Oil Crisis Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Oil Crisis College Essay Examples

Title: The 1973 and 1979 oil and gasoline crisis

  • Total Pages: 3
  • Words: 771
  • Bibliography:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: paper on the causes and effects of the oil crisis of 1973 and 1979. Specifically concentrate on how the oil crises affected the every day lives of average American. Specifically concentrate on the gasoline shortages and gas lines at gas stations. If possible concentrate on New Jersey and or the North East U.S.

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Works Cited

1973 oil crisis." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1973_energy_crisis century of dodging meteorites." National Petroleum News. 2/1/2000.

Reid, Keith. "1973 Oil crisis: the embargo shows both OPEC power and weakness." National Petroleum News. 8/1/2004.

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Title: Oil Prices Demand Supply Case Readings Anderson R J Buol 2005 What Driving Oil Prices The Regional Economist The Federal Reserve Bank St Louis Retrieved September 1 2011 http www stlouisfed

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 691
  • Sources:2
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Oil Prices: Demand and Supply

Case Readings:

Anderson, R and J. Buol (2005). "What is Driving Oil Prices." The Regional Economist. The Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved on September 1, 2011 from: http://www.stlouisfed.org/publications/re/2005/a/pages/oil_prices.cfm

Using the case assignment readings, answer the following questions in 4-5 page essay.

1. How do changes in supply and demand effect oil prices?

2. Which two countries are the largest consumers of petroleum products?

3. Explain what happens to price and quantity of oil when the following events occur:

a. The price of SUVs falls.

b. The government approves more drilling in Alaska.

For each event, you must specify how it effects either demand, quantity demanded, supply, or quantity demanded. It is also important to demonstrate how the change will affect the market demand or supply curve. Also, be sure to state any assumption you are making regarding the relationship of the event and oil.

e.g. The increasing use of plastics to produce a wide range of products.

Assume that petroleum products are used as a factor of production. This will increase the demand of oil and shift the demand curve to the right. This will cause the price and quantity of oil to increase.

4. If you consider a product like gasoline, would you favor price control so that you pay less than the current price at the pump, $1.00 less for example. Why or why not? (Be sure to do some of your own research to support your answer. It might be useful to review what happened during the 1973 oil crisis). You can review the optional resource:

Energy Information Administration. 25th Anniversary of the 1973 Oil Embargo. Retrieved September 1, 2011 from: click here

Case Assignment Expectations:

Use concepts from the modular background readings as well as any good quality resources you can find from the cyberlibrary or other internet search engines. Pleas be sure to cite all sources within the text and provide a reference list at the end of the paper

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How Gas Price Controls Sparked '70s shortages. (May 15, 2006). The Washington Times. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2006/may/15/20060515-122820-6110r/?page=all

Morton, F. (2001). The Problem of Price Controls. Cato Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.cato.org/pubs/regulation/regv24n1/morton.pdf

Rockoff, H. (2007). Price Controls. The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics. Retrieved from: http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/PriceControls.html

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Title: There are Two parts of this Order I will send you By email what you need to do

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 451
  • References:0
  • Citation Style: Harvard
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: {Once you have considered the core readings in this Module please briefly identify which factor you believe is most significant in limiting the effectiveness of these bodies. And can you agree on which factor is most important? (Maximum 150 words)}

These are the reading I would like to read all these and answer the question.

Reading No 1:

Controversy has dogged the G8, the organization made up of the eight most industrialized countries as measured by economic output since its inception in 1975. The organization, then known as the G6 was born in response to the world oil crisis. Current membership consists of the United Kingdom, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia and the United States (“G8—The group of 8,” Global Knowledge Contents, 2009). The heads of state of G8 countries and the President of the European Commission gather for summits to discuss issues of economic concern, environmental issues, and aid to the developing world. “The European Union is represented at the G8 by the president of the European Commission and by the leader of the country that holds the EU presidency. The EU does not take part in G8 political discussions” (“Profile: G8,” BBC, 2009). The leadership and the hosting duties of the organization rotate from member state to member state.

