Total Pages: 5 Words: 1466 Sources: 3 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: APA style argumentative essay must be a5 -6 pages in length. Online dating pros and cons Is it ruining people's relationships or helpful. Take a side.
Excerpt From Essay:
Total Pages: 3 Words: 1210 References: 10 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: I would like to have writer: Amber 111
Writing Assignment 2: Descriptive Annotated Bibliography
My sources can only be articles and a particular website that must be included is my school which is:
If you could us a few articles from our library database please the link and my information is:
My last name is Nichols
ID is 0839367
My theme is: ?How is Social Media changing online dating??
You will compose an annotated bibliography for eight to 12 sources on this theme. For each source you find, you will describe the information in these sources in annotations of about 100 to 150 words per source. You will also cite the sources in APA style. More specific instructions will be provided in the class.
Below are the directions from my teach on Annotated Bibliography
WRTG291 Annotated Bibliography-Instructions and Narrative
You have been given an assignment to write an Annotated Bibliography (AB). Before you begin, you need to know what exactly an annotated bibliography is and how to get started.
First, what is an annotation?
An annotation is more than just a brief summary of an article, book, Web site or other type of publication. An annotation should give enough information to make a reader decide whether to read the complete work. In other words, if the reader were exploring the same topic as you, is this material useful and if so, why?
How is an annotation different from an abstract?
While an abstract also summarizes an article, book, Web site or other type of publication, it is purely descriptive. Although annotations can be descriptive, they also include distinctive features about an item. Annotations can be evaluative and critical as we will see when we look at the two major types of annotations.
What is an annotated bibliography?
An annotated bibliography (AB) is an organized alphabetized list of sources (like a reference list). It differs from a straightforward bibliography in that each reference is followed by a summary paragraph usually 100?200 words in length. For your assignment you will add one other section to your AB that is designed to help you determine the value of the article for your specific purpose/topic/thesis.
Analytical or critical (this is the type you will use in WRTG291)
An analytical or critical annotation not only summarizes the material, it analyzes what is being said. It examines the strengths and weaknesses of what is presented as well as describing the applicability of the author's conclusions to the research being conducted.
For your annotated bibliographies, you will be writing analytical or critical annotations.
Please examine this student example carefully as this entry is what is expected for each of your own entries:
People become outraged by certain works of art, not only from the emotional impact of viewing profane artwork, but also because their tax money has gone to support it. Conversely, many people also shudder at the concept of censorship and would prefer no boundaries to what artists can create, lest we limit innovative art.
Pryce. (1999). Thousands line up to view `Sensation'. (Cover story). New York Amsterdam News, 90(41), 1.
This article focuses on the public's reaction to the art displayed at the "Sensation's" gallery, being the gallery that displayed Chris Ofili's piece, "The Virgin Mary." While Mayor, Rudi Giuliani (who isn't actually mentioned by name) was disgusted by this piece of art work, a Councilmember voices her support of different types of art, including this depiction of the Virgin Mary created out of elephant dung. The article quotes many bystanders and their opposite spectrum opinions of this work.
Reflection: I think this would apply to my paper in a small way because it gives an example of how passionate people on either side of the argument are. I would use this article to support my position on two different perspectives presented as a main point.
Please pay attention to the last section because it reflects on the purpose of the entry with respect to your own thesis which may differ from that of the author. This review also assesses the strengths and weakness of the research and analyzes the author?s research.
What your mini annotated bibliography should be/have:
-analytical/critical NOT descriptive
-150-200 words per annotation (not including the citation)
-arranged in alphabetical order by last name
-contains the following content:
1. The purpose of the work
2. A summary of its content (Summary)
3. Its relevance to your topic (Reflection)
4. Any special or unique features about the material
5. The strengths, weaknesses or biases in the material that may cause you to accept or reject the source.
I will be asking that you not merely summarize the article, but also how you determine how it ?fits? you own thesis/problem statement.
attached is a copy of one of my classmates paper and it has to be same format thought it would be a great example to use
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Topic: Online-dating
The paper is for the class "Models and Modeling in Anthropology". The class teaches us modeling from both individual and social structure viewpoints. The paper is to
Observe/research a phenomenon. Use two models to analyze the phenomenon. No citations are required.
The followings are some suggestions my professor gave me:
To analyze why people online-date by:
- indifference/budget curve of time spent doing in-person activities vs online dating activities.
