Essay Instructions: Museum Project
1.Compare and contrast two museums that have a relationship with each other :
- American Museum of Natural History (Manhattan) ??" the Hall of African Peoples and
- African American Museum (Long Island)
- American Museum of Natural History (Manhattan) - the Hall of Eastern Woodlands and Plains Indians) and
- National Museum of the American Indian (Manhattan)
2.Explain the relationship between the two museums (They may focus on the same group of people, or the same part of the world. Perhaps they are about the same theme: religion, or gender, or immigration.
3.Look at the exhibits and how people interact with them:
a) Exhibit content. This should include the following: what the exhibits are about; the organizers argument/view on the subject; and how the organizers support that argument (what do they show, and why do they show it?) Who does the museum think of as their audience, and how do they try to address them?
b) How do you feel about these sites, and why do you feel that way? How do other people at the museum respond to what they are seeing?
c) How well do you think the museums do in presenting their subject reaching their audience? Are there themes that should have been brought out more? Are there problems with the exhibit that you think the organizers should address? What do you think the organizers did well? What kind of outreach does the museum do?
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Essay Instructions: instruction:
Compare the history, function, staffing, and programs of a major private art museum in the United States with a major private art museum in another country, and a university natural history museum in the United States with a university natural history museum in another country
Note: You will need to search the Web to find good candidates for comparison. If museums have their annual reports available that will be a big help for you. If the foreign museums are not in such English speaking countries as Ireland, Scotland, England, Canada, South Africa, or Australia, you may need to select Web sites that have an English language option. Your search for candidate museums to compare is part of your training. Become familiar with the variety and extent of museums throughout the world.]
Discuss how the history, mission, and function of these museums differ. How old is each museum? How has each changed since it was founded? Why was each museum founded? Do U.S. museums differ from foreign museums?
Note: at least ten citations; multiple Web citations within a single Web site will be counted as a single citation.].
The paper may not contain more than 100 words of direct quotations and all quotations must be shown in quotation marks and their source noted. All papers will be checked on the Web for originality.
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Essay Instructions: Please write a strong thesis statement and a knowledgeable one in how one or many museums in Paris france function. How why when they "museumify " the subject or object menaing how are they able to turn an object into an art peice for the general public, display techniques and ideas etc..
you may choose one museum or threee as an example form the city of france
and you may choose specific art pieces to explain your ideas and evidence
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Essay Instructions: WE WILL OFFER A LOT MORE FOR THIS ONE!!
This is a Prior Learning Contract, Personal Narrative Essay.
I wrote the essay using the syllaus for the outline. The format does not flow at all!
My instructor/Mentor is calling for a re-write of the essay with all of my relative experience stated in the essay.
This essay needs custom editing of content. It is too extensive to use the editing service and more research or documentation on the subject should be added into the work.
Here are the recomendations from my mentor:
Please re-write! Less definitons but keep all of your relative experience. Write more on: The purpose of museum operation; techniques of museum operation; activities of museum operations. Any Museum METHODS! Then under each heading, list the points you need to make about that topic: gather everything you want to say about the purpose of museums into one place and state the principle behind the practice, then illustrate with examples from your experience and/or reading. Once you?ve discussed museum purposes, you can list what you need to say about museum operation, and so on. For instance, if one purpose of a museum is to keep history alive through the preservation and display of artifacts, then a technique for doing this is to present educational programs focused on those artifacts. Under your third heading, activities, you would then list the museum?s educational activities, etc.
MY ESSAY IN CURRENT UNEDITED FORM:
INT. 010 - MUSEUM METHODS Based on a Course offered at Sierra Collegge.
