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Pharmacology Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Pharmacology College Essay Examples

Title: Pharmacology

Total Pages: 7 Words: 1985 Works Cited: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: 1. Pharmacology 2000 words
This assignment should commence with a discussion on the role of and the regulations governing the role of nursing personnel in relation to drug administration. I.E. An Bord Altranais guidelines, and local policy for drug administration. Your discussion should encompass how the nurse maintains competence in this activity.

Written details on 10 different drugs that you are being administered to a patient you have nursed. The details should include:
v Name of drug
v Dosage
v Indications for use
v Mode of action (how it actually works ? please use your own words)
v Interactions
v Nursing implications
o It is very important to discuss the implications of taking each drug. Make specific reference to a patient in your care who is receiving the drug, and explain why your patient is being prescribed the drug.
o Identify specific education of the patient and how this education was evaluated.

Consult with Mims, BNF and search CINAHL and other web sites for detailed information on the drugs. You will need this information to assist you in your role of educating the patient and recognising all the nursing implications when a patient has been prescribed a drug.

There are faxes for this order.

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TASK: Research project investigating and researching the development and
application of a major drug class.

? Select one (1) drug from this list below. Many of them are registered with the TGA
for pharmaco-surveillance. Many were developed because other drugs in the class
had adverse effects for which the new drug was an improvement.

? Choose any one of these: Body Defence (inflammation and immune reactions)

o Aldesleukin, interleukin-2 (drugs affecting body defences and immune
system mediators used in neoplastic diseases & Acquired Immunodeficiency
Syndrome ? orphan drug Proleukin ? Session 4)
o Bosentan , (drug affecting the cardiovascular system (primary pulmonary
hypertension, endothelin inhibitor, indicated for pulmonary stenosis
(endothelin is a peptide mediator Session 4)

? OR Choose: Peripheral Nervous System
o Atenolol, beta-blocker (selective), drugs affecting the peripheral nervous
system ? and used in treating hypertension

? OR Choose: Central Nervous System, either one of these
o Pethidine, synthetic opioid analgesic , drugs affecting the CNS
o Moclobemide, reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A enzyme,

? Using your text and other readings, research information on the drug class. Use the
Readings from MIMS (2010) (available for download from the subject website on each of the example drugs. Do preliminary reading on the drug class of your choice. Use eMIMS in the library, or Martindale online (Sweetman, 2010), and other resources to do further research on the particular example drug you have chosen.
? Discuss the drug class and explain the main indications for drugs in this class.
(approximately 300 words)
? Describe the mechanism of action at the receptor / molecular level for the given drug.
Give information on adverse effects for this particular drug (safety, precautions,
contraindications). Also, explain the mechanism at the physiological level for these
safety concerns. Discuss drug interactions for this particular drug. Once again, give
details of the mechanism at the systemic or molecular level as appropriate
(approximately 600 words)
As appropriate to a report, give a brief introduction (50 words) and summary (50 words).
Use appropriate headings for a report. A Contents page is optional for a 1500 word report.

Answering the Questions
? The assessment should be completed in your own words with the information being clear,
concise and easy to understand. The information should be presented in sentences and
paragraphs, as appropriate. The level of detail needed is high so it is expected that
sources in addition to the textbook would be used.
? Information presented in the Research Report must be correctly referenced following the
Harvard style.
- Direct quotes should only be used to illustrate a point and not to explain a concept.
- Direct quotes cannot be more than 10% of the entire text of the assignment.
- Remember when paraphrasing is used this must be referenced appropriately.
- Any diagrams must also be properly referenced as separate pieces of information.

? This assessment can be approached as follows
- Discuss the requirements with your tutor
- Choose the drug from the examples give, appropriate to the class of drugs that you
wish to research.
- Source information
- type your answers to each section in Report format (using abstract,contents,headings
to each section, introduction and conclusion).
? As you have access to external resources the expectation is that information will be
sourced from more than just your set text.
- Word limits are introduced to allow you to concentrate on answering the core concepts
of the question asked, making sure the information supplied is relevant and not just
delivering information with no explanation or understanding. Please edit and critique
your own work; marks can be deducted in the criteria on presentation or for exceeding
word limits.
? This assessment must be typed. (Arial [11] font; 1? line spaced)
? Please remember to clearly label each answer for ease of marking and follow the word
- Answers should be within 10% of the word limit. Answers that fall outside this range
may be penalised.
- Use of correct spelling and grammar is expected

References to be used
1. eMIMS. n.d. St Leondards, NSW [CD-ROM].
2. MIMS Australia, 2010, UBM Medica, St Leondards, NSW.
3. Sweetman SC (ed).2010. Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference. [online]
London: Pharmaceutical Press (Accessed on
1 November 2010)
- This is a useful site of links, including some medication reference sites, where you
can filter by those sites that are free to access.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Moxifloxacin Pharmacology

Total Pages: 12 Words: 5562 Sources: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Specific guidelines: Research a pharmacological topic of current interest and
present your findings in a clear, concise and informative fashion.