The positions of the G8 are not binding, and given the absence of India and China from its membership, many critics say it is growing increasingly irrelevant in the more multilateral global economy. Conversely, many critics have questioned the elitist nature of the G8, which can have tremendous influence on world economic policy spanning far beyond its membership nations when the nations are in solidarity. But during the Bush Administration, great ideological and personal rifts occurred between members of the G8. The U.S. rejected the Kyoto Protocols on emissions, and refused to ratify the treaty. And “in September 2008, Russia's President Medvedev said Moscow did not fear being expelled from the G8 following criticism of its actions in Georgia,” when “U.S. officials had said Russia's membership was at stake,” in what ultimately emerged as an empty threat (“Profile: G8,’ BBC, 2009). The Obama Administration, despite its great popularity, must work to mend these rifts and create consensus. But hostility to the U.S. has grown, as the current worldwide recession is largely seen as being caused by deregulation of the U.S. financial industry. Finally, the G8 meetings have been plagued by security issues as often violent opponents of globalization demonstrate outside of meetings decry the clout of an organization based upon the wealth of its members, not their moral righteousness or democratic ideals. Even before the economic crisis, the focus of the G8 was drifting, as member nation’s national interests were more disparate, and these economic divisions have only grown.

“G8—The group of 8.” Global Knowledge Contents. April 15, 2009

“Profile: G8.” BBC News. August 18, 2008. April 15, 2009.


Reading Number 2:

The World Trade Organisation in an international organisation who deal “with the rules of trade between nations” and “help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business” (WTO, 2009). The WTO was established in 1995 and is based in Geneva, Switzerland. It currently consists of 153 countries, 117 of which are developing countries.

The World Trade Organisation has been successful in most of its ventures; however, it is still criticised for many of its rules and regulations. These are just a few reasons why people believe that the WTO should be abolished and why it is not doing a ‘good job’:
• “The WTO squashes diversity
• The WTO operates in secrecy
• The WTO limits governments’ ability to use their purchasing dollar for human rights, environmental, worker rights and other non-commercial purposes
• The WTO disallows bans on imports of goods made with child labour
• The WTO undermines democracy
• The WTO prioritises trade and commercial considerations over all other values” (Mokhiber, R and Weissman, R. ‘Ten reasons to dismantle the WTO’)

The promotion of global trade is another aspect that I think the WTO is not doing a ‘good job’ in, as it is not improving people’s welfare, in particular, the welfare of those in third world countries. The promotion of global trade has been one of the World Trade Organisations most criticised areas of responsibility, and although the problems it is causing in third world countries is somewhat overlooked by the West, it has still received much attention from various anti-capitalists groups. An example of this is the 1999 Seattle protest in which 80,000 anti-capitalists activists campaigned to shut down the World Trade Organisation meeting in order to stop reforms that would further open up the third world economies to the western multinational corporations. Global trade is a major problem for third world countries as it allows multinational organisations to cause severe environmental and human rights problems, throwing these countries further into poverty and despair.


Shah, A. ‘Corporations and the Environment’, 2002. Retrieved from: http://www.globalissues.org/article/55/corporations-and-the-environment
Mokhiber, R and Weissman, R. ‘Ten reasons to dismantle the WTO’
Retrieved from: http://www.organicconsumers.org/Corp/abolishwto.cfm


Reading Number 3:

The International Monetary Fund (IMF)

“The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an organization of 185 countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world”

The IMF gives policy advice in the form of an economic framework by which the country can follow in order to lower poverty and achieve “macroeconomic stability”. In the past the IMF have been highly criticized for their application of a ‘one size fits all’ policy towards poorer nations. In the 1980s the IMF caused large problems in Bolivia, South America and Nigeria in Africa. The selling of State owned enterprises and the granting of greater government control led to some of the worst cases of human suffering ever seen due to the dictators taking off with the money needed for rebuilding the country.

In today’s contemporary world the IMF have drastically improved their levels of involvement and interaction with its member nations and now participate in constant liaison/surveillance with member nations, giving them advice on potential threats to economies and on how to manage their money.

The IMF have definitely improved their act in helping out many of its poorer member nations with the use of surveillance, debt management, training for government economists etc… the one big problem with the IMF still have and has been the case for its entire existence is the fact that they could still be seen as taking advantage of poorer member nations by charging interest on the loans. I believe that if we want to have a world without poverty then the first place to start is to help those countries in need by loaning without interest and contributing to the building of their infrastructure with cheaper access to essential materials. Of course this would not happen in the current world because those people in powerful positions are too money oriented and cannot see beyond their own financial gains.

