Essay Instructions: 1. The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment were significant turning points in history and led to religious and political upheaval.
(a) The Enlightenment emerged from the Scientific Revolution. Describe how Enlightenment thinkers viewed human society and behavior and how their approach freed intellectuals to approach politics, policy, the economy and religion from wholly new perspectives.
(b) Fully explain your understanding of John Locke’s concept of “Natural Law” and why it was and continues to be the catalyst of revolutions worldwide.
2. The American and French Revolutions were major turning points in World History and were outcomes of the “enlightened” views concerning the appropriate role of government and its relationship to the governed.
(a) The principals and teachings of Enlightenment thinkers (e.g. John Locke) and the dire fiscal needs of the kings of England and France combined to cause the American and French revolutions. Fully explain your understanding of these causes. In so doing compare and contrast the actual complaints of the residents of the 13 Colonies with those of the people of France. Discuss whether the American or French peoples had better arguments supporting their overthrow of a monarchy. Fully detail your arguments and support them with direct references to John Locke’s theory of Natural Law.
(b) The French Revolution occurred in three (3) phases: (1) the establishment of a constitutional and limited monarchy, (2) the Reign of Terror, and (3) the Directory. Fully explain each of these phases, including significant events and their sequence.
(c) Explain and contrast the reasons why the American Revolution ultimately succeeded while the French Revolution failed. How could the French done it differently?
3. Napoleon Bonaparte came to power as a result of the French Revolution.
(a) Describe the personal traits and talents of Napoleon which place him in a unique position in world history.
(b) Describe the sequence of events which led to Napoleon’s ascension to power, the consolidation of French government, the expansion of France (Napoleonic Europe) to its height in 1810, the Continental System and it’s impact on future events, Napoleon’s miscalculations and his astounding temporary return to power.
(c) Describe the mission of the Congress of Vienna in the context of “Balance of Power.”
*Important Note: In completing the final, sources must be fully cited, quoted, and listed. P.S. you guys at EssayTown are the greatest and I come back to you all the time. Thanks so much!
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Essay Instructions: Hypothetical Scenario: Congress of Vienna and the People of Europe vs. Napoleon Bonaparte—case number 1815, held from September 1, 1814, to June 9, 1815, nine days before Bonaparte’s final defeat at Waterloo. The Congress was attended by ambassadors from the major European powers, and its charter was the redrawing of Europe’s political map. To ensure that Napoleon did not escape again, as he had from the Mediterranean island of Elba, the European powers exiled him to the island of St. Helena, a windswept rock 10 miles wide by 7 miles long and 1,000 miles off of the west coast of southern Africa.
Your Task: The European powers, aware of Napoleon’s still smoldering popularity, do not want to make the exile decision seem like an arbitrary and capricious punishment. To that end, you have been appointed as defense counsel for Bonaparte, and your job is to offer evidence convincing enough to keep Bonaparte from being shipped off to St. Helena and returned instead to Elba.
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Essay Instructions: PROMPT 4: ( I NEED 500 WORD ESSAY)
Discuss how the revolutions of the 18th century influenced artists like David, Goya, and Gros. How are the works of these court painters alike? How are they different?Discuss which artist's message most appeals to you and why. Use specific references to paintings, stylistic elements, and subject matter in your discussions.
PAINTINGS TO COMPARE:
DAVID: Oath of the Horatii, Napoleon, Marat, Bara, Lepeletier, Napoleon Crossing the Alps
ANTOINE-JEAN GROS : Napoleon on the Battlefield of Eylau, Napoleon Bonaparte on Arcole Bridge
FRANCISCO GOYA : Yo lo Vi (This I saw), Para Eso Yo Nacido, The Third of May , Colllosus
Unit Five: Romantic and Realist Art
Note: You definitely need to enlarge and modify the scope of what we normally think as “Romantic” in our days. The events and social situation of the artists of the Romantic era created artistic forms that have little to do with “flowers, candles, candy” or whatever our notion of Romantic happens to be. The turmoil present in the time of these artists is reflected in their works, which are at times anything but peaceful, flowery or sweet.
Background on Romantic Art
If the Enlightenment stress on logic and reason was a reaction to the excessive passion of the Baroque, Romanticism is definitely a response to the rational approach of the Enlightenment. Romanticism thrived during the last part of the 18th century and the first part of the 19th. Some important characteristics of Romantic art are:
• The appeal of Nature. The Industrial Revolution creates dirty cities full of crime and poverty, and the French Revolution fills the cities with violence. Artists escape the cities and take refuge in the country, which they see as a clean place of refuge, where purity still reigns.
