Essay Instructions: Research Questions:
Q1. Did the attacks of Pearl Harbor occur from severe lack of interest, investment and co-ordination in the intelligence service?
Q2. What specific steps should USA take in order to prevent another Pearl Harbor?
- Objective : To establish that the intelligence failure at Pearl Harbor was one not of an analysis but of military intelligence gathering and sharing.
- Assess how biases and errors in perception have led to errors in analysis and intelligence failure at Pearl Harbor.
Introduction, Research Question, and Hypothesis: This section shall provide an overview of the topic that you are writing about, a concise synopsis of the issues, and why the topic presents a “puzzle” that prompts your research questions, which you will include. This section will be 1-2 pages. This section can be preceded by an epigraph that creates interest in the topic. Ensure that you follow proper format for epigraphs!!
Review of the Literature: All research projects include a literature review to set out for the reader what knowledge exists on the subject under study and helps the researcher develop the research strategy to use in the study. A good literature review is a thoughtful study of what has been written, a summary of the arguments that exist (whether you agree with them or not), arranged thematically. At the end of the summary, there should still be gaps in the literature that you intend to fill with your research. It is written in narrative format and can be from 2-3 pages depending on the scope and length of the paper.
Methodology and Research Strategy: This section provides the reader with a description of how you conducted your research. It explains what research approach you have chosen, and where you sought data to test your hypothesis. It describes any special considerations and defines any limitations and terms specific to this project, if necessary. This section can be brief or more complicated, depending on the project, written in 1-2 pages.
Analysis and Findings: This section provides the results of your research and the analytical arguments that will make as a result of your findings. In a quantitative project, this section would provide the results of the data collection and an analysis of what it illustrates in empirical terms. This section should also provide the evidence that proves (or disproves) the hypothesis. This section could be 2-3 pages depending on the length of the paper and scope of the project.
Conclusions: This section will contain the concluding analytical arguments based on what research has revealed to answer the research question. Like any conclusion, it should provide a synopsis of the project, the strategy, and the results and what they add to the body of knowledge. This section should also offer suggestions for avenues of future research for other scholars, as all knowledge is evolutionary. This section can be 2-3 pages depending on the scope of the project.
At least six sources must be from peer-reviewed journals.
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Essay Instructions: GLOBAL INTERNAL SECURITY AND COUNTERTERRORISM
Guidelines for Construction of the Internal Security Country Case Studies
The research strategy: What we are after is broad comparative information that will tell us something about the nature of Internal Security in the post-Cold War and post-9/11 eras. We will use a common format so that at the end of the day we can compare a large number of states. This translates into a number of “sections” for each case study.
Sections of the Case Study: The cases will vary widely, because the approach to internal security is different for every country. Each case should have the following elements and in this order:
Structure and Content for Country Case Studies
1)Nature of the state
•Explanation of Israeli Democracy (Exec, Legislative, Judicial Branches)
•salient facts (CIA Factbook info)
2)Threats to the state (both historical and contemporary)
•What do the leaders consider the principle threats to be
•What are the recognized threats
•Short contemporary history of the threats
3)Description of known terrorist activity (both groups and incidents)
•Bombings / attacks (charts and graphs are a plus here)
•Financing of terror groups
4)Description of important internal security policies, laws, legal definition of terrorism, etc.
5)Description of principal law enforcement and intelligence organizations—extent, powers, oversight, etc.
•These three principle organizations on the Federal level (Mossad, Shin Bet/Israel Security Agency (ISA), Aman (Military Intelligence of Israeli Defense Force) must be described but not exclusive to these three groups.
•How they function
•How coercive are they
•Extent of their powers
6)History of internal security organizations—incidents, evolution, etc.
•Incidents that have defined the organizations (charts and graphs are a plus here)
•How have they changed
7)Internal security relationship with the US (if none, describe relations with the US more broadly)
•What is the broad relationship with the USA
8)Internal security relations with other states (other important elements of international relations).
9)Relations with International police/security organizations (e.g., Interpol), etc.
