Essay Instructions: Topic: Physical Appearance versus Education
In Arthur Miller?s play, Death of a Salesman, Willy Loman says to his sons, Biff and Happy, ?Bernard can get the best marks in school, [?] but when he gets out in the business world, [?] you are going to be five times ahead of him. [?] you?re both built like Adonises. Because the man who makes an appearance in the business world, [?] is the man who gets ahead? (20).
Consider the following:
? The emphasis that Willy puts on appearance; what is Willy lacking that he rather relies on good appearance than on education?
? The type of influence that Willy has on his family; Is Willy really responsible for Biff?s failure?
? The consequence of this influence on Happy and Biff;
Then, inferring from the preceding examples/remarks/quotations, write a well-organized, well-developed essay in which you discuss if physical appearance is more important than education in achieving success?
? Consider and quote relevant passages:
? in Death of a Salesman;
What is your view on this issue? Write an appropriate thesis to support your opinion and then:
? Generate 3 reasons (topic sentences) / supporting details / evidence that back up your position / view;
? present a critical analysis about why you believe your point of view is the right one;
? Make use of: introduction thesis topic sentence basic quotation transition cause/effect conclusion
The readings, questions provided, and class discussions should help you generate ideas for your essay.
- Use one quotations from the book and articles;
- no more than one short relevant sentence (2 lines);
- Don?t assume your reader has read the book;
- Provide a pinch of background information from the book;
- But please do not re-tell the story; I read it;
Underline your thesis
If you have any questions, please, ask.
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Essay Instructions: Proposed Topic
How do the Mayan pyramids of Chichen Itza differ from the Egyptian pyramids of Giza?
The pyramids of Chichen Itza and the Egyptian pyramids of Giza
Explanation and Description
My research paper will discus differences and similarities between the pyramids of Kukulkan and
the pyramid of Khufu by using formal and contextual analysis. The paper will be divided into five
different categories. The first category is a study about the physical appearance of both pyramids.
The second category is the date of construction, and time period. The third category analyses the
reason and purpose behind their construction and how it is available to the public. The fourth
category pertains to the method of construction and explores the use of material and architectural
design of the exterior and interior. The last category will consider how and why both pyramids
were constructed in relation to the sun and of time itself.
My paper is gonna be like that I'm choosing this two temple from different culture .But english is not my first language so please write it easy to understand and for the resources please use one website and for the other 3 source use books , journals or article. Also please use formalism(shapes, line, color,height, orientation) and contextualism(where,when,who,why).
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Essay Instructions: INSTRUCTIONS FROM THE PROFF
A research paper is not a research report. It is an essay that discusses a particular interpretation of information about an issue, but which recognizes that there may be other interpretations. It suggests that the author''s analysis is more correct and presents evidence to support this perspective. You should, therefore produce an ARGUMENT, which you should support with evidence obtained from your research.
Also make sure it is not polemical or prescriptive when you''re writting this paper. It must be a social science essay.
Introduction: Should indicate the topic that you are discussing and road map of what is to come. ie.,funnel approach
Body: Must be written in paragraph form, with one idea per paragraph. Please remember that one sentence does not constitute a paragraph. Also, paragraphs should not cover several pages.
Also, i would advise you to use subheadings in the paper. To organize the paper and guide the reader and emphasise the points. To see if produced a logical argument.
Each point that is made, must be supported with evidence from the readings (articles, journals). Although you may speculate within the body of the paper, it may be better to leave that for the conclusion.
Analysis: Make sure that you define your terms. What are you discussing? Do not use vague phrases, and try to be exact as possible.
Please remember, that description is not analysis. The analysis should be incorporated throughout the paper and not added on at the end. Asking questions is the basis of analysis. The most usuful primary question in social science is WHY? so ask yourself "why is cosmetic surgery primaraly targeting women and why are women the primary consumers of this practice?" questions to ensure that you are going beyond description. Also other useful questions are HOW, WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN.
Conclusion: First, restate your argument and your important findings. Second, interpret your conclusions and discuss any specific impolications of your findings. If you see any moral or policy flowing from your reserach it is appropriate to state them here. In addition, consider whether the paper suggests othe avenues of resarch that should be pursued and you can speculate whether an examination of other factors might have produced a different prespective on the subject.