• Escapism, Exoticism, Imagination. Because the reality of life was grim, artists escape that reality and explore the world of imagination, of exoticism, of dreams. They either travel to beautiful, exotic places, or make them the subject of their paintings. They also use past eras as subjects, and the Middle Ages become a popular theme in art and in literature. That is the historic era which the Romantics see as ideal, pure, romantic.
• Individualism and Nationalism. The revolutions had a democratic theme which extolled the value of each individual. Artists translate this idea into their work. They consider themselves rebels confronting the status quo and anything that will prevent them from self-fulfillment. Interestingly enough, this Individualism coincides with Nationalism, the rejection of foreign influences and appreciation for one's native land. This is why you will see art which portrays great revolutionary heroes or events.
• Emotion. The emotional ups and downs of revolutionary turmoil are seen in the subject and style of Romantic artists. The art tends to be highly colored and full of passion, in contrast with the cool look of Enlightenment art.
Romantic Art - Francisco Goya
Goya did not start out as a Romantic but rather as the official painter of the Spanish court. Look at figure 17.16 on page 484. It is a technically perfect but rather dull scene. After many paintings of this unattractive royal family, he refused to continue painting the same people in the same style, and he let his imagination soar. He became a precursor to modern art, when he started to explore imaginative topics such as witchcraft, dreams and nightmares. His work includes many gruesome and violent scenes, fueled both by his Romantic imagination and by real war events which he watched in his native Spain.
He becomes the rebel, the individual, the artist who will time and again portray the political and social evils of Spain. The first work in his newly found independence is
the very famous etching on page 484, which shows Goya's attempt at combining Enlightenment Reason with Romantic Imagination.
Goya's masterpiece is The Execution of the Third of May, on page 485. Read about this painting. Can you see why it's Romantic? It is not the detached point of view of David's Death of Marat. In this painting, Goya clearly shows us bad guys, the faceless, dark killing machines on the right, and on the left the innocent, some bathed in blood, others about to be slaughtered, one of them dressed in white in a Christ posture. This is Goya the rebel, the patriot, pointing fingers at the government, telling us how he feels about this massacre perpetrated by the French on innocent Spanish civilians.
The role of Napoleon Bonaparte
A much longer and bloodier revolution than the American, the French Revolution went on for several years and had several short-lived governments, many political groups vying for power, and countless assassinations and executions, particularly of the nobility.
Napoleon is a controversial figure, and numerous political "experts" have attempted to define his role in history. He can certainly be called a power-hungry military conqueror. Nevertheless, most critics agree that his document setting up new laws, the brilliant Napoleonic Code, consolidated the democratic gains made during the Revolution, which ended the privileges of the nobility and brought about the idea of equality. He also ended the war within France, stabilized the economy, created a secularly ruled state.
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Essay Instructions: We will pay $190.00 for the completion of this order.
Please write an examination of the war and military tactics Of Napoleon Bonaparte, especially keeping in mind the strategies/tactics/plans of the victories of the Battle of the Pyramids, the Battle of Austerlitz, and the Battle of Wagramd and the defeats of the Battle of Aspern-Essling and the Battle of Waterloo in a way as how they influenced the strategies/tactics/plans of Robert E. Lee as general commander of the army of Northern Virginia. Compare 3 victories of Lee to the 3 mentioned victories of Napoleon (with respect to chronological order i.e. compare waterloo to the Siege of Petersburg etc.) and compare the 2 mentioned defeats of Napoleon to 2 defeats of Lee (also keeping in mind chronological order). Through this comparison of victories and defeats, ultimately come to the conclusion that both Napoleon and Lee were ultimately defeated because military theory and tactics alone cannot win a war. Also, conclude that other means are necessary besides military theory and tactics and discuss what both Lee and Napoleon were lacking that caused them to lose.
You must use the following sources (any editions are fine):
Retreat to Victory?: Confederate Strategy Reconsidered
by Robert G. Tanner
Napoleon's Last Victory and the Emergence of Modern War
by Robert M. Epstien
Napoleon As a General
by Jonathon Riley
The First Total War
by Robert A. Bell
Please use at least 2 other books on the civil war.
The remaining sources may be only either books or articles in legitimate newspapers. Please no websites, encyclopedias, or unsound sources. A minimum of 35 citations if possible. Please cite as follows, "quote" (Author Page#). or Paraphrase if necessary, but try to quote much more often. Remember to interpret and relate the quotes to your argument.
Please present a strong and supportive argument that ultimately proves the thesis idea: that both Napoleon and Lee were ultimately defeated because theory alone cannot win a war and that other means are necessary besides theory and discuss what both Lee and Napoleon were lacking that caused them to lose.
Remember to clearly state the thesis statement in the intro paragraph, and it must be the last sentence of the first paragraph. Please have strong intro and concluding paragraphs which further enforce the thesis.
Please don't plagiarize.
Please include a bibliography and copy of all sources used.
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