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Panic Attacks Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Panic Attacks College Essay Examples

Essay Instructions: write a process essay about how to deal with panic attacks. please use transition words such as first, next, then during etc...
disscusss the following points regarding how to deal with panic attacks:
1. avoiding smoking and drinking caffeniated drinks
2. express feelings and thoughts
3. excerise regularly
total five paragraphs (introduction- 3 body paragraphs and a conclusion)

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Panic Disorder

Total Pages: 16 Words: 4240 Bibliography: 15 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: Microsoft word document. Double space Cover page (i will do) Flush left on the cover page is the running head that continues on every page. Abstract page must describe the content of term paper. One or two paragraphs at most. Pagination starts with the cover page and runs throughout the paper. Sub-headings must be in term paper. Sub-headings have o fit into the flow of content and transition the reader from one sub-heading to another. If you are not quoting reference source verbatim, you do not need to use quotation marks in paper. Do not make lists of items to fill up space. Stick with the research you have read do not decide to go off on personal thoughts. ***Only research from the University of Tennessee at Martin full-text database are allowed. One book only can be used. (must be 15 full text articles) Cover page, abstract page and reference page does not count toward the 12 pages (so paper should be 12 pages plus cover page, abstract page and reference----16 in all). References are on separate page at the end of term paper and alphabetized per APA style. Do not use government reports, wikipedia, anonymous, or not date citation in the term paper. I also need an outline on separate page and treatment plan page (16 pages) Here is the example he gave us. 1. Introduction, 2. Case Study, 3. DSM-IV-TR a. criteria b. prevalence, c. relates to case 4. Causation a. biological b. psychological c. social d. cultural, 5. panic attacks disorder with agoraphobia 6. panic attack disorder without agoraphobia, 7. treatment, 8. closing remarks, 8. reference ***The book source I would like is Essentials of Abnormal Psychology fifth edition by V. Mark Durand and David H. Barlow. My username for the UTM library is pamdahl the pass word is 6638Feb54. Please type in 12 font and double space.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Lucky by Alice Seabold

Total Pages: 10 Words: 3376 Sources: 3 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Read the booK "Lucky" by Alice Seboid. As we!! as at least three scholarly resources, discuss how the Rape Trauma Syndrome, as well coping techniques used by rape victims, relate to the author. Reference specific
passages from the book as exampies. Be sure to properly cite the resources that you
The paper should not exceed 10 pages (typed, double spaced). It should be written in a
scholarly manner with attention to grammar, spelling and citations.

Rape Trauma Syndrome

Although every survivor you encounter will be unique, many will have one thing in common: Rape Trauma Syndrome (RTS). Identified by Ann Wolbert Burgess and Lynda Lytle Holmstrom, RTS is a cluster of emotional responses to the extreme stress experienced by the survivor during the sexual assault. More specifically, RTS is a response to the profound fear of death that almost all survivors experience during an assault. RTS occurs in two phases:
The Acute (Initial) Phase, which usually lasts anywhere from a few days to a few weeks after the attack.

The Reorganization Phase, which usually lasts anywhere from a few weeks to several days after the attack.

Often, the end of the Acute Phase will overlap the beginning of the Reorganization Phase. Each phase is characterized by particular emotional and physical concerns that most survivors experience.

The Acute Phase
During this phase, the survivor experiences a complete disruption of their life, responding to the fear of death they experienced. Survivors may display any of a number of contrasting emotional responses. A survivor may cry, shout, swear, laugh nervously, be silent, discuss the weather, or sit calmly. Responses may vary depending on any one of a number of external and experiential circumstances. No response is inappropriate! However, responses fall into one of two main styles:

If a survivor uses the Expressed style, they openly display their emotions. They may be agitated and restless, talk a lot, cry, swear, shout, and laugh. Any emotion is appropriate--because every person has his or her own unique way of responding to events in their life.

If a survivor uses the Controlled style, they contain their emotions. Most of the survivor's energy is directed toward maintaining composure. They may sit calmly, respond to questions in a detached, logical way, and downplay their fear, sadness, anger, and anxiety.