Quotations: They should be used sparingly; it is better to summarize a writer''s position, which you then reference, than to try to capture it with several quotations. If its longer than 40 words then it must be indented. Also at least 2 quotes per argument.
End Notes: to be used
References: in American Psychological Association style
PAGES: 12, double spaced
MUST INCLUDE ANY 14 REFERENCES out of these 21
1. Mark,-Marie-Elizabeth, 2001. "The Medicalization of Feminine Beauty: A Study of Cosmetic Surgery." The Humanities and Social-Sciences, Vol. 61, (12) pp.4953-A.
2. Ancheta, Rebecca and Wepsic, 2000. "Saving Face: Women''s Experiences with Cosmetic Surgery." The Humanities and Social-Sciences, Vol. 61, (5) pp. 2043-A-2044-A.
3. Eichberg,-Sarah-Lucile, 2000. "Bodies of Work: Cosmetic Surgery and the Gendered Whitening of America." The Humanities and Social-Sciences, Vol. 60, Issue: 12, pp. 4610-A.
4. Gillespie, Rosemary, 1996. "Women, the Body and Brand Extension in Medicine: Cosmetic Surgery and the Paradox of Choice." Women-and-Health, Vol. 24, Issue: 4, pp. 69-85.
5. Davis,-Kathy, 1995. "From Objectified Body to Embodied." Comenius, Vol.15, Issue:3, pp.290-303.
6. Davis,-Kathy, 1997. "My Body Is My Art'': Cosmetic Surgery as Feminist Utopia?" European-Journal-of-Women''s-Studies, Vol. 4, Issue:1, pp. 23-37.
7. Franckenstein, Frauke, 1997. "Making Up Cher-A Media Analysis of the Politics of the Female Body." European Journal of Women''s Studies, Vol. 4, Issue:1, Feb, 7-22.
8. Goodman,-Marcene, 1996. "Culture, Cohort, and Cosmetic Surgery." Journal of Women and Aging, Vol. 8, Issue: 2, pp. 55-73.
9. Goodman,-Marcene, 1994. " Social, Psychological, and Developmental Factors in Women''s Receptivity to Cosmetic Surgery." Journal of Aging Studies, Vol. 8, Issue:4, pp. 375-396.
10. Sullivan,-Deborah-A., 1993. "Cosmetic Surgery: Market Dynamics and Medicalization." Research in the Sociology of Health Care, Vol.10, pp. 97-115.
11. Kathy Davis, 1999. "Cosmetic Surgery In A Different Voice: The Case of Madam Noel." Women''s Studies International Forum, vol.22, No.5, pp. 473-488.
12. Serpil Vargel M.D and Aylin Ulasahin M.D, 2001. "Psychopathology and Body Image in Cosmetic Surgery Patients." Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Vol.25, pp.474-478.
13. Petra M. Boynton, 1999. "Is that suppose to be sexy?" Women discuss women in ''top shelf'' magazines. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, Vol.9, pp.449-461.
14. Mary H. McGrath and Sanjay Mukerji, 2000. "Plastic Surgery and the Teenage Patient." Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Vol.13, Issue 3, August, pp. 105-118.
15. Debra Gimlin, 2000. "Cosmetic Surgery: Beauty as Commodity." Qualitative Sociology, Vol.23, No.1.
16. Askegaard S?ren, Gertsen Martine Cardel, and Langer Roy, 2002. "The body consumed: Reflexivity and cosmetic surgery." Psychology and Marketing, Vol.19, Issue: 10, pp. 793 - 812.
17. Cohan, John Alan, 2001. "Towards a New Paradigm in the Ethics of Women''s Advertising." Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 33, Issue: 4, October, pp. 323-337.
18. Jean Carruthers, M.D, 2002. "What do today''s cosmetic patients want?" Cosmetic Surgery Times, Vol. 5, Issue 9, p3, 3/4p, 1c.
19. Elaine Hatfield, 1986. "Self improvement-is it worth it?" Mirror Mirror?The Importance of Looks in Everyday Life, pp. 349-375.
20. American Society of Plastic Surgeons, 2001. "Cosmetic Surgery." Facts and Statistics. http://trubenefits.com/Facts_Statistics.html#cosmetic.
