Essay Instructions: the paper is based on following instructure. Also I
choose Portuguese for my paper.
1. Select one language and describe its features in
typological terms. What types are there and what type
does my language represent?". Portuguese
Start with a brief background of the language.
Examples:Artificial language, proposed by Dr. Zamenhof in 1887.
I Spoken actively by up to 2 million speakers, mostly
concentrated in Europe, East Asia, North and South
I Phonology mostly borrowed from Slavic languages;
morphology and syntax from Romance and Germanic
I What constituent order(s) does the language use? Is
there a dominant constituent order, how can this be
established? Are there correlations between constituent
orders? What theoretical account describes best the
constituent order(s) of this language?
I What morphological structures are in use in the
language; what is the language's type? Describe
affixation; derivational vs. in
ectional paradigms; affix
ordering. Government vs. Agreement. Head vs.
2. Use tables to present text analyses
Utaqqi- gu- vi- nga, aulla- qati- gi- niaq- pa- git
wait if 2SG 1SG go partner have future assertion
Case and Agreement
I What are the case and agreement systems in the
language? Case and agreement hierarchies.
I Animacy, definiteness and gender.
I Verbal tense and aspect systems; mood and negation.
I Syntactic structures: subordination and coordination.
Grammars and language descriptions: Mills library (PL
+ online sources) and online sources, including the
Word Atlas of Language Structures.
Otto Dempwol's Grammar of the Jabem language in New Guinea [electronic resource]. By: Dempwol,
Otto, 1871-1938 Published: Honolulu : University of Hawai'i Press, c2005. e-Book
Grammar of Sawu / [electronic resource]. By: Walker, Alan T. Published: Jakarta : Badan
Penyelenggara Seri NUSA, Universitas Atma Jaya, 1982. e-Book
Grammar of the Sentani language By: Cowan, Hendrik Karel Jan Published: 's-Gravenhage : Martinus
Nijho, 1965 MILLS Bookstacks PL 6265 .Z9 S43 Checked in
A grammar of South Efate : [electronic resource] an oceanic language of Vanuatu By: Thieberger, Nick
Published: Honolulu : University of Hawai'i Press, c2006. e-Book Online
A Grammar of Mapuche. [electronic resource]. By: Smeets, Ineke Published: Berlin : Walter de Gruyter,
2008. e-Book Online
A Grammar of Lepcha. [electronic resource]. By: Plaisier, Heleen Published: Leiden : BRILL, 2006.
A Grammar of Kwaza. [electronic resource]. By: van der Voort, Hein Published: Berlin : Walter de
Gruyter, 2007. e-Book Online
3. Use headers to organize your paper: e.g., Introduction;
Word Order; Morphology; Case and Agreement; Syntax;
Conclusion, and others.
I Introduction needs to include basic information about
the language: Where is it spoken? What family does it
belong to? Number of speakers?
I Other parts will include your thoughts about the place
of your language in different typological classifications
and - importantly - examples from that language that
confirm your argumentation.
I Not every book will give you the required nformation
about all topics. Try \primary sources": research papers
that specifically address, say, morphological structure of
your language. Use databases to search for relevant
Proceed with describing existing types of languages
(with respect to a linguistic phenomenon), specify
what type your language belongs to, and provide examples:
I In Esperanto, relative clauses and genitives follow the
nouns they modify (Wikipedia:
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Summarize the impact of the Portuguese presence in Africa in the sixteenth century.
Need at least one primary source (from that time)
at least one secondary source.
There are faxes for this order.
Excerpt From Essay:
Total Pages: 5 Words: 1535 Bibliography: 3 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: History 1100-51
World Civilization II
First Writing Assignment
Spanish and Portuguese Motives for Exploration
Write a brief, five-page essay that treats the following problem and which answers the questions
below. The writings of Bartolom? de Las Casas, Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo, Hernando
Colon, and Columbus reveal the complex motives of Spanish explorers in the late fifteenth and
early sixteenth centuries. The questions you are to answer: What were the motives (e.g.,
economic, political, and/or religious) for Spanish and Portuguese exploration of ? respectively ?
the Caribbean and the so-called East Indies? And how did these motives change over time?
Please note that the readings that we will treat on the discussion board will aid you with only one
half of the assignment ? namely, that which concerns the Spanish case. The goal of this
assignment is to have you apply the analytical and critical historical skills you learn in our
collective discussions of the Four Voyages and Hamdani to the Portuguese case, which is not
covered in these texts and which we will therefore not treat directly in our discussions. Instead,
you are to find evidence for the Portuguese case independently in Upshur.
As this is an historical essay, you must argue from evidence, which means that you are expected
to draw directly from your readings of the four primary sources in The Four Voyages and your
two secondary sources, Jiu-Hwa Upshur?s World History textbook and Abbas Hamdani?s article
(entitled ?Columbus and the Recovery of Jerusalem? and found in the ?required reading? folder
under the ?course documents? tab of Blackboard). Note that while you may read any other
primary and secondary sources, you are permitted to quote only from the three assigned texts.
If you are unsure as to how to approach this assignment, I would suggest that you write
something akin to a ?five paragraph essay.? The form of such an essay is as follows: in the first
paragraph, state your argument in full, detailing the direction you intend to take in the remainder
of the essay; in the following three paragraphs, develop three (or more) separate elements of that
argument by offering evidence and then analysis of that evidence; in the last paragraph, you will
need to draw your conclusions without simply summing up what you have already said. Be sure
not to stray from the confines of the argument you offer in the first paragraph.
Feel free to use either the MLA or Chicago (Rampolla)
style guides for parenthetical and
footnoted citations, respectively. Whichever style guide you choose, please be consistent, which
is to say that if you opt for parenthetical citations then you will need to use them throughout and
include a ?works cited? section; if you opt for footnotes, then you will need to include a
bibliography. Please do not include a cover page.
Grades will be determined through an evaluation of (in order of importance) your arguments,
your overall organization, and ? yes, it counts! ? your grammar and spelling.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: A brief 7-10 page double-spaced research and interpretive essay on the conversion of natives (Indians) of spanish and portuguese colonies to christianity. In the paper you should outline the basic historical developments, including opinions about those developments. Then, evaluate the evidence and opinions, reaching a reasoned, well-supported judgment.
Excerpt From Essay:
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