In several well documented instances, the twins pursued identical courses of academic study and career, married spouses of the same name, and even exhibited identical habits, such as their preference for a type of clothing, a brand of beer, and even a unique style of opening a beer can (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005).

However, that environmental influences have a significant effect on the development of behavior is equally evident, even in animal studies, such as experiments involving chimpanzees exposed to various environments that produce behavior that appears contrary to their known genetic predisposition (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005). Ultimately,

both "nature" and "nurture" likely play approximately equal roles in shaping behavior.


Coleman, J., Butcher, J., and Carson, R. (1994). Abnormal

Psychology and Human

Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co.

Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life 18th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

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