Self-Efficacy and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

Oppositional Defiant Disorder

The challenges of adolescence have always loomed large for young people and for families -- for as long as adolescence has been a recognized stage in human development. A constellation of skills is needed by young people to bridge the transition from childhood dependency to adult independency (Smith, Cowie, & Blades, 1998). For some young people, the transition is especially difficult and skill development does not progress smoothly or without incidence. One of the areas in which adolescents may particularly experience difficulties is that of originating, developing, and directing purposeful goal-directed action (Zimmerman & Cleary, 2006). The umbrella term that covers these behaviors is personal agency (Zimmerman & Cleary, 2006). When these behaviors result in positive outcomes in line with an individual's intention, the behavior is deemed effective (Zimmerman & Cleary, 2006). Having confidence in one's ability to achieve according to one's...
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