- memes people develop about online dating and ways those memes are transmitted
- maybe use temperament theory to capture what people want/expect from relationships and online dating experience.
I'd like the paper to anaylze online-dating focusing on the MEMES people develop about online dating and ways those memes are transimitted. Also, please use temperament theory (Four types temperaments: Idealist, guardian, rational and artisan) to capture what people want/expect from relationship and online-dating experience. Other models (if possible, but not necessary) can be used to analyze the topic, such as decision-tree model, fuzzy cognitive maps, indifference/ budget curve. (But actually, I can add them myself as it involves graphs). We have to use 2-3 models in the paper. Maybe model 1 is memes theory model 2 is temperament theory.
Please include these elements: introduction/purpose, summary of observations/research,analysis using model 1, analysis using model 2, comparison/synthesis of models used and
Thanks a lot!!! Handouts from the class on temperament theory and memes wil be faxed to you.
The following is a sample paper from the class (which also uses memes theory and temperament theory) to do an annlysis :
Understanding the ?Walking Advertisements? Phenomenon
?FCUK fashion.? No, I did not just curse. This is actually a phrase that appears on a shirt by French Connection-United Kingdom, a trendy clothing company with a clever gimmick. When I saw one of my quieter friends wearing this shirt, I did a double take. Did her shirt say what I thought it said? Oh no, it was just another brand name.
It seems that Americans are obsessed with brand names. For example, many people prefer to buy brand name foods and drugs even though cheaper generic versions are available. Why is this? Perhaps they believe that brand names denote higher quality products. But how can this be true if the generic products are made with the exact same ingredients as their brand name counterparts?
A similar phenomenon is observed with fashion. For instance, it would be a challenge to go an entire day without seeing somebody wearing a shirt that reads, ?Abercrombie & Fitch? or ?Bebe? - especially at a college campus like USC. Obviously, people place some kind of value on name brand clothing just like they often do with food and drugs. However, this phenomenon, which I like to call the ?walking advertisements? phenomenon, is fundamentally different from name brand food and drugs because people can readily observe a brand name on the front of a shirt but cannot tell what type of toothpaste someone uses by looking at their smile. Therefore, it is interesting to observe that people will often wear shirts with brand names on them even though they do not own many other items by that company. For example, my friend wearing the FCUK shirt did not own any other items from this company. In fact, most of her clothes were from less expensive stores like Target or on sale at slightly more expensive stores like the Gap. This observation lends itself to three important questions. First, what makes someone more likely to buy and wear clothes with brand names on them? Second, why don?t people wear shirts that say, ?Target? or ?Ross? if most of their clothes come from these stores? Third, why do people pay to publicly endorse a company they have no business ties to?
The answers to these questions are complicated because people have different values, budgets, and interpretations of social ?norms.? However, we can analyze the phenomenon by taking advantage of three models used frequently in the social sciences. The first model, called ?memes theory,? allows us to recognize the types of feedback people receive from their culture or society and analyze how this influences their behavior. The second model, called ?temperament theory,? allows us to gain a deeper understanding of how peoples? needs and values affect the choices they make. The final model, called ?exchange theory,? compares what people want versus what they can afford to predict their behavior. Because each model is limited in its scope, all three must be used to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon.
The basis of memes theory, not surprisingly, is the ?meme,? which is defined as a unit of cultural heredity. Just as genes are passed down biologically from generation to generation through reproduction, memes are transferred to other people within a society through communication. Also like genes, memes have the ability to ?mutate? by way of human creativity. Thus, memes often change over time as attitudes shift and new possibilities present themselves.
According to the memes theory, memes often make a distinction or boundary between two concepts, explain a cause and effect relationship, or suggest certain attitudes or associations. Therefore, wearing brand name clothing is a meme because it appears to establish a distinction between people who have style and money and those who do not. This particular meme is inescapable because it is communicated through all forms of media including magazines, newspapers, movies, billboards, and television. For example, does a poor girl who wears clothes from TJ Maxx end up on the cover of Glamour magazine? Not likely. This message, although not usually communicated explicitly for fear of political incorrectness, has an enormous effect on how people wish to be seen and, therefore, affects the types of clothes people buy and wear.