Overall the IMF is an essential institution in the current world of economics because the framework and structure that they provide their member nations is vital to growth and reduction of poverty. When I say the IMF is essential, that is only the case because there is no other proposed ideological system to replace capitalism and as such it could potentially become redundant if things were to change in the future.

Reading Number 4:

The International Monetary Fund was established in 1944 during the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference and since then, has received a great deal of criticism due to it's inability to fulful it's purpose. It's original purpose was to maintain exchange rates for international trade but when this exchange system collapsed, the I.M.F changed it's role. (Vreeland, 2003, 8) The I.M.F is now responsible for managing financial crises and development in developing countries of the world as the lender of last resort. It's overall aim can therefore be summarised as bridging the gap between developed and developing countries throughout the world.

Unfortunately, the I.M.F has not done a good job in its' area of responsibility as no country has emerged from its debt problems as a result of the I.M.F's 'assistance'. Some are in an even worse financial situation after the I.M.F loans. (Moller, 2007) In reality, the I.M.F is run like a business without accountability and with large corporations and banks being the true beneficaries as opposed to those suffering in the third world. (Arruda, Cavanagh, Whysham, 1994, 12) So despite, the I.M.F's stated goal of facilitating development in the developing world in an attempt to bridge the gap between the rich and poor, it is doing just the opposite. Pain and suffering caused by the I.M.F can be measured by the tens of millions it has displaced, impoverished and send to early deaths due to the I.M.F replacing human value with the values of a capitalistic system, focused on free market growth. (Arruda, cavanagh, Wysham, 1994, 12)

Due to developing countries seeking I.M.F assistance as a lender of last resort, it means the I.M.F can attach certain conditions to their loans. These policy conditions are part of the Structural Adjustment Programs used by the I.M.F. These countries have no choice but to accept conditions such as promoting sweatshops, increasing exports to developed countries and high cash return investments. (Moller. 2007) It has become evident that the structural adjustment programs are one of the most limiting factors which is preventing the I.M.F from fulfilling its goal of improving equality as well as peoples' welfare.

The most limiting factor to the I.M.F in its ability to help developing countries of the world is that it is not made accountable for its' decisions. (Oxfam Policy Department, 1995, 44) As mentioned, the I.M.F is run like an idependent business. It is not open to public scrutiny which leads to it being vulnerable to serve the interests of the large banks and corporations. If governments were serious about achieving accountability within the I.M.F, they should enforce the I.M.F to publish conditions of a contract for loans before the conclusion of the agreement. At the very least it would provide some form of public pressure and scrutiny toward the I.M.F to deliver on its goal of bridging the gap between the rich and poor throughout the world. At the stage, the I.M.F and richer countries throughout the world seem to have no interest in this.


Vreeland, J. R. 2003, Introduction, in Vreeland (ed.) The I.M.F and Economic Development, 1st edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, p.8

Arruda, M. and Cavanagh, J. and Wysham, D. 1994, From Bretton Woods to Chiapas, in Arruda and Cavanagh and Wysham (eds.) Beyond Bretton Woods: Alternatives to the Global Economic Order, 1st edition, Pluto Press, London, p.12

Moller. K. 2007, Global Exchange

Oxfam Policy Department, 1995, Reforming the System, in A Case for Reform: Fifty Years of the I.M.F and the World Bank, 1st edition, Oxfam, Dublin, pp.39-44

Reading Number 5:

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is a body set up by member states that contribute money into the IMF so that any member country can withdraw money if they are unable to pay its creditors. Unlike the World Bank which primarily deals with long-term finance, the IMF is concerned with short-term loans and is viewed as a ‘last resort’ for lending. However, whether it is successful as an IFI is arguable.

The main debtors of the IMF are developing countries; however these countries are given minimal influence in the direction of the IMF. Unlike the UN General Assembly which has a one-country-one-vote system, controversially, the IMF has a weighted voting system, meaning that countries with larger IMF contributions and economic size are given greater voting power. This structure has been rightly criticised as it gives enormous powers to its richest members who rarely drawn upon the IMF’s reserves, and yet it is these poorer nations which must adhere to the IMF’s policies and programs in order to receive the loan. This would appear to be very unjust.

