In Mesopotamia, the gods were actively involved in the doings of this world, but not in a way that was just or equitable -- the gods had no special moral attributes, merely greater power than humans.

The lack of harmony in the natural world of Mesopotamia was also reflected in the disparate nature of Mesopotamian government, which was full of small city-states, with no cohesive national ruler. Egypt's pharaohs reigned for thousands of years, and most historians consider Egypt the first real nation-state in recorded history. The steady supply of food, climate, and the Egyptian's mastery over the arid but predictable terrain undeniably facilitated this governmental stability. Egypt was also far easier to defend from attacks by outsiders ("Mesopotamia," PowerPoint, 2007).

However, despite their great differences, both of these early civilizations made profound contributions to the world, such as the Egyptian's architectural gift of the pyramids, and the Mesopotamian saga...
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