21. Plastic Surgery Today, 2002. "7.4 million Americans choose to look as good as they feel!" Electronic Newsletter. http://www.plasticsurgery.com.
THIS IS WHAT I HAVE STARTED TO WORK ON SO FAR...please edit, change, restructure, whatever you need to do with it to improve the paper and so it follows the proffesors requirements above. I have handed in these 8 pages for rough draft.
Why do North American women continue to be the primary targets
and consumers of cosmetic surgery ?
In a world in which we are judged by how we appear, and with the belief that we can change appearance seems liberating to a lot of women. The growing popularity of cosmetic surgery is testament to society''s overrated fixation with appearance, which has become an obsession. For hundreds of years, cosmetic surgery has thrived on women''s insecurities pertaining to their physical appearance, and today, million''s continue placing themselves under the knives of unscrupulous businessmen while struggling to improve themselves. Women''s fascination with beauty and their physical appeal to men has always been a famous trend, however no longer a practice of the wealthy and the famous, but feasible for women of all ages, races, and economic status. Cosmetic surgery, a phenomenon so greatly overrated, has become a ''quick-fix'' solution, to the tedious drudgery of slaving away at the gym or starving with diets. According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, over 7.4 million people in 2000 had some aesthetic defect whether real or imagined, surgically fixed. What many do not realize is that cosmetic surgery has become a cruel business at the expense of the vulnerable women, women who have been manipulated and deceived by the advertising media.
Thesis: Throughout history, women have been fed the notion that beauty is everything and cosmetic surgery is the answer to many problems. Today, in the 21st century, women continue to be the primary targets and consumers of this industry. Media manipulation, persist to work hand in hand with the cosmetic industry, by feeding the society with unattainable ideals, encouraging women to mutilate themselves for the psychological reasons, with lethal consequences usually hidden in fine print. (my thesis was APPROVED by the proff)
History and ideals of beauty
" Ideals of beauty and what is considered attractive and was is not, have changed drastically over the past centuries. The history of cosmetic surgery goes back more than one hundred years ago, when a few men began to explore with a few surgical reconstructive and functional repairs that improved appearance.
" The development of cosmetic surgery received a push for such movement from the need to repair gross deformities sustained in WWI. Cosmetic surgery was meant for surgical repair of congenital or acquired deformities and the restoration of contour to improve the appearance and function of tissue defects (Kazanjian, 250).
" Today, it is a totally different ball game. Cosmetic surgery has become a degrading and harmful procedure, especially for women. It is an invasion and exploitation of women''s bodies, which must be voiced to the rest of the public.
Cosmetic surgery as the answer
" In order for women to feel better about themselves, become a part of societal ideals, or disguise the signs of aging, cosmetic surgery has become an answer for many modern women. What happened to ''beauty is only skin-deep?'' Is one''s character and personality less important than one''s looks? Every year, millions of people hurt themselves and mutilate their bodies by trying to alter their natural characteristics and uniqueness into the carbon copies of what the society considers beautiful and sexy.
" According to 2000 ASPS reports, the number of people having cosmetic plastic surgery has consistently increased, in fact tripled since 1992. "Certain levels of attractiveness can open doors. It can make a difference in a teen''s social life and later on, in a career," (Bloch 60). However, the question remains, shouldn''t people accept themselves for who they are?
" Beauty has become a business, a socially constructed scheme with a clear message that a pretty face will get you far in life, and as George Brennen, M.D., in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery claims, "A big part of self-esteem is feeling that you look good. We can cure an insecurity in 30 minutes, that a psychiatrist can''t cure in 30 years." With a message like this, who can resist an innocent tuck, lift or boost.
Beauty and unattainable ideals
" The value of natural beauty has been replaced by the fake and artificial models of what is acceptable and ultimately considered beautiful. Politics have taken over the idea of beauty and transformed it into a vicious cycle by developing unattainable ideals and forcing women to strive to reach those goals.
