Aggression and Violence

Expression of aggression: Japan

Although the aggressive impulse may be hard-wired into the human brain, the various ways in which cultures view what constitutes aggression can be quite subjective. In Japan, for example, direct confrontation is frowned upon, in contrast to the United States, which emphasizes the need to 'tell it like it is.' Even the agency of the aggression is viewed differently in collectivist vs. more individualistic societies. "American newspapers referred more to the individual involved in each [political or business] scandal, whereas Japanese newspapers referred more to the institution, implying a focus on the group rather than the individual as agent for the Japanese" (Friedman et al. 2007: 857).

Yet cross-cultural comparisons indicate: "European-Americans scored higher on delinquency and sexual behaviors relative to both Asian-American groups. As expected, both Asian-American groups scored higher on loss of face but also scored higher on acceptance of violence"...
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