Students should be able to reflect on the process of problem solving.

Reasoning and Proof

Students should recognize that proofs are a fundamental aspect of mathematics. Within that understanding, they should develop the ability to select and use various types of mathematical reasoning.


The standard calls for students to communicate their mathematical thinking in a coherent and clear way to teachers, peers, and others. Students should be able to express their ideas with the correct use of mathematical language.


The standard requires that students be able to demonstrate the interconnectedness of mathematical ideas and recognize and apply mathematics in other contexts.


Students should be able to use representations to organize, record and communicate mathematical ideas. This will enable them to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena.

The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) is an initiative by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences. On...
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