" People whether adults or teenagers do not care that these people are airbrushed and work out 3 times a day because they are getting paid for it, what they see are these perfect people on their television sets that they will go to any lengths to emulate. Hollywood makes people feel inadequate of their bodies when compared to their favourite movie stars, "Stars have personal trainers, stylists, make-up artists and people to airbrush the wrinkles and cellulite out of their magazine covers - all of whom create an image that is meant to be frozen in a photograph or presented in a two-hour snippet" (Brew I).
" "Many people want to feel good about how they look," says Dr. Erhardt. "People spend a lot of time through exercise, diet and skin care to attain a certain look, and plastic surgery has taken its place in the continuum of care people use, to maintain or enhance their appearance." Many women are the victims of these superficial plots and one can only hope that more women would ask themselves the question, why they are going through with these procedures before the surgery and not after the damage has been done.
Beauty as a business industry
" Cosmetic surgery is a propaganda, which promotes sex symbols to sell their practice while avoiding the risks that these practices often lead to. As Plastic Surgery Today reports, "7.4 million Americans choose to look as good as they feel!"
" On a daily basis, women fall prey to society''s superficiality and the devious moneymaking business of cosmetic surgery. Whether at work, school, or other social environments, it is impossible to escape society''s constant beauty reminders. Advertised products lead women to believe that if they use these items they will attain and improve their appearances thus conforming to society''s ideals of beauty.
" The industry continues to grow on women''s insecurities, as stated in the American Society of Plastic Surgeons report in 2001, "Cosmetic surgery procedures increased 198% between 1992 and 2000." Women must realize that the commercial goal of these advertisers and plastic surgeons is to make the viewers feel vulnerable and depressed, in order to earn more money, not because they care for them.
Media and manipulation
" Women are constantly abused by the media creators. Being constantly presented with sexually explicit images of women''s bodies in magazines, and on television, it is no surprise that women seem to feel different about themselves and their attractiveness.
" What is most disturbing is that all these messages start at an early age when children are brought up watching television or playing with perfect toys, such as extremely thin Barbie dolls with body measurements such as 39,18 and 38.
" An article by Petra M. "Is that suppose to be sexy?" suggests how media manipulates women''s decisions for choosing to undergo cosmetic surgery. After reading a magazine or watching commercials filled with subliminal massages of gorgeous women, feelings of ugliness and abnormalities when compared to the models were a trigger for most cosmetic decisions.
Wrong reasons for undergoing cosmetic surgery
" The motivation for cosmetic surgery most often cited by women in Petra''s argument is that they want to feel good about themselves. Depression, low self-esteem, and self hatred have become major reasons for women''s decisions to undergo cosmetic surgery. Although these women have no deformities or imperfections, rather a subconscious idea of being someone better and beautiful, that is all that ruminates in their minds.
" Self-identity is an important issue, which seems to have been totally ignored by women when considering cosmetic surgery. The looks sometimes may not fit the body image and not feel suitable for ones personality. Some patients may not even be comfortable with the results of how they turned out to look, therefore a person might want to take this issue into consideration before taking such a step.
" Although technological developments have a lot to offer, women should take their time and think about all the risks involved in the process of altering and satisfying society''s desired images. Women must realize that through cosmetic enhancement they are not only inviting more hazardous health problems to their bodies but losing their identity and self-worth.
" Furthermore, not only is the process of reshaping ones body financially draining, but it is also a costly experience for ones physical and psychological well-being. After surgery, if you''ve had an incision, you''ll get a scar. Do you want a scar after you''ve tried to make yourself look better? It might even make you look worse. You won''t be able to exercise. You will always have to wear sunblock on that part of the body you''ve had surgery. You can''t expose your skin to hot, cold, or windy conditions.
" Some people are going into the surgery thinking that it will solve their problems, so they go ahead with it. In the end, people are more depressed after the surgery because they do not like the way they look. Surgery isn''t guaranteed. What if you aren''t satisfied? It should be carefully thought out. There is pain. Recovery can be lengthy and uncomfortable. Moreover, there can be complications of anesthesia, infection, bleeding, and unfavorable scar," says Ross Rudolph, head of plastic surgery.
" There have also been quiet a few disaster stories which are never talked about or mentioned on any advertising ads. In 1995, Physician Insurers Association of America, which collects data on malpractice claims was asked to check its database of over 150,000 cases involving cosmetic procedures. There were 2,600 claims from Jan. ''85- Dec. ''95. Thirty of those cases involved deaths," (Podolsky 74). That is a high death rate. Are they mentioned to the patients who are considering going through with cosmetic surgery?
