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Title: psych journals

Total Pages: 6 Words: 1740 Sources: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Topic Journal
Psychological Methods

Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 1 of 1

Read the following passage on comparing points of view. Next, answer the questions in the Thinking Skills section. Label each Journal entry with the appropriate title, Journal Activity 1.

Comparing Points of View

A point of view is a person's opinion about a subject. A point of view can be influenced by various factors, including age, sex, experiences, or beliefs. To compare points of view, first identify the main issues being addressed and the factors that influence the points of view concerning those issues. Second, list the arguments that are offered to support the points of view. Evaluate the arguments according to these criteria:

* The arguments are based on verifiable statements, not simply opinion.
* Information matches other sources.
* The arguments are based on more than one or two incidents.

The excerpts below summarize the points of view of two psychologists.

Psychologist A

Just as in the medical sciences, research with animals has resulted in major achievements in psychology. This research has contributed to important benefits for human beings. For example, the biofeedback technique, which I and many other people use to control high blood pressure, had its origins in studies using rats and other animals.

Accusations of cruelty toward research animals are unsupported. A study that investigated 600 of these alleged accusations did not support the charge of cruelty. This is not to say that some instances of cruelty do not occur. However, these instances are infrequent and not typical of psychological experiments. Researchers must follow rigid guidelines to ensure the humane and sensitive treatment of research animals.

Most people do not think that animals share the characteristics that allow them the same rights as humans. Even advocates of animals' rights condone pet sterilization, disregarding the animals' right to breed.

Psychologist B

As a graduate student, I witnessed many instances of cruelty to animals in various research projects. Yet, of the many experiments done on animals, only a few contribute to important medical or psychological research. A vast number of experiments are used for commercial purposes: to test new shampoos, cosmetics, food additives, or detergents.

People have to realize that species vary, and tests performed on one species do not necessarily yield the same results on another. For example, the use of thalidomide by pregnant women resulted in deformities in many of their babies. Yet giving thalidomide to pregnant laboratory cats, rats, monkeys, hamsters, and chickens failed to result in deformities in the baby animals. Similarly, if the results of the effects of penicillin on guinea pigs had been applied to humans, penicillin would never have been used on people.

There can be no doubt that animals involved in psychological research suffer. The suffering research animals endure should encourage researchers to find alternative methods for studying various psychological issues. One cannot say that animal research can never be justified. If a single experiment involving animals could cure a major disease, then such use could possibly be justified. However, this situation is rare and almost nonexistent.

Thinking Skills:

* What is the main issue that both psychologists are addressing?
* What is psychologist A's point of view? Psychologist B's?
* What factors might be influencing psychologist A's point of view?
* What factors might be influencing psychologists B's point of view?
* List the arguments of each psychologist (Psychologist A and Psychologist B)
* Keeping in mind the three bulleted criteria for evaluating arguments listed at the beginning of this activity, do you think both psychologists present sound arguments? Explain your answer.
* Is there an advantage to being presented with more than one point of view on an issue? Explain your answer.
* Discuss your views about animals being used in research projects that are intended to benefit humans. Explain the factors that influence your personal opinions

Lesson 2
Topic Journal

Lesson 2 Journal Entry # 1 of 1

Read the following passage on comparing points of view. Next, answer the questions in the Thinking Skills section. Label each Journal entry with the appropriate title, Journal Activity 2.

Thinking Skills:

Read each situation below and answer the questions that follow.

Tom and Juanita conducted an experiment to test the effect of age on difference threshold in children 5 years of age and younger. They created an experimental setup that included cards mounted with 12 pairs of paint chips of the same hue but of various shades. The difference between the first pair was fairly obvious, but the difference between each subsequent pair decreased. The last few pairs of chips seemed almost identical. The process that Tom and Juanita used was to show the pairs to a child and to note the smallest amount of difference the child could detect when asked to identify the darker chip on each card. They tested 3 children from each of these age groups: 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.5, 5.

