensitivity to the needs of their infants?
46. Describe the work of Klaus, Trause and Kennell ; of Kaye ; of the hospital maternity unit in Guatemala of Peterson and Mehl of Zahn Waxler et al of Lynch
47. What did Marian Diamond find out about rats brains that excited her? What is the significance of the 6% figure she cites ?
48. How do nerve cells communicate with each other? Please know the name of the main structural features of nerve cells?
49. Describe the work of James Connor with rat brains and Richard Coss's work with the brains of honeybees. What are the implications of their work?
50. Describe the role of the environment in facilitating brain growth? Does this take place only in the early stages of the life cycle? Only in humans?
51. What is the difference between a lollipop tree and a nubbin (in Diamond's terminology)?
52. What are the basic principles of brain enrichment found by the Diamond team using three cage types? , "Trees that Grow
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Discuss the changes which occurred in intelligence through primate evolution. Intelligence is correlated with brain size, gestation period, social organization, and mating patterns. Include two or more of these related areas in your discussion. Elaborate on the evolutionary modifications and some of the theories which have been proposed for these changes. Pick a thesis statement to argue in intro. The body should be a representation of your data. You will be discussing your subject objectively through the grades of primate evolution while pointing out the modifications which occurred through time. The grades of evolution are as follows: Grade 1: The Lemuroids, Grade 2: The Tarsiers, Grade 3: The Monkeys, Grade 4: The Apes and Man. You should plan on devoting approx. 1-2 pages of discussion to each of the grades in primate evolution. With each grade, begin by describing some general background and introductory information on that category of primate. Next devote the remaining discussion of each grade to your specific research subject. Document where you obtained your data by using endnotes, footnotes, or paraphrasing. 20 points will be deducted if there is no documentation. Write a paragraph towards the end of your paper with your subjective perspective on the subject material. Finally devote a paragraph toward the end of the body to a critique of this literature and zoo trip. How did you feel about the zoo trip? Were you able to better vizualize the priamtes you learned about? Conclusion should relate back to your thesis statement. Work it into conclusion stated differnetly. Also make a final statement, e.g. in this paper I have proven conclusively, or was not able to demonstrate conclusively that my thesis was correct.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Identify and summarize Robert M. Sapolsky's A Primate's Memoir. In the remaining part of the essay discuss likes and dislikes.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Essay title 'Humans as a diverse species of primate'
Outline the interpretation of humans as a primate species, noting especially the ways in which we are similar to other species. How do we differ from other primate species, in terms of geography and adaptation? How do populations of humans differ from one another, and why?
please refer two primary references if possable Journal of Human Evolution And American Journal of Physical Anthropology and Evolutionary Anthropology.
Excerpt From Essay:
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