Not a day goes by without women being constantly reminded about feminine stereotypes and built in generalizations stressing the importance of women''s beauty. Everywhere they go and everywhere they turn they are continually exposed to the superficial and unreal images of models. Originally plastic surgeries were developed to correct deformities or used for medical reasons, now they have moved away from this idea and have become a common surgery that most women consider at one time in their lives. Placing one''s self under the surgeon''s knife should not be a beauty make-over approach. It is a dangerous process with many ambiguous consequences, which many patients unfortunately get to discover subsequently on their own. All surgeries are hazardous. The doctors should help their patients, not promote more harm to their bodies, however money talks. "The only way our culture will change is if we stop believing in the social attitudes which make us feel not good enough and start believing in ourselves and our right to OUR individual body- even if it isn''t a body type currently worshipped as fashionable" (Zimmerman I). Cosmetic surgery remains predominantly feminine practice and the ideals of femininity are still prevalent in our society. Women have been misused throughout centuries by being perceived as mere sex objects and not appreciated for the natural beauty. Remember, it is not what''s on the outside but on the inside, that counts.
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Essay Instructions: My assignment is to complete a 20-40 page research paper I choose the topic of Eating Disorders and Beauty. I have eight pages and a long bibliography I need 11 more pages of anything related to eating disorders how beauty is viewed by patients with eating disorders, role of family in eating disorders, eating disorder theories, etc. Personal narratives charts or interviews can be included. All sources must be cited and added to an alphebeticall bibliography. At the beginning of each new topic within the paper there needs to be a relevant literary quote from any source that further prooves that point we are trying to make. Examples of completed research papers with quotes etc... are able to be viewed at .. http://www.nyu.edu/classes/keefer/EvergreenEnergy/EvergreenEnergy.htm
Below is what I have so far if you can add literary quotes for the sections I have and i will add the sources after you send it back. I just need 11 more pages ... not including bibliography... More sections can be added to beginning middle or end and existing sections can be edited...
To complete a 20-40 page college research paper with a 3 page bibliography
To explore a personal methodology for creativity and research from brainstorming
To gather, organize and evaluate primary and secondary sources online, in the library, the community and through empirical research such as interviews and investigation
To engage in close and survey reading and to paraphrase, summarize, analyze, and integrate sources into personal research
To develop and refine a thesis
To structure the categories of an outline
To develop and refine critical and argumentative faculties
To establish credibility through research, audience analysis, (beliefs, values, attitudes and behaviors), critical thinking, decision making and persuasive tactics
To learn the constructs of classical (Aristotle) and contemporary (Toulmin, Roger, Monroe, Boolean, Cyber) argumentation
To constructively question and defend a claim or syllogism, identifying logical fallacies
To analyze the course theme of Literature, Health Science, and the Environment in terms of your problem, employing the rhetoric of controversy, conflict and conversion
To improve writing skills through improvisational, poetic, and personal writing through formal and task-based exercises
To create a distinctive, original expository style, using MLA or APA parenthetical documentation
To increase knowledge and understanding of content theme
To introduce you to great literature
MLA/APA pocket manual. All weekly papers, the midterm, and the final must adhere closely to the style protocols for MLA or APA depending on your topic and discipline. You must use parenthetical documentation and put an alphabetized bibliography at the end of every weekly paper in correct style.
Poetry and literary essays or novels must be used as literary quotes related to your claims of value in your chosen research topic. ND also has a nature poetry book edited by Jeffrey Yang, Birds, Beasts, and Seas. Since you need literary quotes at the top of each weekly paper, you can get them from any source you like.
You should use the texts as springboards for your own originality and argumentation. Think of a problem you want to solve in your own life, related to the analysis of the art/science fusion.
I recently saw a Dove commercial that so brilliantly summarizes the way that women often view themselves. Entitled ?Real Beauty Sketches,? an experiment is made in which a sketch artist asks multiple women to describe themselves. Without seeing them, he draws the images that they describe. The second half of the commercial involves these women describing the other women in this experiment and the sketch artist drawing those new images. Finally, each woman sees a side-by-side drawing of herself, each time her own description depicting a woman who is much older and uglier than the one described by someone else. The message rings clear: ?You are more beautiful than you think.?