(sierracollege.edu) Part 1 and 2
4 semester credits, and 2 semester credit
(6 credits total)
12 August 2004
So many different definitions exist for museums. Most definitions clued the permanent preservation, and subsequent exhibit of significant cultural, educational, scientific and artistic objects. This definition is incredible vague, when the definition of art is so loosely translated in our culture. Conservation and collection is usually a requirement in defining the measure of a museum. Many definitions include institutions that provide buildings for the purpose of housing temporary exhibits as museums, even if the institution does not own the objects for public viewing. A museum is usually a non-profit organization with intent to provide education and enlightenment by the organized collection, preservation, interpretation and exhibit of items deemed to be of interest to the public or community.
The International Council of Museums places many standards on the organizational structure, responsibilities, classification and research that form the science of museology. Museography encompasses the techniques that are used in the operation and practice of museum science. A controversy exists between museum professionals on the classifications of museum types. Without the blurred boundaries on educational exhibits many zoos, arboretums, scientific laboratories, nature centers, visitor centers, historical places and planetariums. Historically, museums have formed as collaborative projects to house the collected works gathered for the appreciation of the current and future generations in our society.
In our modern world, many different persons with individual collections of personal interest have established an institution referred to as a museum. These museums are compilations of thematic objects that are offered by individuals seeking approval and admiration from the public for the displayed works. With an endless array of thematic museums in almost every city, collections representing most hobbies and topics have placed the term museum on private institutions involving object accumulation and presentation. I question the use of the term museum as applied to a private doll collection being referred to as a doll museum. Having traveled through South Dakota this past summer, I witnessed the designation of the Cornhusk Temple and Museum on the tourist maps. Although many cornhusk artisans enjoy the use of vegetable remains in their leisurely pursuit, I fail to see the connection between a hobby and an appropriate use of the term ?museum.? I lean toward a less liberal belief that museums require a more traditional approach to continue to serve society with higher standards and dignity.
I have studied the basic terminology relating to museology. Art objects and museum objects, both place different values on physical works of interest. An art object is of aesthetic interest to the public. Most works of art can be attributed as works created by a person with intrinsic value. Artifacts usually convey a cultural significance related to human cultural growth. Collections may include individual items or items acquired through accession.
Having read many different definitions in museology, I have formulated an understanding of the basic terminology based on my conservative opinion of museums and museum science. In my personal opinion, exhibits can be defined as planned presentations with the intent to display organized collected works for public viewing. The application of this term should be reserved to describe educational, culturally significant and scientific works. The American Association of Museums, (AAM) defines a museum as:
"An organized and permanent nonprofit institution, essentially educational or aesthetic in purpose, with professional staff, that owns or uses tangible objects, cares for them and exhibits them to the public on some regular schedule."
Although I agree with the basic structure of this definition, I would prefer more emphasis on the level of required professional standards necessary to designate an institution as a museum. Many non-profit institutions are established to enrich our society including, schools, libraries and community social and cultural organizations. Many of these institutions are essential in the preservation and education of our citizens. The term museum should not be generally applied to these entities simply because they offer public enrichment under a non-profit designation. Museums should also be very clear in determining the scope of the institution. Clarity and selectivity in the scope of a museum could be the determining factor in the longevity of a museum. Attracting individuals with comparable interests to explore a museum is challenging enough, removing the common interest or deviating from a specific topic displays a lack of focus to the public. Scope should be determined by the board of trustees to ensure compatibility with a mission statement. Retaining scope throughout the years of operation is imperative to the success of a museum. Looking beyond the challenge of what should be collected and preserved and what is not appropriate for collection, museums must strive to deliberately maintain a focused scope when considering loans, passive and active exhibits and collections.
I maintain a supportive affiliation with the American Association of Museums as an Associate Member. (Evidence file, Item 1)* I am also a contributing member of the Florida Museum of Natural History. (Evidence File, Item 2)*
I have maintained a membership with the Historical Preservation Society of San Juan Capistrano, California and the Mission San Juan Capistrano. (Evidence File, Item 3)* I am an active member with the Museum of Natural History, at Crane Point Hammock, Marathon, Florida. (Evidence File, Item 4)* Many other museums, scientific foundations and education facilities have my attention and support. I am listing these specific museums and foundations because I believe that they have defined missions that correlate with my philosophy in museology. I also believe that these institutions embody the true meaning of the term ?museum? as set forth by the American Association of Museums.