The IMF offers advice to its member nations that seek it on how to effectively manage their economies so as to not need to borrow funds again which appears to be a great benefit of being a member. However, the IMF has been appropriately criticised for its ‘one size fits all’ policy in which it completely disregards the cultural and political situation of the debtor and implements its standard neo-liberal economic reforms. This is evidenced particularly during the 1980s and 1990s where the IMF imposed a set of policies that, particularly in the under developed sub Saharan Africa, decreased growth and social development whilst increasing income inequality, resulting in the recipients of it reform packages suffering becoming poorer, while health, education and the environment suffered. Whist it may have promoted growth for other debtors, the IMF should seek to tailor advice to appropriately meet its debtor’s shortcomings. Unless it does so, it is failing to reach its potential for welfare improvement.

The IMF’s significance also appears to be decreasing as there is an emerging trend for developing nations to source a large proportion of their funds from private lenders meaning they are no longer dependent on aid from public lenders such as the IMF.

Overall, I think the concept of the IMF is appealing, but it suffers some significant structural problems that render it ineffective in promoting people’s welfare and which don’t allow it to reach its maximal potential for its area of responsibility.

The Second part of the order is :

I would like you to answer each question with 100 words only.

1. Is the IMF a force for good or does it compound the situation of people in poorer countries? Is the IMF effectively addressing the problems of financial instability?

3. What challenges are now facing the WTO?

4. What was the ‘Washington Consensus’? In what ways has the agenda of the World Bank changed in the past ten years, and why?

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Title: The Social History of the Automobile

  • Total Pages: 8
  • Words: 2474
  • Works Cited:5
  • Citation Style: None
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: This paper aims to examine the rise of the automobile and ‘car culture’ in North America, focusing on the period from 1900 to the oil crisis of 1973. The vehicle can be used for exploring larger themes in social, economic, and environmental history of the United States and Canada. Themes covered can include the automobile’s central place in modern production, consumption, and leisure; in the transformation of the city and the country; and in the creation of distinctly North American landscapes such as interstate highways, sprawling suburbs, and the roadside strip. Other topics that can be explored can the automobiles contribution to environmental preservation and degradation, to national identity, and to notions of alienation, anonymity, abundance, and personal freedom. Other factors and topics you may want to consider can include the automobile and its relation to: rural/ urban and regional differences
gender roles, identity, ethnicity, and immigrant experience, changing occupations and incomes, work (building roads, driving, or repairing vehicles, roadside services, and raising children.

All sources must be cited and be presented as endnotes or footnotes. The paper should include a bibliography. It is very important that WRITER MESSAGE ME A CLEAR IDENTIFICATION OF THE TOPIC THAT IS TO BE ADDRESED BEFORE STARTINGTHIS PROJECT. A clear research question or argument with one or two lines on how they will approach the paper will be good.

The paper must begin with a Thesis Statement (1-2 paragraphs) stating (1) your topic and (2) how you intend to structure your discussion. Stay on track and don't wander. Provide evidence and argument, and avoid vague opinion. Summarize and provide your analysis- that is, explain what is significant about what you have written. When writing, and especially when editing the paper, keep checking to ensure that your arguments answer your stated research question and that your evidence supports your arguments. Clarity and internal consistency are the most important characteristics are important here. It is important to make sure that you aren’t trying to do too much. In general, depth is better than breadth because it allows you to demonstrate much more detailed and thorough knowledge of your topic. Use headings and subheadings where appropriate.

Moreover, All sources must be cited and be presented as endnotes or footnotes. Please provide a bibliography or list of works consulted. Don't rely on just two or three peer reviewed journals for example. Spread them out. ALL YOUR SOURCES HAVE TO BE CITED AND BE PEER REVIEWED SCHOLARLY JOURNALS and books. IF THIS NOT FOUND, THE PAPER WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED. If you need specific journals, I can access them for you. Just send me a message. Do not use multiple quotations as this is analysis paper not a Lit paper. The data base “AMERICA: HISTORY AND LIFE” provides excellent sources to write this paper from. Again, I can quickly access the articles for you if the need arises. Lastly, if you wish the use of 5 or more sources is fine.

Thank you
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Works Cited:

Lovelock, J. (2000). Gaia: A New Look At Life on Earth. New York: Oxtord University Press.

Schorr, A. (1958, June). Families on Wheels. Harper's (216), pp. 71-5.

Seiler, C. (2008). Republic of Drivers: A Cultural History of Automobility in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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