* What is the dependent variable?
* What independent variable was tested?
* What unidentified independent variables might have influenced the results?
Ronald and his classroom research group were conducting an experiment to test people's ability to touch their noses when their eyes were shut. They were testing their hypothesis that males were more skilled at this task than females. The group also had a theory that noise could alter a person's ability to carry out the task. They asked several classmates and teachers to perform the task. Sometimes, Ronald or someone else in the research group would whistle or shout while a person tried to do the task.
* What dependent variable did Ronald's group identify?
* What independent variables can you identify?
* Were the variables effectively manipulated? Why or why not?
* How could you improve the experiment?
* Now construct your own experiment; measuring both dependent and independent variables to determine how a lack of sleep influences performance on a math quiz which emphasizes solutions to word problems.

Lesson 3
Topic Journal

Lesson 3 Journal Entry # 1 of 1

Read the following passage on comparing points of view. Next, answer the questions in the Thinking Skills section. Label each Journal entry with the appropriate title, Journal Activity 3.

Analyzing Data

Psychologists use field observations, laboratory experiments, and other methods to gather data relevant to their research questions. When sufficient data have been collected, the researchers analyze the data in order to make inferences about the research topic. The focus of data analysis is the identification of relationships between the various elements of the data. Researchers look for the following types of relationships.

The relationship of necessary condition.

A necessary condition is a condition without which a certain event or effect cannot occur. For example, for a procedural memory of a skill to occur, you must first learn the skill. You may not always remember a skill you have learned, but you can never remember it if you have not learned it. There are four possible relationships (R) between a necessary condition (A) and a certain effect (B).

R.1. If A occurs, then B may or may not occur.

R.2. If A does not occur, then B cannot occur.

R.3. If A occurs, then B must have occurred.

R.4. If A does not occur, then B may or may not have occurred.

The relationship of sufficient condition.

A sufficient condition is a condition that can produce a certain effect. The same effect, however, can be produced by other conditions. For example, brain injury can cause amnesia, but amnesia can also be caused by other conditions. There are four possible relationships between a sufficient condition C and a certain effect D.

R.1. If C occurs, then D occurs.

R.2. If C does not occur, then D may or may not occur.

R.3. If D occurs, then C may or may not have occurred.

R.4. If D does not occur, then C did not occur.

The relationship of necessary and sufficient condition.

If all necessary and sufficient conditions EF occur, then a certain effect G will always occur. If these conditions do not occur, then the effect will not occur. For example, to create memory of an incident, the brain must encode information. Without encoding, there will be no memory of the event. The following are true.

R.1. If EF occurs, then G will occur.

R.2. If EF does not occur, then G will not occur.

R.3. If G occurs, then EF has occurred.

R.4. If G does not occur, then EF has not occurred.

Thinking Skills:

Refer to the information about relationships to answer the following questions regarding analysis.

* True or false? If data show that saying a number over and over is a necessary and sufficient condition for committing the number to memory, then people who want to memorize a phone number must repeat it several times.
* A research study looking for early signs of Alzheimer's disease studied the brains of 14 deceased nuns and examined the autobiographies of the nuns, which were written early in their lives. Of the 5 nuns diagnosed with Alzheimer's, all showed low-idea density in their writing, which means they included very little descriptive information in their writing. The writing of the nuns without Alzheimer's did not show this characteristic. The researcher's believed that low-density writing might be a predictor for the development of Alzheimer's. Using A for Alzheimer's and LDW for low-density writing, write a statement that describes the relationship between Alzheimer's disease and low-density writing demonstrated by this study.
Is the relationship one of necessary condition, sufficient condition, or necessary and sufficient condition?
Do you think this study is sufficient to come to that conclusion? Why or why not?
* Suppose experimental data showed that memory reliability has been increased by 12 percent in people taking medication X and also has been increased in people who have had training in using mnemonic devices. Using DX for taking the drug and IM for result of improved memory, write a statement that best describes the relationship.
* Todd ate two bowls of popcorn while studying for his psychology test. The next day he got an A on the test. Can he conclude that eating lots of popcorn is a necessary condition for memorizing psychology information? Why or why not?
* Depict a scenario describing each of the three relationships with their required conditions as discussed earlier in the Analyzing Data section of this Journal Activity.