The American Association of Museums works diligently to create uniformity within the field of museum science on both the national and international levels. The association seeks to define relative terms and structure to a discipline with a vast array of potential institutions seeking accreditation and recognition. The subject of museum standardization, licensure and accreditation is a hot topic in museology. The standardization is intended to encourage professionalism and accurate representation. I believe that standards would establish a sense of uniformity in an industry with a vast range of inconsistent organizations. The extraordinary variety in institutions claiming to be museums would likely prohibit standardization, since many exhibitory businesses would be disrupted or lost in the process of structuring a required professional uniformity within the museum field. Another possibility in standardization is individual accreditation of museum staff members, requiring true professional to adhere to specific standards in museology. Goal-oriented to provide completeness, education and truth in service to community at large, museum professionals tend to be very diligent in maintaining standards for the sake of preserving museum integrity, honesty and accuracy. Museum professionals are not in the business of museum science for the high pay scale, working in a museum takes extraordinary dedication to a passionate cause. Museum professionalism is very similar to the teaching profession. The professional intentions are rarely questioned because the individual must have a greater purpose than income in the selection of the occupation. I have been a teacher for more than a decade, and I volunteer many of my leisure hours to museums. I understand the concepts of working with a defined purpose and have experienced many museum professionals who hold the same work ethics, diligence and integrity.
The Florida Museum of Natural history in Gainesville is affiliated with the university in Gainesville. The study and research conducted by the museum extends through the state, governing any anthropological finds and any significant fossilized remains from vertebrate species found within the state. The institution has legislative support in the preservation of these items of relative interest to the public. The museum maintains the highest level of standards in providing educational exhibits and continues to expand on the displayed works with a concise mission. Academic research is paramount to the institutions plan and it therefore draws exceptional research candidates to support the museums interests.
Historical Preservation Society of San Juan Capistrano, and the affiliated Mission San Juan Capistrano offer a site of historical preservation that is worthy of the term museum. The restoration reflects genuine effort in preserving the cultural, anthropological and historical resources of the mission. The site offers educational displays and scientific explorations for the public. Educational seminars and training is offered to the community on a regular basis. Research is conducted on the museum grounds and throughout the region by the supportive collaboration between the museum and other historical missions in California.
The Museum of Natural History, at Crane Point Hammock in Marathon is a small museum that has developed a large community following. The museum is a historical site with more than one institution, combined with common missions, goals and functions. The museum offers a nature center and hiking trails, a historical residence and heritage center and a specific museum of natural history preservation. The missions of each ?museum? in the collective in the Crane Point Hammock, is defined and have a common thread of interest. The ability to house collections in a time when funding prohibits many museums to remain staffed is a challenge for most museums. This collaborative effort combined the staffing needs with different focused missions and created a working environment supportive of modern funding restrictions in small museum management without compromising the structure.
The function and purpose of a museum is part of the controversy in the definition and designation of an actual museum. I am including a copy of the stated function and purpose of the State of Florida?s, Museum of Natural History in this portfolio. This was obtained through my research of the function and purpose of museums. (Evidence File, Item 5)* The varied goals of museums is a hot topic in museum science and museography. Museums have a duty to the public to classify and catalogue materials in a manner that is consistent with industry standards. Every museum should have a defined mission statement that focuses the combined efforts of all museums professionals within the institution to achieve a cooperative goal. Successful museums utilized the staff members and resources to fulfill the mission defined by the institution.