Many women have a tremendous amount of self-doubt and harsh self-criticism. Women often believe they are fatter than they are, uglier than they are, and older looking than they really are. From where does such self-doubt and such a fixation on physical appearance originate? Men and women, boys and girls, are taught from an early age that the value of women lies in their youth, beauty, and sexuality. This single idea has led to gender stereotypes in almost every arena of life. The one on which I would like to focus is in the world of business.
In a world where women learn that their worth is dependent on their beauty, it is no wonder that anorexia plagues such a large part of the population. Instead of focusing on their minds and inner qualities, the world often judges women on their outward beauty. Women, and even girls, quickly learn that their self-worth is often increased when they appear more beautiful.
What causes someone to become anorexic?
Many factors come into play when an individual becomes anorexic. In addition to poor body image, those that develop the disease are often more vulnerable to it because of childhood personality and temperament. There are many factors that are now believed to predispose one to anorexia, such as perfectionism, anxiety, or obsessive-compulsiveness. These traits, often hereditary, may be present in childhood, but exacerbated during adolescence and later become factors in starting anorexia.
"Adolescence is a time of transition, when individuals must learn to balance immediate and long-term needs and goals in order to achieve independence," said Kaye. "For such individuals, learning to cope with mixed societal messages and pressures may be overwhelming, exacerbating underlying traits of anxiety and a desire to perfectly achieve."
"Individuals with anorexia tend to report that dieting reduces anxiety, while eating increases it," said Kaye. "This is very different from most individuals, who experience hunger as unpleasant." In simply an effort to avoid anxiety, an individual begins to starve herself and begins the spiral that eventually results in severe the malnutrition and emaciation that defines anorexia.
Some scientists now believe that individuals that become anorexic have a different chemical makeup in their brains. "Brain-imaging studies also show that individuals with anorexia have alterations in those parts of the brain involved with bodily sensations, such as sensing the rewarding aspects of pleasurable foods," said co-author Martin Paulus, UC San Diego professor of psychiatry, who heads UC San Diego's Laboratory of Biological Dynamics and Theoretical Medicine. "Anorexics may literally not recognize when they are hungry." This is an interesting point because this proves that anorexia is truly a disease and the individuals who have it truly cannot help themselves without medical intervention.
Who is anorexic?
In America, it is estimated that roughly seven million women have an eating disorder and one million men. It is also calculated that one out of every two hundred women in America have anorexia and that one out of ten people with anorexia are male. These estimates are taken only from medical cases and do not include those that are unreported. Nearly half of all Americans personally know someone with an eating disorder.
Anorexia is the third most common chronic illness among adolescents. Ninety-five percent of those afflicted with eating disorders are between the young ages of twelve and twenty-five. When polled, over fifty percent of girls between the ages of eleven and thirteen see themselves as overweight. Among thirteen-year-old girls polled, eighty percent of girls have dieted and tried to lose weight at some point in their life.
When looking at various cultures throughout the globe, the prevalence of eating disorders is widespread. Except for a tiny few, the rates of minorities with eating disorders are similar to those of white women. Seventy-four percent of American Indian girls reported dieting or purging and using diet pills. In 1994, Essence magazine reported that nearly fifty-four percent of African Americans were at risk of developing an eating disorder. Finally, Japan is severely plagued by eating disorders and they are one of the most common psychological problems facing young women today.
What does treatment look like?
"Currently, we don't have very effective means of treating people with anorexia," said Walter Kaye, MD, Professor of Psychiatry and Director of the Eating Disorders Program at the University of California, San Diego. "Consequently, many patients with the disorder remain ill for years or eventually die from the disease, which has the highest death rate of any psychiatric disorder."
While approximately thirty to forty percent of affected individuals eventually do recover, a large number of them develop a chronic illness or die, making anorexia the number one cause of death among psychiatric diseases. A study by the National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders reported that between five and ten percent of anorexics die within ten years after contracting the disease, eighteen to twenty percent of anorexics will be dead after twenty years and only thirty to forty percent will ever fully recover
The mortality rate associated with anorexia nervosa is twelve times higher than the death rate of all causes of death for females fifteen to twenty-four years old. Finally, twenty percent of people suffering from anorexia will prematurely die from complications related to their eating disorder, such as suicide and heart problems
Is anorexia a worldwide epidemic?