Both of these styles of emotional response reflect different ways of dealing with a crisis. A person may also exhibit characteristics of both styles.

In general, the survivor's initial response to the assault will be shock and disbelief. Many survivors may appear numb. Far from being inappropriate, this response provides an emotional "time-out" during which the survivor can acknowledge and begin to process the myriad components of the experience. A survivor who was assaulted by an acquaintance may have a particularly difficult time overcoming shock and disbelief. The experience of an acquaintance rape can also make a person question the trustworthiness of others in their life. If the assault was particularly terrifying or brutal, the survivor may experience an extreme shock response and completely block out the assault.

Following the shock and disbelief most survivors initially experience, they may experience a variety of emotions or mood swings. Survivors may feel angry, afraid, lucky to be alive, humiliated, dirty, sad, confused, vengeful, degraded. All of these responses, as well as the many that are not listed, are normal. In short, whatever a survivor is feeling is valid because they are feeling it. It is how they express their reaction to the rape crisis.

Physical concerns of the Acute Phase
Usually, the survivor will report a general soreness and aches throughout their body. Survivors will also report pain in the specific areas of the body that were targeted during the assault. These specific pains may be the result of actual physical trauma, or may be a psychosomatic response. Both reasons are equally valid and real.

The survivor will often notice disruptions in their usual sleeping and eating patterns. They may not be able to eat or sleep, or may eat more than usual and be unable to stay awake. Survivors may report nightmares in which they relive the assault. These may evolve into dreams in which the survivor takes the violent role in some way, in effect reclaiming the control lost during the assault. Although both types of dreams may upset a person, they are part of the healing process. Sexual assault is such a traumatic event that the survivor may dream about it in some way throughout their life.

The Reorganization Phase
During this phase of RTS, the survivor reorganizes herself/himself and their life after the sexual assault. Basically, they learn to cope again. Several factors influence the survivor's ability to reorganize their life after the sexual assault:

Personality. What coping mechanisms does a person already possess? How successfully have they coped with stress and trauma in the past?

Support System. Does she/he have a strong system of friends and family for emotional support? Does the survivor truly feel they can go to them for support? Is a survivor treated with empathy?

Existing Life Problems. Does this person have a drinking or drug problem? Are they experiencing a divorce or other break-up? Do they have emotional or psychological problems? Even if the survivor had these life problems under control prior to the assault, the trauma of the assault may reactivate them.

Prior Sexual Victimization. Was the survivor assaulted previously, especially within the last two years? If so, recovery may be much more difficult.

Emotional Concerns of the Reorganization Phase
The concerns the survivor has may fall into any of four groups:

1. Social Concerns
The survivor may experience some difficulty returning to pre-assault social patterns. She/he may feel an increased distrust toward others in general and, with male rapists involved, an increased suspicion of men in particular. A survivor may have a shorter temper, or easily break into tears. Some reactions may be the result of a specific component of the assault. For example, if the survivor was assaulted while alone, she/he may want to be with other people constantly. If a survivor was gang-assaulted, she/he may withdraw socially and rely on a few significant others for companionship and support. The survivor's social patterns after the assault may depend less upon the conditions of the assault and more upon the survivor's personality. Many survivors feel a strong need to "get away." A survivor may visit parents. They may move, especially if assaulted at home. Survivors may change jobs or leave school. All these actions are "normal" in that they represent what the survivor needs to do in order to regain control over their life.

2. Psychological Concerns
Denial of the effects of the assault, or of the assault itself, is a common reaction during the reorganization phase. Denial may be a component of the survivor's recovery, since it gives a person space to catch their breath before beginning the stressful task of processing and resolving the trauma. Denial that lasts longer than a few hours or days, however, is detrimental to recovery.

Depression, guilt, and a general loss of self-esteem are all common psychological reactions. These symptoms suggest that a survivor has turned their anger inward, and that they have unresolved fears. Remind a survivor that they are in no way responsible for the assault and that nothing they did could ever justify the violence they have experienced. Encourage survivors to direct these negative feelings toward the assailant and away from his or herself.