I have read many works that attempt to define appropriate divisions in a large museum setting. Understanding the financial crisis that most museums face in our modern society is necessary in the structure of staffing hierarchy. Noting the economic constraints that many museums face, the work of volunteers is a driving factor in maintaining many museums today. Many larger museums have a strict organizational structure, governed by a board of trustees and a chief administrative officer or director. Traditionally, a director has been an administrative official in charge of operations. Many museums view the duties of a director quite differently today, with a prerequisite for employment including the ability to raise funds and attract philanthropists. Curator is the usual title that is given to the person in charge of a museum collection, or in the highest position of management in a specific collection department. A large museum may retain the services of many curators in many different departments, or simple refer to department manager, as the head of a division. Smaller museums often use general department personnel to fill many positions. The tasks allocated to an employee in a small facility are often multidisciplinary. Security and maintenance personnel are imperative to the smooth operations in most museums. Security is a key factor in museum science and the needs are often met by in-house personnel and sub-contracted services respectively. Bookkeeping and accountancy staff members are frequently retained in a standard workforce in many museums. Volunteers often staff membership centers and sales desks, they also are commonly found as docents serving in an educational capacity. Staffing in a museum setting is as diverse as museum collections, varying on the budgets and collections needs for security. In smaller museums, the key departmental employees may function as multitasking employees in coordination with additional duties the ticket office, gift store, tour department as a docent, maintenance, exhibits design or other general administrative tasks.
The presentation of an exhibit of anthropological and cultural significance, and a natural history exhibit have an overlapping relationship that is often compatible in a single museum setting. Noting the differences between natural history and anthropology is important in museum science. Natural history could be defined the systematic and organized account of natural phenomena. Anthropology is division of social science that focuses on the study of human beings, including the evolution and social relationships of humans. Human evolution is a natural phenomenon and therefore the subjects overlap in a distinguishable area of interrelated content. Fossilized hominid remains would be appropriately displayed in either a museum of natural history or a museum of anthropology. The interpretation of archaeological artifacts and the prehistoric botanical evidence that links the early man with biology and nature are related subjects that could easily share an exhibit hall. If a display depicting the cornhusk temple were displayed in the same hall as a tribute to use of plants in architecture, the focus would be lost.
Art museums display works that are aesthetically pleasing and generally appreciated. The definition of art is highly debated and even when it is agreed upon, art is still interpreted by uniquely by each person. Critically acclaimed work as judged by one expert might be labeled appalling through a second professional opinion. Nearly every person polled sums up the arts differently. Art encompasses material arts and performing arts. Many museology professionals would agree that an art museum should house the most elite artistic works from the era of focus, including modern and ancient civilizations. The following is a partial list of art forms obtained from the electronic resources at Hyperdictionary.com:
Artificial flower arrangements, aviation depiction and performance, carving, ceramics, commercial art, creative activity, cyberart, dance, decals, decoupage, decoupage, diptych, drafting, draftsmanship, drawing, enology, falconry, gems, genre art, glyptography, graphic art, grotesque/macabre art, homiletics, horology, illustration, kitsch, minstrelsy, mosaic, music, musicianship, oenology, origami, painting, perfumery, plastic art, printmaking, publication, puppetry, sculpture, taxidermy, topiary, treasure, triptych, ventriloquism, ventriloquy, visual communication.
This list is offered to convey the wide span of artistic interpretation in our modern culture. I have never been a fan of the collections displayed by museums with modern ?art form? themes. The Smithsonian is highly regarded, as a museum but the collections of modern useful items does not hold my interest. Exhibits dedicated to the presentation of nostalgic Americana and retrospective cultural anthropology is considered a valid museum collection in the public opinion. I find it similar to walking through a shopping mall, devoid of any true cultural enrichment. That is simple opinion not a statement based in fact. Many small museums do not house elite works of art and present collections in specialized subjects that appeal to the founding collector.