Lesson 4
Topic Journal

Lesson 4 Journal Entry # 1 of 1

Read the following passage on comparing points of view. Next, answer the questions in the Thinking Skills section. Label each Journal entry with the appropriate title, Journal Activity 4.

Assessing Validity of Conclusions

When reading a research report, it is important to assess the validity of the conclusions drawn. The validity of conclusions can be tested or assessed by comparing the observations and data in the research report with the conclusions. Assess the validity of conclusions by asking the following questions.

* Does the conclusion summarize the main ideas that can be drawn from the information, observations, and data?
* Do the observations and data support the conclusion, or does the conclusion claim something that is not supported?
* Is further research, or a different research approach, needed to arrive at this conclusion?
* Is the conclusion clear?

Read the following hypothesis, research information, and conclusion from a research report about the perceptual development of newborns.

Hypothesis: Newborns lack the ability to distinguish strong odors.

Research: In a study of 1,500 healthy newborns, the following observations were noted in almost all of the newborns: They stuck out their tongues, spit, and wrinkled their noses when they smelled pungent odors. Newborns smiled and showed licking motions in response to the smells of chocolate, strawberry, and vanilla.

Conclusion: Newborns showed insignificant differences in their responses to pungent odors and to sweet-smelling odors. Therefore, newborns are unable to distinguish strong odors.

This conclusion is invalid because there is nothing in the research information to support this conclusion. A valid conclusion might be newborns showed significant differences in their responses to pungent odors as opposed to sweet-smelling odors. Therefore, newborns are able to distinguish strong odors.

Thinking Skills:

Read the following hypotheses, research information, and conclusions. Use the guidelines above to assess the validity of the conclusions.

* Hypothesis: Certain reflexes are inborn.

Research: A study to determine whether reflexes are inborn was conducted with 3,000 healthy newborns at hospitals in all parts of the world. Two reflexes-grasping and rooting-were studied. Soon after each baby was born, a doctor or nurse performed two tests. In the first test, the doctor or nurse placed a finger against the palm of the baby's hand. In 98 percent of the cases, the babies firmly grasped the finger of the doctor or nurse. In the second test, the doctor or nurse touched the corner of the baby's mouth. In 99 percent of the cases, the babies turned toward the source of the stimulus.

Conclusion: Nearly all the infants studied responded reflexively to the stimuli presented, proving that certain reflexes are inborn.
* Hypothesis: Baby ducks must become attached to their mothers to survive.

Research: In a study of 100 baby ducks, researchers showed the newly hatched ducks the following moving objects: humans, geese, dogs, pigs, and cows. In all cases, the ducks became attached to the first object they saw. In all cases, the baby ducks survived for at least 10 days by following the first object they saw.

Conclusion: Some baby ducks can survive without becoming attached to their mothers, but in general baby ducks must become attached to their mothers to survive.

* Hypothesis: Most children by the age of 3 months understand that objects exist even when they are out of sight.

Research: A research study of 2,500 infants ages 1 month to 12 months was conducted. A researcher played a game of peekaboo with each infant to test the infant's understanding of object permanence. Results (percent understanding) per age group: 0 percent at 1 month, 0 percent at 2 months, 0 percent at 3 months, 1 percent at 4 months, 3 percent at 5 months, 6 percent at 6 months, 25 percent at 7 months, 55 percent at 8 months, 65 percent at 9 months, 79 percent at 10 months, 86 percent at 11 months, 95 percent at 12 months.