Memes are typically evaluated according to how good (i.e., helpful), successful (i.e., popular), and true (i.e., testable) they are. The meme that says wearing brand name clothes is associated with wealth and style is extremely successful, but is not always good or true. Specifically, the meme is successful because it is repeated over and over in the media, which reaches millions of people. Therefore, if movie stars are wearing ?Dolce and Gabbana? outfits to the Oscars, then the appeal of buying clothes from this company increases. This is not necessarily good, however, because most people cannot afford clothes from Dolce and Gabbana. For example, people may sacrifice their paychecks or good credit just to own a single item from this company. However, most people choose to submit to the meme on a less extreme level by simply purchasing a shirt that says the company?s name on it. Usually these items are the most affordable in a high-end store like Dolce and Gabbana because the company cannot lose by essentially getting paid to advertise. Because middle class people are usually able to afford shirts with brand names on them, the meme is actually an illusion. Wearing brand name clothes appears to be linked to wealth and style but, in fact, anybody who is compelled to submit to the meme can usually afford a shirt with a brand name on it.
In summary, meme theory offers partial explanations for the three questions posed at the beginning of this paper. Specifically, this theory explains that people will choose to buy and wear brand name clothes because they are overwhelmed by powerful societal messages about what constitutes wealth and style. These messages will tend to make them avoid wearing clothes with ?lower? brand names on them because doing so would contradict the meme. The meme itself is so powerful that it will drive people to spend money on shirts with brand names on them so they can continue to propagate the meme throughout society. People are often more than happy to spread the memes they follow because they feel as if they are setting the standards for society.
Another model that can be used to analyze this phenomenon is temperament theory. According to this theory, there are four types of temperaments (?Guardian,? ?Artisan,? ?Idealist,? and ?Rational?) that describe the needs, values, talents, and behaviors of most people. For example, ?Guardians? have a strong need for membership or belonging and value conformity. They are also skilled in rule making and are usually economical people. ?Artisans,? on the other hand, need the freedom to act on their impulses and value variety in their lives. They are skilled in adapting to new situations and tend to engage in risky, impulsive behaviors. ?Idealists? need a unique identity to be fulfilled and, therefore, value authenticity. They are often skilled in interpretation and tend to be impressionistic. Finally, ?Rationals? need mastery and self-control to be satisfied and value logical consistency. They are skilled in analyzing situations but they are often oblivious to the world around them.
These characteristics can be used to model how people with certain temperaments will respond to the idea that brand name clothing exudes wealth and style in society. For instance, Guardians would most likely buy brand name clothing because it would satisfy their need to fit in with their peer group and society. However, Guardians are typically economical people, so they would most likely strike a balance between conforming and saving money by only purchasing designer shirts that display the company?s name on them. Therefore, having a Guardian temperament explains why certain people wear shirts with brand names on them even though most of their clothes are from less expensive stores.
We can also look at this situation from an Artisan?s point of view. Because Artisans need to feel like they are making an impact on society, they may wear shirts with brand names on them so they can affect other peoples? fashion choices. Because they seek variety, Artisans might own many shirts with different brand names on them so they can have several opportunities to influence the ?fashion norms? held by society. Therefore, Artisans would likely participate in the ?walking advertisements? phenomenon because they view it as an opportunity to impress society with their fashion choices.
Idealists, on the other hand, would not participate in the ?walking advertisements? phenomenon simply because everybody else thinks it is important to do so. In fact, Idealists would probably only endorse a brand name if the company stood for something meaningful. For example, Idealists would not likely support a company like Abercrombie and Fitch because their shirts have been known to promote offensive messages about minorities (e.g., one of their shirts depicted two Chinese laundrymen with the slogan, ?Two Wongs can make it White?). However, Idealists would be more willing to wear a brand name like Armani because this company has donated generously to Down?s syndrome charities. Because Idealists value morals and authenticity, they would likely only wear a brand name if it had personal meaning to them. Otherwise, they would be happier wearing clothes that reflect who they really are.
Like Idealists, Rationals would not likely participate in the ?walking advertisements? phenomenon because they are often oblivious to the world around them. Because this phenomenon is created and propagated by societal messages of how people should present themselves, Rationals avoid the pressure to wear brand name clothing by simply not being receptive to it. In addition, Rationals foster individualism, so they are not as compelled as Artisans and Guardians to conform to what society deems important.
Thus, temperament theory offers a different interpretation of the ?walking advertisements? phenomenon than memes theory because it focuses on how people react to the world around them based on their individual needs and values. Memes theory, on the other hand, focuses on describing what people are exposed to in society, how these social messages are transmitted, and how people in general react to these messages. Therefore, temperament theory is able to do something that memes theory cannot; it can predict how people with certain temperaments will respond to the overwhelming social meme of equating brand name clothing to wealth and style. Specifically, temperament theory predicts that people who have Guardian or Artisan temperaments will be more likely to wear brand name shirts than people who have Rational or Idealist temperaments.
