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Essay Instructions: Zapata and Villa: One might argue that Porfirio Diaz, Emiliano Zapata and Pancho Villa represent various forms of authoritarianism, with differing visions of the relationship between individual liberty and the role of central authority (government). Analyze the views of the three with regard to the state (government) and the individual. Give specific examples to fortress your argument.


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Title: The Roles of Women in the Mexican Revolution of 1910

Total Pages: 10 Words: 3477 Bibliography: 7 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: This assignment is a 10-page research paper on the roles of women in the Mexican Revolution of 1910.

The paper should discuss/outline the roles of women in the Mexican Revolution of 1910: Soldaderas, history, lifestyle, relationship with male soldiers, types, motivation, persecution of and leadership. Examine the political, cultural and social history of women fighters (Soldaderas) in the Mexican Revolution. Mexican women were the labor activists, radical journalists, and militant intellectuals. Mexican women were fighting for political leadership and liberal ideals. Throughout the Mexican Revolution women on both sides had an impact on the politics and the welfare of the Mexican people. What were the actions taken by these women? Explain the changing views on the accepted role of women and the success of the feminist movement during the Revolution. Summarize the reasons why women joined the Revolution.

-The essay also needs a fitting title, something that will go hand-in-hand with the topic. I want the title to be unique and creative.

-Below, I have included a 3-page rough draft that I want the writer to incorporate into the 10-page research paper. The bottom line is that I want the writer to expand the rough draft into the 10-page research paper.

-There are already 4 sources documented in the rough draft, add 3 more scholarly sources that are relevant to the topic at hand. The rough draft was written in MLA-style format, but I want the research paper to be written in Turabian-style with Footnotes.

In 1910, the Mexican people reached their point of tolerance with the long rule of dictatorship of President Porfino Diaz and declared a revolution. The middle and upper classes were dissatisfied with the power in the hands of a select few, and the working and lower classes no longer could tolerate the poor working conditions, low wages, inferior housing, ever-rising inflation, and lack of social services for themselves and their families. What is not well known about this revolution, however, is the role that women played in restoring democratic rule and stability to the country. These women, called Soldaderas, or “soldier women,” were involved in politics, strong advocates for social and political causes, and participants in the wars’ numerous battles. Mexico had long been a patriarchal society, with women acting as second-class citizens, spending all their time with their family and church life (Soto 1990, 31-32). The situation became even more repressive in 1884 when the government passed the Mexican Civil Code; single women were given similar rights as their male peers but had to live with their parents until the age of 30. Married women lost all their rights. They could not file for divorce, vote, engage in lawsuits draw up a contract of any kind, dispose of or administer their personal property, make decisions about their children’s education or even tutor anyone except their husband (Macias 1982). In 1904, the Chamber of Deputies passed a bill legalizing divorce, but all other rights were still unavailable. It comes as no surprise, therefore, that the Mexican Revolution motivated many women to leave their homes and fight against the discrimination of both their government and the men in power. They had the opportunity to be in control of their own destiny and move out of their oppressive homes and family lives. Many other women, whose husbands were forced to fight against the rebels, did not want to break up their families, so went to war. Others, according to some historians, were forced by their husbands to accompany them to battle. They were either made to be sexual companions or enslaved camp followers. It was said that “Loyalty of the soldier’s wife is more akin to that of a dog to its master than to that of an intelligent women to her mate” (Fuentes, 1995). In addition, by 1913, the government started drafting women and forcing them to contribute to the federal army. They worked in the state- owned power mills or acted as chefs. A member of the American Press described the role of Soldaderas: “[Huerta] not content with the wholesale impressments among men to fill the depleted ranks of the federal columns, women by the hundreds [were] seized by Huertas orders and forced to abandon their homes” ( 540). There were also some Soldaderas who fought with the rebels, and those who provided health and support to both sides. They foraged for food, cooked and helped set up the camps. In many cases, they proved themselves much more honorable than the men. A nurse, Beatriz González Ortega, was tending the wounded from both sides of a battle. Pancho Villa, as other guerrilla leaders, often executed his prisoners after winning a major battle. González burned the uniforms of all the wounded, so no one could tell the difference between the federal and revolutionary troops. She refused to provide any information even when being whipped and threatened with death. (Macias 1982).
Under the pseudonym of Pedro Herrera, Petra Herrera disguised her gender so she could fight alongside her male peers. She assumed leadership roles and responsibilities and distinguished herself with military leadership of 200 men (Salas 1990). Finally, she revealed her identity, despite the fear of discrimination and immediate dismissal. Instead, she continued to demonstrate her abilities and formed her own brigade of women fighters. Despite her notable skills, Herrera was never promoted to the honorable rank of general.  However, she did become a colonel under General Castro. It was not only the women soldiers who made a name for themselves during this period. Despite not having the same opportunities as men, many women, most who had been teachers, proved their intellectual prowess by becoming politically involved. They frequently were imprisoned and received death threats for their involvement. Three of the most well-known of these women were school teacher Dolores Jiménez y Muro, journalist Juana Belén Gutiérrez de Mendoza and the private secretary of President Carranza, Hermila Galindo de Topete. Jiménez wrote articles and poems for a variety of magazines under an alias and was an editorial staff member of the feminist journal La Mujer Mexicana. She was also a leader in the Liga Feminina Anti-reelectionista "Josefa Ortiz de Domínguez" and president of the Hijas de Cuauhtémoc, which were groups that were actively anti-Díaz. The Hijas manifesto called for political support of Mexican women in their "economic, physical, intellectual and moral struggles" (Soto 1990, 34). While imprisoned, Jiménez established Regeneración y Concordia, which was working to enhance the lives of indigenous races, unify the revolutionary forces, and promote women in their socio-economic standards. She also was the force behind the Political and Social Plan, which contained many reforms such as improved working conditions, higher wages, shorter work weeks, and educational reform. Emiliano Zapata was a strong supporter of Jiménez's plan, especially that which mandated restitution of usurped village lands. Despite the fact that Jimenez spent the next 20 years in a role of prominence, she has rarely received any credit for her participation. Unfortunately, she is one of many such women who were never paid their due.

References Cited
Fuentes, Andrés. "Battleground Women: Soldaderas and Female Soldiers in the Mexican Revolution." The Americas 51 (April 1995): 525-553.
Macias, Anna. Against All Odds: The Feminist Movement in Mexico to 1940 Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1982
Salas, Elizabeth. Soldaderas in the Mexican Revolution Austin: University of Texas Press, 1990.
Soto, Shirlene. Emergence of Modern Mexican Woman: Her Participatrion in Revolution and Struggle for Equality, 1910-1940. Denver, CO: Ardern Press, Inc., 1990.

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Essay Instructions: My paper is ased on three books. From slavery to freedom in Brazil Bahia, 1835-1900 by Dale Torston Graden, Insurgent Cuba race, nation and revolution, 1868-1898 by Ada Ferrer andThe Mexican Revolution: 1910-1940 (Dialogos Series, 12) by Michael j. Gonzales. in the paper i have to compare and contrast a topic found in those books. For instance, Race, international influences or compare and contrast revolutionary leaders like Jose Marti and pancho professor wants an analytical paper based on facts an examples found on the books. email meif any questions my paper is due Friday. he wants specifics quotes and examples from the books to show he that we did the reading.
Have in mind that the paper most be analytical or argumentative. much more than sumarizing the books this paper requires to explain how the constributions made by the authors helped us to understand how far Brazil, Cuba and mexico had gone in the processof building their own nation-States by the late 19th century early 20th century.

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