The survivor may experience fearful reactions to stimuli that remind them of the assault or the assailant. Phobic reactions are extreme manifestations of anxiety. For example, if the survivor was assaulted outdoors, they may be afraid to leave the house. If the assailant had alcohol on his breath, this odor may remind a survivor of the assault and bring on nausea. Survivors may experience a general paranoia, or panic attacks.

3. Sexual Concerns
The assault may disrupt the sexual life of the survivor because sex, which usually involves pleasure, was instead used as a weapon to humiliate, control and punish. It will probably take some time for the survivor to disassociate the sexual assault from consensual sex. Acts the assailant forced a survivor to do that they were not used to doing will probably cause particular difficulty. Survivors may experience physical pain during sex, have difficulty relaxing, or be generally indifferent to sex. At the other extreme, some survivors may desire sex all the time. Most likely, a person's behavior will fall between these two extremes.

If the survivor was a virgin at the time of the assault, she/he may have a heightened fear of a first consensual sexual encounter.

The survivor may be concerned about their partner's reaction to them. Survivors may wonder if a partner will feel differently toward them. Because of the range of stresses the survivor experiences after an assault, consensual sexual relationships and other friendships can be placed under heavy strain. Current statistics indicate that about half of all survivors lose their love relationships within a year of sexual assault.

4. Physical Concerns
The survivor may report continuing gynecological/genital problems. If a survivor was physically beaten, the survivor may continue to experience pain. Sexually transmitted diseases are a further concern, as well as pregnancy. Nightmares may also continue. If they continue in a manner that makes a person lose sleep or fills their waking hours, they might want to consider counseling.

A person with RTS and/or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may experience flashbacks during the acute or recovery phase. A flashback is when a person is exposed to some stimuli which triggers an involuntary reaction and can often set off a temporary crisis. Any of the physical senses can trigger a flashback; sight, sound, taste, feel or smell. As little as one and as many as all five of a person's senses may be heightened or irritated in a flashback. Each flashback is unique and is a normal part of recovery for many survivors.

During a flashback, a person may often feel as if they are reliving the trauma that affected them and can exhibit symptoms as if they are currently being attacked. For example, a survivor may feel aches and pains, irritation in the area where they were injured or other symptoms as if they had just been raped. Survivors may also exhibit other behaviors as if they were currently being attacked such as screaming, running, hiding, fighting, shutting down or being completely quite.

Interjecting current stimuli or removing irritating stimuli may help a person during a flashback. If the smell of roses is making someone flashback, remove roses, rose scented perfumes, etc. from their environment. Or if a persons flashback makes them feel as if they are in a wooded, swampy area, mention the floor, carpet, ceiling, sofa, etc. to them. This type of activity should be verbal and it may not be productive to touch a survivor who is having a flashback.



There are faxes for this order.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Summarizing articles

Total Pages: 3 Words: 1243 References: 3 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: I am sending you the instruction and sample paper that my teacher gave me, please follow exacly that it says. I need this paper for tomorrow, please don't be late because after tomorrow will be too late and I won't need the paper.
This paper is for Abnormal Psychology.