Moxifloxacin(Avelox)- anti-bacterial agent

Details of aspects to be covered (Marking Guide). (NB: Please follow the
following structure, use sub headings for clarity and relevant figures to
enhance presentation) 1. Composition/formulation & structure/nomenclature What
is in the drug? What form (solid, liquid, salt etc?) and doses of the active
ingredient? What are the inactive ingredients (excipients)? What is the chemical
name and structure of the active component, what chemical class does it belong
to, and what aspects of its structure are important with respect to its function
(e.g. target binding regions) 2. Absorption, distribution, metabolism &
excretion How is the drug absorbed and distributed? What are the effects of
protein binding and lipid/tissue uptake? Describe its pharmacokinetic
parameters. What is the drug's route and extent of metabolism, and how does
metabolism influence clearance, bioactivity and elimination? Is the drug mainly
excreted in urine or faeces? 3.Mechanism of action How does the drug ex!
ert its effect? What are the targets of the drug and what aspects of its
structure relate to efficacy? Does the drug have other targets/actions other
than its main therapeutic action? Are there abnormalities/diseases that
influence its activity? 4.Therapeutic applications/effects What is the evidence
that the drug is effective in treating its particular condition. What patients
or conditions is it effective for? What aspects of disease/symptoms are
alleviated by the drug? Is therapeutic monitoring required? Is the drug used in
combination with other drugs/approaches? 5.Adverse
effects/contraindications/drug interactions What are the side-effects (good and
bad) of the drug, their frequency and severity, and in what patients are they
likely to be most serious? What patient conditions/characteristics render the
drug unsafe or ineffective? What effects do other drugs have on the drug's
tolerability, efficacy, safety?6. Regulatory issues(NB: For NZ please)
What is the drug/marketed
sold for? Is there
re any potential for drug abuse? Does the drug have applications in areas where
treatment is (or is not) given high priority due to Governmental/cultural
priorities? Are there geo-political factors that influence the availability /
marketing of the drug? Draft of intro: Moxifloxacin is the generic name given to
a 4th generation derivative of nalidixic acid. It is a synthetic broad spectrum
antibacterial agent used to treat respiratory tract infections, skin and
structure infections, mycobacterial infections, anthrax and ophthalmic
infections. Moxifloxacin is sold by the pharmacetical company Bayer in most
countries including New Zealand under the trade name Avelox(oral administration)
and Avelox IV (intravenous adminstration). Other less common trade names inc
Actira, Avalox, Avelon, Izilox, Megaxin, Octegra, Proflox(DI) and Vigamox. I've
done some background research for it but just don't have time. Am currently just
overwhelmed with med school exams, lab tests and work com!
mitments. Have to do well in this because I need to keep my GPA up as I'm on an
academic scholarship. Some links which I found are:
drugdex database AHFS Drug Infomation MIMS New Ethicals Pharmacology 5th Ed. by
H. Rang et al If there is any q's, please don't hesitate to contact me. Please
also email it to me before Sept 29 (NZ Time) Thank you! P.S. Can you please also
run it past the 'turnitin' website just in case there is any probs with
authenticity. Thanks

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Respiratory Pathophysiology and Pharmacolog Case Study

Total Pages: 2 Words: 589 References: 5 Citation Style: Harvard Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: The Purpose

This is your last semester with the School of Biomedical Sciences, and it is important to us that you go onto
your careers with curiosity and a commitment to life‐long learning. Our understanding of the physiological,
pathological and pharmacological mechanisms underlying the cases you will see in people every day will
deepen, be adjusted, and in some cases be radically transformed over your lifetime. It is important that you
keep up with these developments, remain critical and demand evidence‐based explanations so you can
play an active role in the continuous improvement of your profession. Therefore, this task and the
associated criteria rubric have been designed with the primary aims of facilitating your curiosity, helping
you to see mechanisms in real situations, and practicing your skills in critical reflection.
For this task you are free to choose any topic which involves the physiology, pathology or pharmacology of
the respiratory system because we want you to investigate something of interest to you. This task focuses
on case studies because this form of primary peer‐reviewed article provides real illustrations of the
underlying mechanisms in people. The written submission includes sections for describing and evaluating
the underlying mechanisms because we want to you to be able to see the mechanisms in action in real life
situations and we want you to question the completeness and certainty of these models of our
understanding of how the body and drugs function. Finally, the task requires you to provide a thoughtful
recommendation for why the particular case study you have chosen would be interesting, and of use, to
your colleagues because it is not only important for you to remain on a quest for lifelong learning, but that
you foster this curiosity in others in your profession.

The Task and Presentation

Choose one case study which focuses on a topic of respiratory physiology, pathology AND/OR
pharmacology that is of interest to you. Use the following subheadings to structure your presentation of
this case study:

Description of Case: provide a succinct description (no more than 100 words) of the person/people at the
centre of the case study (this will include number of people, age, gender and relevant information about
their health) and of the clinical features of their presentation, changes during care, and outcomes.

Outline of mechanisms: provide a concise, but detailed, explanation of the physiological, pathological
AND/OR pharmacological mechanisms that you believe underlie an important aspect of the case. This will
involve summarising the mechanisms detailed in the chosen paper, but in many instances, will also involve
supplementing this information with additional mechanistic steps from additional sources. Where this is
necessary, the additional sources must be cited using the Harvard referencing style.

Critical evaluation of mechanisms: provide a short critique of the mechanisms presented in the chosen
paper, including how complete and detailed you found the mechanisms to be, whether the mechanisms
were well established (and even, assumed) or were provided as a set of potential alternative models and
how well evidenced these were with additional literature. Also, provide judgements on the degree of
certainty for the involvement of these mechanisms in the case from the author’s perspective, and from
your perspective as the reader.

Recommendation: finally, provide a brief (no more than 100 words) persuasive argument, linked to the
above information, for why you believe that your colleagues would benefit from reading the case study
paper you have chosen.

Reference for case study: at the end, provide the full citation for your chosen case study paper.

Additional References: where is has been necessary to supplement the description of the mechanisms
with additional sources, these should be cited in text where appropriate and then listed at the end, using
Harvard style.

The overall length should be no longer than a single page. An additional page may be used for
additional references if required. These additional references should be cited in the text and listed at the
end of the assignment using Harvard style.

Your assignment must be A4, 1.15 to 1.5 line spacing, with at least 2 cm margins and in 12 point font.

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