Kyle Thornton

Spina Bifida

Statistics of Disease

Etiology of Spina Bifida

Pathology and Physiology of Spina Bifida

Signs and Symptoms

Diagnostic Tests

Medical Treatments

Physical Therapy of Spina Bifida


Neural tube defects are the second most common congenital defects in the United States. This occurs due to a defect during early fetal development. These defects are classically of two types, open and closed. Spinal NTDs (spina bifida), anencephaly, and encephalocele are examples of open defects. Common examples of closed NTDs are lipomyelomeningocele, lipomeningocele, and tethered cord. Occasionally more than one type of NTDs can occur simultaneously.


Statistics from March, 2011, estimates that averages of 1500 babies with spina bifida are born each year. The incidence is higher for Hispanic women, almost doubling that of non-Hispanics. The bright side of the situation is that the occurrence for spina bifida, in the United States, has been...
[ View Full Essay]