Most museums that are in operation today within the United States of America are privately funded. Funding is a precarious topic, as many institutions are in competition for the limited number of grants available each year. Many corporations have been suffering in recent years with the economic recession and have cutback the tax-benefiting sizable donations to non-profit organizations. One of the key roles of a curator today may include fundraising and networking for the purpose of funds and affiliations. In many countries outside of the United States, governments fund and oversee operations in museums. This also ensures censorship of exhibits, representation of ideas and the presentation of approved information. Politics has entered into the science of museology, as public relations and international relations collide in an arena of public presentation and display. On November 18, 2003, the Head of the General Palestinian delegation to Australia accused the Powerhouse Museum in Sydney, Australia of censorship. The issue that was under verbal attack was the lack of political and controversial materials presented in an exhibit entitled ?The Treasures of Palestine.? Although it sounds safe to limit controversial materials and provide artistic and cultural artifacts in an exhibit that is publicized as treasures from one culture, the criticism was broadcast worldwide. Ali Kazak voiced his concerns through the media, in an interview with The World Today:
?Controversial photographs and political documentaries have been removed. Photographs showing Israeli soldiers arresting youths, beating youths, pointing their guns at civilians and children and blowing up of Palestinian houses. How on earth can you separate politics from the Palestinian situation??
The museums director was very cautious in his statements defending the exhibit and some employees of the museum voiced an opinion of concern for the censored materials.
This was an unusual example of the challenges that a museum might face in the acquisition and presentation of exhibit. In an attempt to provide a display that raised awareness for the beauty offered by a cultural, the museum faced outrage for the lack of controversial materials on display.
Traditionally the role of museums in society was a place for gathering, to explore the finer rarities, antiquities and academic enlightenments in a social setting. Many modern museums have morphed this role and skewed the perspective of the traditional social setting. Museums are contemporary institutions in public service, and therefore must provide exhibits worthy of public display. The definition of worthy exhibits is always up to the individual organization to interpret. Some museums use this opportunity to exhibit shocking and offensive materials. The exhibition may cause a temporary increase in public viewing and press opportunity to an institution but negative publicity can have an equally negative effect on the longevity of any nonprofit organization. Since museums are not above the law and must abide by the same rules of society, museum staff members and directors must be familiar with advocacy, litigation, immunity doctrines, liability law and laws pertaining to personal property. When seeking an agreement in the acquisition of artifacts or in acquisition contracts, the Board of Directors should use legal representation to oversee the legal matters. Contracts can create difficult situations unless both parties involved have detailed contracts that firmly limit the respective responsibilities in an implied or apparent contract, especially in regard to accessioning and deaccessioning. Museums also have a responsibility to the public that it serves, a fiduciary responsibility, and a strict code of ethics must be adhered to when representing materials as a institution of public interest. Museums must create a setting that is accessible for all persons interesting in viewing the presented materials, including the mobility impaired and uniquely challenged. Handicapped laws are enforced throughout the United States of America and efforts must be made to create a safe and accommodating environment for all persons. Museums must provide an environment free of hazards to the viewing public, keeping exhibits safe for children and frail visitors.
Some of the main responsibilities expected of the Board of Trustees or Board of Directors is fundraising, definition of the institutions scope, executive decisions for the direction of the organization and the hiring of the director of the museum. Since the expectations, duties and responsibilities for the governing body of any organization is extensive, I have offered a brief overview of the most important actions of a board member. Meetings for a member vary with each institution but many museum boards gather once a month. Documentation of actions taken at each meeting must be detailed. The minutes of many organizations are offered in reports that are available for public access. Museum science includes the sub discipline of exhibition creation, which includes creating new exhibits, maintaining and restoring currently displayed specimens. Some specimens may be held in a collection for research and considered unworthy of display without extensive restoration. Specimen preparation differs with different types of specimens. Many require an monitoring and controlling the humidity variance controlling devices within the museum environment and in storage facilities. Biological preservation varies with specimens as well. Reliable entomologists should be consulted when a new specimen is brought in for display to detect and prevent infestations. The condition of many items could be at risk with parasitical