Conclusion: Most children by the age of 6 months understand object permanence.

Lesson 5
Topic Journal
Gender Roles

Lesson 5 Journal Entry # 1 of 1

Read the following passage on comparing points of view. Next, answer the questions in the Thinking Skills section. Label each Journal entry with the appropriate title, Journal Activity 5.

Use the steps below to identify and explain the bias in each excerpt above.

* Identify the writer's purpose in writing the research report. For example, if a behaviorist were to write a research report about whether or not humans have free will to make their own choices in life, you would expect the behaviorist to research and focus on how a person's actions and choices are shaped by external forces or influences.
* Examine wording for opinions. Does the writer use words that appeal to an emotion or indicate an opinion? For example, words and phrases such as contemptible, graceful, squeamish, in my opinion, I believe, I think, or in my view indicate an opinion. If opinions are used in the research report, they should be supported with facts.
* Examine wording for negative or positive connotations. Does the writer use words or expressions that suggest approval or disapproval? Does the writer use suggestive, undeserving, or unfair analogies to make a point? If so, this indicates a bias.
* Examine wording for over-generalizations. Over-generalizations often use words such as best, worst, none, all, and everybody.
* Examine the research report for an imbalance in the presentation. Does the report present only one side of an issue or theory and fail to present other viewpoints or research?
* Examine the research report for implied beliefs or hidden assumptions. Does the report imply beliefs that are not valid?

Thinking Skills:

Read the following excerpts from research reports.

* In his research, Gordon Allport identified about 18,000 human traits. Allport concluded from his research that traits are the building blocks of personality. Allport's conclusion is about as sound as a skyscraper constructed without a foundation.
* Social learning is the proper focus from which to explain differences in personalities. In my judgment, people gain personality traits by observing others. A person who does not observe violence will have a calm, controlled, and even-tempered personality.
* This research report explores the five approaches to the study of personality-trait theory, psychoanalytic theory, learning theory, humanistic theory, and sociocultural theory. I have collected a vast amount of data on the subject during my past 20 years as a humanistic psychologist. My research report uses this information to answer the question. How does personality develop?
* One participant in the case study was a high school student named Vilay. Since Vilay was raised by parents who had grown up in Japan, she tended to be rigid and controlled in her emotions. This was obvious because she looked uncomfortable expressing her feelings to the interviewer.

Lesson 6
Topic Journal
Social Interaction

Lesson 6 Journal Entry # 1 of 1

Read the following passage on comparing points of view. Next, answer the questions in the Thinking Skills section. Label each Journal entry with the appropriate title, Journal Activity 6.

Thinking Skills:

Read the following statements. Using the tips for recognizing stereotypes, decide whether each statement contains a stereotype. Explain your decisions.

* People with obsessive-compulsive disorders are weird. They should be avoided because they have lost touch with reality and are harmful to others.
* Anxiety disorders are common. The types of anxiety disorders range from a general state of dread to stress disorders. In serious cases, anxiety disorders can lead to significant restrictions and limitations in lifestyle, relationships, and work. Most people with anxiety disorders, however, respond well to treatment and eventually can lead normal lives.
* Individuals in the manic phase of bipolar disorder may experience hallucinations, engage in implosive behaviors, and exhibit delusions about having superior abilities. The manic phase of bipolar disorder can be disruptive to a person's life. It is important that individuals in this phase seek help from a psychologist.
* People who take medication for their depression are angry, hostile people. They are unpredictable and make poor employees.
* According to a well-respected psychology text, a documented study shows that a family environment in which a parent frequently expresses intense emotions and has a pushy, critical attitude puts children at risk of developing schizophrenia. Another study, described in the same text, shows that people with schizophrenia are more likely than others to have suffered an injury or other trauma around the time of their birth.
* Why is it important to recognize stereotypes?

