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Having shed some light on the provisions of the PPACA Act, let's now revisit the issue of "pre-existing conditions" bearing in mind that it was an emotive subject of debate in health care debate in the United States in 2009 and 2010 with majority of people opposing its exclusion by insurance industries and preferring its subsequent ban. Pre-existing condition is a medical condition that occurred before a program of health benefit comes into effect. Based on this definition, it is evident that "pre-existing condition" clause serves no purpose than rationing health care. Regardless of the definition which insurance companies give, "objective standard" or "prudent person," rationing of healthcare is still evident.
Definitions used by insurance companies are dictated by states where these insurance companies operate. Some states compel them to use objective standard definition where as other states require insurance companies to use prudent person standard definition. McCarran-Fergusson Act of 1945 bestows upon individual states within the United States the power to regulate pre-existing condition exclusions in individual and small group health insurance plans. The Act delegated insurance regulation responsibilities to individual states.
Tobacco has particularly been pointed out as pre-existing condition. This therefore implies that those who suffered from lung cancer or cancer of the pharynx as a result of using tobacco products, sought medical intervention, and have since recovered cannot enjoy the full benefits of Obamacare. The federal pre-existing condition exclusion regulation calls for setting up for premiums at standard rate for a standard population while the premiums for older individuals are allowed to be up to 4 times those of younger individuals. Despite the fact that pre-existing condition exclusions are prohibited for children under the age of 19 and in all health insurance plans, premium for tobacco users are only allowed to be up to 1.5 times the premium of non-tobacco users. This is an act of discrimination since you and I only know too well that pre-existing condition rules cruelly deny needy people treatment. Since insurance companies have made it a habit of wanting premiums without any risks, the pre-existing condition rule is most likely make them do anything within their means to make profits. If proper care is not taken, the Obamacare that was initiated to protect individuals from very high costs of health care may as well end up profiting unscrupulous commercial insurance companies that are ever keen on trying to avoid risks to maximize their profits.
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Discuss how one can recognize the merit system principles and prohibited personnel practices. Focus on the various mandates for personnel within the public sector and how those practices may need to be re-examined.
Explain how the grouping of activities helps to attain program objectives. How do they apply in public management?
There are sets of desired principles and prohibited personnel practices that obtain for individuals working within the public