threats to existing works or specimens at the museum. An intended biological specimen might be from a country with a parasitical challenge that may require individual fumigation intervention or a more proficient taxidermists assistance. Psocids are of great concern to museum professionals, commonly referred to as ?book lice,? they thrive in humid environments and can reek havoc on collections unsuspectingly. Mould is also another stealth predator in museum collections that can be dealt with using temperature variants and humidity controls. Questions of the safety of newly acquired specimens should be ascertained prior to acceptance of a specimen, even into archives. Design of exhibits, techniques and restoration, budgeting and grant writing for new additions, relating to the exhibition of archival and nonarchival museum specimens are all part of the science of Museology. I am submitting several paragraphs on the restoration of invertebrate fossils that I recently wrote. This is presented to confirm some of my knowledge in the area of restoration of specimens for exhibit. (Evidence File,
Item # )*
Computer literacy in museum evolution has propelled the advancement of record keeping, donor relations, public relations and museum membership. There are many different kinds of museum record keeping systems. In the fundamentals of preservation, information, records, duplication and storage are all key factors. All photographic materials should be included as part of the supporting documentation that accompanies acquisitions. Photographic evidence is required for most insurance policies and duplication of the information should be housed off site to ensure that a destructive incident would not destroy the supporting documentation. Slides, negatives and prints should be placed in museum labeled sleeves made for with archival usage. Materials that are accepted for curation must be fully documented, with all pertaining information disclosed in a contract and a thorough description of each item attached. If any restrictions accompany collections, due to grants or contracts, additional documentation is usually required. Field notes, accurate descriptions, specific size information, acquisition records, correspondences, ownership records, etc., must be consistently recorded and labeled with legibility in mind. Concise and clear-labeled artifacts that are presented in a well-organized mode can really translate into a dynamic exhibit. Use of traditional numbering systems, including a Smithsonian site number, a project name, illustration/map/drawing subject, and date should be consistent in record keeping. I use a specific data recording system for every fossil that I unearth, restore/prepare and categorize. Each specimen must be uniformly measured, described, dated, and assigned a reference number. The specimens location, including county and site information is attached, along with a photograph. I am attaching a copy of one of my paleontology data cards as supporting evidence of my ability to use a consistent record system. (Evidence File, Item # )***
Many damaging effects pose a concern in museum science. Some objects are at risk when exposed to daily ultra violet radiation, through artificial indoor lighting and natural sunlight. Relative humidity is also a concern for the long-term preservation of fragile collections. When displaying a collection in a temporary exhibit, the contract should include lighting, temperature, and humidity limitations for objects that are fragile. According to Harold F. Maitland, author of Preserving Textiles: A Guide for the Nonspecialist, properly storing a clean textile item, and appropriate display requires specific lighting, climate control, and other controlled environmental factors. Every preserved artifact in a museum may have some special requirement, if not many, to maintain its displayable longevity.
A museum holds a responsibility in the event of loss or damage to an item in a temporary exhibit. Contracts should detail the worth of each item in a collection, the responsibility and required insurance prior to the arrival of any temporary collection. Vandalism is a challenge that concerns all professionals in the museum profession. A museum must review the potential concerns for the safety of each item frequently in order to prevent damage and loss. There are many forms of technology used in museum security for the prevention of fire damage, including the use of chemical elements like halon and carbon dioxide to extinguish flames. Halon is prohibited in new building construction due to the environmental hazards and ozone depletion. New buildings may incorporate carbon dioxide systems that fill a threatened room with a gas that halts the fuel needed to feed a fire. Passive infrared systems, (PIR) detect motion and any rapid change in room temperature from unexpected body heat. When triggered, an audible output and/or visible signal from a PIR systems can warn museum guards of a possible vandal or thief in the museum. Advances in electronic detection systems have had a positive affect on limiting the theft, vandalism and fire damage in museums.
There are many approaches in creating museum exhibits. Keeping scope and budget in mind, a director can influence the creation of new exhibits for permanent display in coordination with design specialists and department heads. A survey of space and function should be conducted prior to the design process. Examination of the potential floor plan should be reviewed. A security and conservation audit is the next logical step in exhibit creation. Revisions and formal approval by the governing body of the institution is required in most museum exhibit planning.