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Education The Key Elements of Classroom Management

Total Pages: 11 Words: 3833 References: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: This is a Continuing Education class. There are ten essay questions and a summary required. Each response needs to be at least one page in length. I have included the requirements and rubric with my order. This paper needs to adhere to APA style and format. To earn a grade of "distinguished", I cannot have any organization, grammar, or style errors. I know many of the questions require information on my own classroom, practices, strengths, and weaknesses. I will include some thoughts to those questions here, as well as help to clarify in any way I can through e-mail with the author.

Question #2: I teach first grade. Establishing routines and procedures is extremely important to help children this age feel secure and successful. I spend much of the first few weeks teaching these things and more importantly, modeling them. I always greet every child at the door on their way in every morning, giving them a smile, hug, or a high five to start the day. My students quickly know how to enter the classroom, unpack and put their things away in the designated places (for example, important notes in the red basket, snacks in their desks, coats in their bins). They also know that it is their responsibility to flip their attendance card and check in for lunch if needed. I have an activity or "wake up" work on their desk or the board for when they are done. This allows me time to report attendance, look at correspondence from home, etc. We have classroom jobs that are rotated on a weekly basis. My "messenger" will help deliver any papers to the office or lunch room. Each child has two "freebie" trips to the bathroom. They each have two magnetic passes with their names on one of our cabinets. As long as the bathroom pass (one for boys, one for girls) is there, they may quietly get up and go as needed. Anything above and beyond their two passes, they need to ask permission. Children of this age love to chat and tell you everything about their lives. One area I need to improve on is limiting the amount of "sharing" time. By the time twenty children tell you one story each, much important time has slipped away! I also need to work on my transition times. They tend to get noisy and a little chaotic. This is often when behavior issues occur. I will try to implement the suggestions on page 39 in the future.

Question #3: I go in to school about an hour early each day and stay for about an hour after school each day. I use this time to make sure that I have all materials needed for each day laid out and within arms reach. First graders are not very independent for long so there isn't much time during the day to get extras done. Also, the longer they need to wait for you to get organized, the more likely behavior problems erupt. I have ten literacy centers each week so I usually stay longer on Fridays or go in over the weekend to make sure my centers and plans are ready to go each Monday.

Question #4: I work very hard at establishing a positive climate in my classroom. In our district, first grade is the child's first experience at being away from home for a full day. I think it's extremely important that they feel loved and secure. I try to make a personal connection with each of them on some level. I live in the area and have children in the district so many of the children know or see me outside of school. I think it helps that they know something about me as a person and my outside life. As mentioned, I start each day with a personal greeting and try to end each day the same way. During the day, I spend much time modeling correct behavior and teaching how to problem solve. My class spends a lot of time getting to know each other to establish a sense of community. We do getting to know you activities and often work in pairs and groups that are changed often. I think that I could improve on sharing control. I tend to expect the children to follow my rules which can lead to power struggles with some children. I need to learn that giving certain children choices doesn't necessarily mean they are in control. I need to practice structured choices that they discussed in the book.

Question #7: I use a behavior clip chart in my classroom. It is a long chart with seven colors, green being in the middle. Each child has a clothespin with their name on it attached to the sides of the chart (boys names on one side, girls on the other). Every child starts the day on green or "I am ready to learn". Throughout the day, children can move up or down based on their choices and behavior. They can only clip up or down one color at a time and can turn things around and clip back up after clipping down. After green, they can clip up to blue, then purple, and then pink. They can also clip down to yellow - "I am slowing down", orange - "teacher choice" (I will choose a consequence), and then red - "parent phone call". I like this method because it allows the children to move back up after making a poor choice. At the end of the day, anyone who is on green or above gets a punch on their behavior punch card. After earning ten punches, the child can earn a reward from our class book. These are things like sitting by a buddy at lunch (even from another class), show and share day, wear a hat to school, etc. After the children go home, I move everyone's clip back to green for the next day!