1. Summarize two research articles on one disorder. The two summaries comprise ONE paper. Staple the two summaries together and attach xerox copies of the two articles you summarize.
2. Do not use case studies, epidemiology studies, or articles that only summarize a body of research. A case study is a psychological narrative of one or more clients. An epidemiology study presents data about the percentage of people who suffer from some specific disorder. I will be glad to look at your articles before you begin writing if you are not sure if they are appropriate. When looking for an article, a good way to know if you have the right ones is to see if there are sections labeled Methods, Results, Discussion.
3. The format of the paper should follow the sample papers posted on Blackboard and found at the end of this document.
4. Double space your paper. The total length of each summary should be about 3-5 pages.
5. Use spell check. If you are not a good writer visit the Writing Center!
6. The following example is just that, an example. Your article might not describe an experimental manipulation so your summary would not look like mine. But the general format should be an introduction, a description of the research participants, how data were collected, including any questionnaires, the results of the study, and a summary taken from the discussion section of the article. Direct quotes must be bracketed by quotation marks. If you use references from the article (e.g., Freud & Skinner, 1937), you must provide a reference page at the end of your summary. You do not need to reference the article you are summarizing.
In my experience, students have a tendency to wait until the last minute to choose articles. Consequently, they end up grabbing any two articles on the topic, with no consideration for the articles’ level of difficulty. Since they have no idea what the articles are talking about, they are forced to import large sections of the articles into their paper. You will lose points this way. Since you have complete control over which articles you will summarize, be sure to choose those that you understand. Also, I am amazed and appalled at the number of papers that do not use quotation marks when exact text is reproduced. This is called plagiarism!
6. Be sure to provide a cover page that has the title of the DISORDER and your NAME. Each summary of an article should begin with the reference for the article, as shown below. INCLUDE THE ARTICLES WITH YOUR PAPER!
7. Here are three scientific journals that you might want to look at first to find articles.
Journal of Abnormal Psychology (best one)
American Journal of Psychiatry
Psychological Reports (contains the easiest articles to summarize)
Some students are finding research articles on the Net. That is fine, as long as they are copies from a scientific journal. Don’t use magazines, like Psychology Today, or websites that provide information on the disorder and may have an article written by the webmaster.
8. Again, do not summarize chapters from book or articles that review a whole body of research on a disorder. You must use articles from journals, not magazines or newspapers.

9. Since you do not receive extra credit for picking a difficult article, keep it simple. You should not summarize an article that you cannot understand, not counting the statistical analyses.
10. However, don’t worry about the fact that you will find the statistical analyses in the Results section hard, or impossible to understand. Consult the example provided below for how to summarize statistical findings in common words.
11. Some students choose articles that have lots and lots of analyses. You don’t have to summarize every result. It is sufficient to summarize the main analyses and results.
12. What do we look for in evaluating your paper? We should be able to understand why the study was done (the Introduction), how it was done (Methods), what was found (Results), and what is the meaning and implications of the findings (Discussion), without us reading the original articles. We also make a judgment about whether you understand what you are writing. Excessive use of quotations usually means that you don’t know how to explain things and so you rely on the authors to explain it for you. Finally, did you follow the correct format in writing your article?
13. How to choose a disorder. The best place to begin is the required textbook. The book is primarily organized by disorders and you can skim chapters that have not been covered before you choose a topic. You can pick a disorder that is not the subject of a class lecture.
14. Finally, you will want to define the disorder in the first summary but you do not need to define it again in your second summary.
15. I will not accept a late paper. Here are the three most common reasons for students wanting me to accept a late paper: 1) I went to print-out my paper and the disk was corrupted; 2) my computer crashed and I lost my paper, and 3) my printer broke. These events are only problems when you wait until the last day to print your paper. Also, please do not send me your paper as an attachment to an email.


Rapee, R., Mattick, R., & Murrell, E. (1986) Cognitive mediation in the affective component of spontaneous panic attacks. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 17, 4, 245-253.

The Introduction begins on a separate page.
Panic attacks are characterized by numerous physical symptoms--including increased respiration and heart rate, muscle tension, dizziness, hyperventilation--as well as psychological symptoms, such as thoughts of physical disability or social humiliation. In contrast to patients with panic attacks, those who suffer from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) have been noted to suffer their anxiety without undue concern for the consequences of high anxiety. The authors of this article point out that, "It could be hypothesized that this ideational difference between the two disorders highlights a factor of potential etiological importance for panic disorder; namely, that the tendency to interpret somatic sensations as indicative of a serious mental or physical disorder is at least partly responsible for the affective distress experienced during a panic attack" (pg. 245).