Another factor that influences this phenomenon is the idea of a budget. As mentioned earlier, people with different budgets are able to make different consumption choices. Specifically, people with low budgets are generally restricted to buying less expensive clothing and people with unlimited budgets are generally able to purchase whatever they choose. However, clothing preferences also influence how people choose to spend their money. A way to model how people strike a balance between their budget and what makes them happy is to use a model called ?exchange theory? to plot indifference curves and consumption lines. Indifference curves represent combinations of choices that share the same value, or utility. So, let us say that a person would be just as happy with six inexpensive shirts as they would be with four designer shirts and various combinations of the two in between. According to a related theory called ?marginal utility theory,? this situation is quite realistic because it reflects the idea that people value things more if they do not already have a lot of them.
After establishing what combinations would make the person happy, we would plot a consumption, or budget line to determine what combinations are feasible given what is desired and what is mandated by the budget. For example, if a person can only afford two designer shirts or seven inexpensive shirts at the extremes, then a point of intersection could lie at four inexpensive shirts and one designer shirt (see attached graph). This point represents a combination that makes the person happy while still staying true to the budget.
This scenario plays a significant role in the ?walking advertisements? phenomenon. If people are unable to purchase many designer clothes, then they will strike a balance between their limited budget and their desire to appear ?fashionable? by purchasing only one designer shirt and several inexpensive shirts. Specifically, they will choose to purchase a designer shirt with a brand name on it so as to give the appearance that they own many items from this company and, therefore, have a larger budget (i.e., they are wealthy).
Although this model is helpful, the ?walking advertisements? phenomenon cannot be completely understood without considering the effects of all three models. Only when we examine each model?s implications can we begin to answer the three questions posed at the beginning of this investigation. First, people are more likely to buy and wear clothes with brand names on them because they are bombarded with messages from the media saying that designer clothing denotes wealth and style. However, the influence of such a meme could be amplified or diminished based on one?s individual temperament. For example, if someone is concerned with conforming (e.g., Guardians) or making an impact on society (e.g., Artisans), then the effect will likely be observed. However, if someone is oblivious to these memes (e.g., Rationals) or strives to be authentic (e.g., Idealist), then the effect will not appear. Budgets also play a role. For example, wealthy Rationals may become more aware of social messages than poorer Rationals because they are exposed to more people who reinforce this effect.
Second, people are not likely to wear clothes with ?Target? or ?Ross? on them, even though most of their clothes may come from these stores, because doing so would contradict the prevailing social meme. But once again, this is not the only way to look at this situation. Perhaps people avoid wearing clothes with inexpensive brand names on them because they do not like wearing brand names in general (a likely ?Idealist? trait). Or perhaps this phenomenon is influenced by marginal utility theory such that people prefer to wear, purchase, or display things they do not already have.
Finally, the idea that people pay to publicly endorse a company they have no business ties to may seem logically unsound, but it actually makes sense within the context of social pressures and personal values because these influences are not based on logic either. Rather, social pressures are based on arbitrary ideals and personal values are influenced by gut feelings or significant past experiences. Therefore, people often do not consider whether or not their actions are logical when they are acting in accordance with a meme or temperament.
After analyzing the ?walking advertisements? phenomenon using meme, temperament, and exchange theories, I have a better understanding of why people wear shirts with brand names on them even though this behavior may contradict other aspects of their lives. I, personally, consider myself to be an Idealist, so it was always difficult for me to understand why people felt the need to endorse certain companies that were only socially, and probably not personally, relevant. However, applying these three models to the phenomenon made me realize that the situation is more complex than I originally thought. Whereas I used to attribute the phenomenon to desires for attention, these models reveal that it is likely due to a combination of factors including social, personal, and monetary influences. Because each of these factors contributes to the phenomenon in its own way, it is important to use several relevant models to analyze the observed behavior so that such incomplete assumptions can be avoided.
There are faxes for this order.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Explore the individual and social/societal dimensions of online dating using 3 or 4 articles (can also include internet sources). Review the issue and develop a thesis that reflects a positive point of view about online dating that are then supported based on the selected readings.
Excerpt From Essay:
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