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Family Theraphy

Total Pages: 7 Words: 2030 Works Cited: 6 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Tim and Kelly are both 32 years old and have been married for 6 years. Both report they have jobs outside the home, Tim is a general contractor and Kelly works as a waitress at a local restaurant. The insurance allows for 6 counseling sessions a year. They have no children, and both have had previous marriages. They contacted you for couples counseling and reported to you during the initial phone conversation that they would like help learning how not to fight with each so much.

In the first session, after some general intake questions, you ask Kelly to describe some of the difficulties they are having. After a few moment of hesitation Kelly tentatively begins by stating,” Our Marriage is like a roller coaster. One day we’re telling each other how much we love each other the next day it’s back to world war III! Just last night we had yet another one of our huge fights”.

“ It started like always, I was in the kitchen cleaning up after dinner. Tim came in and started yelling about the phone bill being so much. I reminded him that my mother was very sick last month and I had to make several phone calls to her to try to help out. Tim said I should have called collect and asked me why I had to call my “ Mommy” every other day and said I was nothing but a baby. I knew what was coming next and sure enough, he started telling me how worthless I am and how he’d be so much happier if he had married a real women. One has enough brains to go get a decent job. He told me I’m just a stupid bitch and not worth the air I breath. He told me how lucky I am that he came along otherwise I would just be another worthless bum on the street. On and on it went, calling me names likes worthless bitch, slut, whore, and he even called me a frigid fat old pig. That’s nothing new; he always calls me those names. Then he told me I can’t call my mother for 6months or he was going to call my mother and let her know just what she raised! So, that’s just another excuse to not let me see or talk with my family. After awhile, he just stormed off and left the house. He didn’t get back home until 3.00 in the morning, after the bars closed. Then this morning he’s all nice to me like nothing happened. I’m sick of it! Can you help us?”

Guidelines to follow:-

You will need to conceptualize your couple’s or families difficulties from two theoretical perspective and describe how you would go about treating the couple/ family from this perspective for both theories based on the followings on :-

1. cause of family difficulties
2. Type of Interventions to be used
3. How to asses the Efficacy of Intervention & Outcomes (effectiveness and projection testing).
4. Additional Types of Information Needed (information to collect based on theory)
5. Compare and Contrast (how are the theories alike and how are they different)

There are faxes for this order.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Inchoate Offenses

Total Pages: 2 Words: 832 Bibliography: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: Inchoate Offenses
Part I

Vic lives in Minnesota. One day, while driving from work to head for a party, he sees a car that has collided with a tree. He slows down but does not stop to check if the driver needs medical assistance. Consider the given scenario and discuss the following:

?Analyze and explain whether Vic is guilty of any crime under Minnesota law? Explain why or why not.

?Would your answer change if Vic stops and tries to help the driver, but the driver dies? State why or why not.

Part II

Next, Vic picks up a friend, Ally, on the way for the party. Ally has marijuana in her purse, a fact Vic is unaware of. A police officer stops Vic for reckless driving. The police officer searches Josh's vehicle and discovers the marijuana in Ally's purse. Answer the below questions referring to this context:

?Analyze and explain whether Vic can be charged with a crime even though he was unaware that Ally had marijuana with her. Why or why not?

?Explain what are the competing interests of society and the individual in a case like this.

?Can you support a rationale whereby Vic could be convicted of possessing the drugs that Ally had? How?

Part III

After their encounter with the police officer, both Vic and Ally are allowed to drive on. They reach the party venue and get drunk. While in high spirits, Vic and Ally start joking about needing money and discuss robbing a bank. They plan a way to rob a bank without getting caught. Next day, Vic implements the plan and gets caught robbing a bank. Consider this scenario and answer the question below:

?Analyze and explain whether Ally can be charged with any crime. Why or why not?

?State whether Ally is an accessory or accomplice to a crime or not.

This is a Discussion assignment. Please break it down by part I, part II and Part III. Please don't forget the references. Thank you.

Excerpt From Essay:

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