The importance of psychological factors in panic is further highlighted by research that manipulates patients' attributions of their physical symptoms. An attribution is a belief about the causal relation between two variables, in this instance, the physical symptoms of panic and the factors causing the panic. For example, Orwin (1973) has noted that physical exercise produces many of the physical sensations of anxiety, yet many agoraphobics do not panic when exercising because they have a rational explanation for their bodily sensations.
The purpose of the present study was to see if the symptoms of panic could be manipulated by offering different explanations (attributions) to subjects regarding the cause of their symptoms. Moreover, the authors also wanted to know if patients with a history of panic attacks would respond differently than social phobics to the experimental manipulation.

Subjects who met DSM-III criteria for panic disorder, agoraphobia with panic, or social phobia were included in the study. However, patients taking medication were excluded. The final sample included 16 subjects with a history of panic and 16 subjects diagnosed as social phobics.

[Some articles will discuss the assessment methods (i.e., psychological tests) and you can have a separate heading for this. You need only list the measures or assessment instruments used. You don’t have to provide information on the validity or reliability of the instruments.]
In order to produce unusual physical sensations, all subjects were required to breathe a mixture of CO2/O2 and hold their breath for as long as possible.
Panic and social phobic subjects were randomly assigned to the following experimental conditions.
No Explanation Condition
(This subheading comes from the article being summarized)
Before breathing the gas mixture, subjects in this condition were told that the gas may or may not affect their heart rate. (Note: I am always amazed when students use No Explanation and Explanation as subheadings in their reports. These subheadings are only relevant to the study I am summarizing here.)
Explanation Condition
These subjects were given a more complete explanation of the effects of the gas mixture. They were told that they may experience a number of physical symptoms such as chest tightness, breathlessness, dizziness, blurred vision, hot flushes, and tingling. They were told that these symptoms are often associated with panic attacks but in this instance the symptoms are not caused by an adverse reaction by the body but rather are the normal consequence of the gas mixture.
After the experimental manipulation and gas inhalation, a questionnaire was administered that assessed symptoms of anxiety and subjects' thoughts during the gas inhalation.


The results showed that the two diagnostic groups did not differ on the number of symptoms experienced. However, the panic subjects reported significantly more intense physical symptoms in comparison to the social phobics. With respect to the experimental manipulation, panic subjects in the No Explanation condition were significantly more anxious than panic subjects in the Explanation condition. However, among social phobics, there was no difference in anxiety between the two experimental conditions. An analysis of subjects' thoughts during the gas inhalation revealed that panic subjects experienced significantly more catastrophic thoughts in the No Explanation condition compared to the Explanation condition. Examples of catastrophic thoughts were, "I am going to die; Something is wrong; or I need help." Among Social phobics, there was no difference between experimental conditions in the occurrence of these types of thoughts. Indeed, social phobics tended to have mostly noncatastrophic thoughts during the procedure (e.g., "This is rather unpleasant" or "there is nothing to worry about").

The results of this study show that panic subjects were prone to experience unusual physical symptoms as frightening, especially when they are not given a rational explanation for the symptoms. Moreover, panic subjects were much more likely to experience catastrophic thoughts when not given an explanation of their symptoms. In contrast, social phobics were not influenced by the "explanation manipulation." That is, they tended not to become more upset in the absence of an explanation of their symptoms, and they tended to experience noncatastrophic thoughts.
The authors suggested that panic attacks involve a physiological discharge of bodily sensations for which the person has no explanation. These sensations trigger catastrophic thoughts that, in turn, heighten the experience of anxiety.
One implication of this study has to do with the treatment of panic. Patients may benefit by the provision of accurate information about unexpected physical symptoms and reassurance that these symptoms will not lead to their worst fears.

(Here you would type the references of all studies that you included in the summary. You would literally type verbatim the relevant reference(s) as it appears in the Reference section at the end of the original article. It is not required that you use any references, however. In addition, do not include the reference of the study you are summarizing; that goes at the beginning. I have observed that several students put in their reference section every article referenced in the articles they are summarizing. Don’t do this.)

Excerpt From Essay:

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