Signage, publicity, promotion can be paramount to the success of an exhibit. Announcements should be sent to include potential donors and museum members to the opening of a new exhibit creating the feeling of inclusion and appreciation. Lists provided by the Board of Directors, director, curators and the staff, including volunteer staff and docents should provide a base for philanthropists within the community. Corporations with a history of donating to nonprofit organizations should be targeted and represented in the guest list. Events, sneak previews and gatherings held to promote a new exhibit could function as a fundraiser for future exhibits and overall museum funding. Special activities, and museum-sponsored events should extend into the community at many levels, providing education and the expansion of understanding and appreciation. Many museums offer classes in an extension program to reach the public. Youth classes and camps are offered by many facilities as a way of both education the next generation and creating a connection with the funding population of the museums future. Training provided to the community should be carefully planned to ensure liability and security issues are not affected. Seminars can be presented to educate adult and college-level learners by the deliberate teachings of museum staff, and guest speakers. I have attended several seminars held at the Scripts Institute, Stephen Birch Aquarium in La Jolla, California, as an adult learner and a contributor. My experience with the guest lecturing process was very positive.
The complexity of museums requires the ideal building structure to house a collection. Planning is a key factor in the building process to effective use space and storage. Safety zones and evacuation plans must meet local, state and federal standards and accessibility for all persons must be incorporated. Organizational diagramming should be calculated by an architectural professional in coordination with the governing board of the intended museum, unless the building is a historical building for restoration as part of the museums exhibit. Historical buildings present many challenges for the conversion to an appropriately climate controlled environment suitable for many museum collections. While the challenges and logistics are present, the preservation of a historical building and land may prove to be more significant than any treasure that is housed in the building. Older architecture often requires additional structural support to provide a safe environment for visitors. It is often necessary to use restorative methods to enhance security measures, adjusting for the more primitive setting of an older building. Historic preservation of historic places is similar to the preservation work of many museum collections. Many museums and institutions work with the constraints of a historical building for the preservation of the regional history, and the added financial breaks that accompany the restoration of a historical building or monument and the listing of the institution in the National Registry of Historic places. Acknowledging architecture as history is important in our endeavors to preserve our societies rich past. Many museums that are set in historical building utilized the setting to teach living history and interpretation of historical events. This form of interactional display provides engaging events for active public participation.
Ames, Kenneth L., Barbara Franco, and L. Thomas Frye.
Ideas and Images: Developing Interpretive History Exhibits. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, 1997
G. Ellis Burcaw
Professor Emeritus of Anthropology
University of Idaho Syllabus, Anth C-32
Burcaw, Ellis G.
Introduction to Museum Work, 3rd ed., AltaMira Press division of Rowman & Littlefield; Blue Ridge Summit, PA
Centre de conservation du, the Canadian Conservation Institute, and the Universit? du Qu?bec ? Montr?al
Preventive Conservation in Museums Handbook-Video Handbook, Quebec, 1997
Listen, David, International Committee on Museum Security
Museum Security and Protection: Handbook for Cultural Heritage Institutions
Routledge Publishing, New York, 1993
Maitland, Harold F., Dorothy Stites Alig,
Preserving Textiles: A Guide for the Nonspecialist, Indianapolis Museum of Art,1999
Electronic Resources Cited
American Association of Museums (AAM)
29 August 2004
International Council of Museums'
23 August 2004
Sierra College Museum Education
10 August 2004
Hyper Dictionary, Art Terms
13 August 2004
The World Today (Tuesday, 18 November , 2003 12:35:49)
?Powerhouse Museum accused of censorship? Reported by: Jo Mazzocchi
21 August 2004
Electronic Resources used in Museology Research
The Museum Security Network
Newly acquired temporary exhibits, security issues and breaches in
security for museums are listed on the Museums Security website.<
This site lists cultural property incidents in a network forum to
apprise other museums of activity.
29 July 2004
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