Anorexia is often believed to be a worldwide problem, but a closer look at data suggests that it is not. According to statistics, the United States and Japan have a much higher mortality rate due to anorexia than any other country in the world. In data gathered, all other countries, besides Japan and the United States, had very few deaths related to eating disorders.
The fact that deaths from eating disorders are so high in Japan and the United States allows us to conclude that anorexia is very socially influenced. One book, Feeding Desire by Rebecca Popenoe, describes a culture in northern Niger, where the Azagwagh Arabs that live there actually undergo a process of ?fattening? the young girls. Because the Arabs only find it socially acceptable and sexually appealing to be obese, they make their girls overeat in order to be extraordinarily heavy. Beauty, to them, lies in being overweight and they greatly frown upon any Westerner who is slim.
Different images of attractiveness in various cultures prove that the idea of beauty, itself, is socially constructed. If one?s idea of what is appealing can change from one country to another, it gives us hope that we can redefine beauty in America. If America is the number one country suffering from eating disorders, then it has to be linked to our social media and the images and messages we are sending our youth.
Society needs to begin teach its youth that the value of women lies in their intelligence, power, and independence. At the age of eight, forty four percent of girls want to be leaders. Yet, by the age of twelve, only twenty-one percent believe they could be leaders. By age twelve, the average girl has seen 77,546 commercials?many of which are geared toward emphasizing the power of man and the beauty of women. Out of high school girls interviewed, three out of four said that they feel guilty or depressed and thirty-one percent have admitted to starving themselves in order to lose weight.
Society needs to emphasize achievement and not appearance. Over the last few years, America has seen a three hundred percent increase in cosmetic surgery in women. There has been a four hundred percent increase in liposuctions and an alarming six hundred percent increase in breast augmentations. So, in other words, as leadership positions dwindle, cosmetic procedures are on the rise. This is a poor reflection of the values that our society teaches.
?What we believe a leader should do is not consistent with what we think a woman can do.? This is what needs to change. Despite all the incentives and monetary compensations in the world, we need to create a population that believes in the future of our women as leaders and not just pretty faces. Perhaps, if we emphasize the brains of women instead of the body, we will see a group of people that truly believe anything is possible and who won?t need to be reminded through a Dove commercial that they truly are more beautiful than they think.
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Outline (rough outline can definitely be changed)
1. Background on Eating Disorders and A Road To Recovery
? Anorexia defined
? Eating Disorder Spectrum (from serious to disordered eating)
? The severity of anorexia
? Changes in American weight standards
? How the female body was defined through history
? Body image and body dissatisfaction
2. Is recovery attainable?
? What does recovery look like?
? What are the challenges with recovery?
3. Why is there a higher percentage of anorexia in women vs. men?
4. Socioeconomic Factors and Role (How does culture influence anorexia?)
? Explain and provide examples of the Sociocultural Theory related to Anorexia.
? How magazines and television contribute to eating disorders?
? How is thinness enforced in the media?
-Socialization Process (relying on body for admiration)
-Positive connotations with thinness (happier, better, prettier)
-Why Fat is ?bad?? (Karl Lagerfeld and Adele example) (How models look in clothes)
5. Social Comparison Theory
? What does the social comparison theory look like?
? What are the targets of this theory?
? Explain upward and downward comparisons.
? Suffers often internalize the need to be thin and beautiful.
? Real and ideal expectations of body image and weight
? Level of self-esteem and satisfaction with ones body
? Emphasis on weight as a number on the scale
6. Social Learning Theory
? Reinforcement (against others)
? To punish others
? Identifying with media figures (celebrities etc.)
? Rewards for loosing weight
7. Relationships and Eating Disorders
? Mothers influence on anorexia
? Fathers influence on anorexia
? Peers influence on anorexia
8. Psychology and Eating Disorders
? Need to be in control
? Need to develop sense of self or identity
? Avoiding messages in the media
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