According to Hargreaves (2009b), "what has passed for the Third Way has been the emergence of a new kind of autocratic and all-seeing state that has used technological and data-driven self-surveillance along with some emotional effervescence in lateral professional interactions to deliver unchanging government goals," (p. 3). The Fourth Way, proposed by Hargreaves, sounds comparatively idealistic. The Fourth Way "brings together Government policy with professional involvement and public engagement around an inspiring social and educational mission," (Hargreaves, 2009b, p. 3). The Fourth Way is a type of ideological and cultural shift; demanding a lot more from the individual stakeholder than faith in government or the private sector. As such, the Fourth Way might be the only way to create meaningful structural changes in the field of education.

In "The Fourth Way of Change," Hargreaves (2009b) outlines five pillars of "purpose and partnership" that can initiate and sustain viable change...
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