10)Sources used (very important, at least 30)
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Total Pages: 4 Words: 1205 References: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Battle analysis paper on the Neutralizing the Valley: the role of Military intelligence in the defeat of Jubal Early's Army of the Valley, 1864-1865.
1. Define the subject: this portion of the paper should be brief: Determine when, where, who and the thesis statement (A single sentence emphasizing intelligence that formulates both topic and point of view)
2. review the Strategic and operational setting: consider the strategic factors and set the operational stage(review the intelligence support)
3. review the tactical situation: study the area of operations to include climate, weather and terrain.
4. Compare the opposing forces (size, composition, technology, logistical systems, command and control, intelligence, doctrin and training, condition and morale, and leadership
5. Descrive the action: state the oposing forces' missions, descrive the initial disposition of forces, describe the opening moves of the battle, detail the major phases and state the outcome.
6. Draw lessons learned: restate thesis, relate causes to effects which produced either successes or failures, establish intelligence "lesson learned"
Double space- narrative format (no bullet statements)
12 time new roman font only
1' margins top,bottom, and sides
NO COVER SHEET
NO MAPS, DRAWINGS, ETC
NO passive voice
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Essay Instructions: Introduction:
This week you are revising your research paper for content. Because of this, you will be adding quite a bit more to your paper and you will be thinking about your paper in deeper levels than you had when you created your first draft. Although this is an un-graded activity it is highly recommended that you complete Part 4 and submit it to your instructor. This is the last time you will receive your instructor’s input and help.
Review the feedback of your draft from your instructor.
Continue writing paragraphs and expand your paper from 5 paragraphs to 4 pages.
Revise your paper for content. Clarify your essay’s purpose and structure.
Confirm that each body paragraph provides sufficient and relevant support for your main ideas.
Determine how your audience will respond to your tone and word choice.
Complete your Works Cited page.
Cite all “borrowed” information properly after each instance.
Deliverables and Format:
Submit your 4-page revision paper, and your Works Cited page in a Microsoft Word document.
i have given some of my research below:
Effect of Drug Trafficking Across the Border on Law Enforcement
A number of people dispute that the war against drug trafficking across the border is costing the United States a lot of tax dollars, law enforcement endeavor, and lives, and that, even with so much effort, small progress has been made. Data indicates that anti narcotic budget in the United States has jumped up from $9.7 billion in the 90s to around$18 billion in year 2000. Moreover, The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) field agent has increased from 3,191 in 1990 to 4,561 in 2000. Despite these increase in DEA agent the number of drug abusers in the United States has boosted from 5.8% in early 90s to around 6.7% in the 1998. Approximately around 15 million of the US total population was abusing drugs in various ways in 1999. Among these 15 million around 200,000 were roughly using heroin which estimates to more than thrice the numbers in 1993 which was around 68,000 (Massing, 2000). In spite of the al the efforts being made by the law enforcement agencies against drug traffickers the numbers of drug abusers in the United States has risen tremendously in the last ten years.
President Richard Nixon in 1968 devised the term “war on drugs” to signify United States efforts against drug manufacturers, distributors and its consumers. Nixon brought together four agencies in 1974 to establish the Drug Enforcement Agency known as the DEA. President Ronald Reagan, in the 80s restored the war on narcotics and amplified the endeavors of the DEA to trim down drug trafficking across the border to the United States (Hamowy, 1987). Reagan instigated a chain of regulations permitting federal officials to have access to military intelligence, training, and technology to track and seize drug traffickers. While this was taking place the federal and local governments approved laws permitting land and assets build from drug revenues to be impounded and confiscated by officials. During the Reagan administration, drug therapy programs and education programs were started, which also included Nancy Reagan’s “Just Say No” campaign in which kids were educated through by media messages and slogans to refuse to accept offers concerning drugs (Hamowy, 1987).
Enhancements in law enforcement endeavors was aimed in reducing drug trafficking by enforcing further strict legal sanctions for convicted drug cartels, but the sheer size of the revenues generates from drug business dominates the threat of penalty. The global drug operation is estimated to produce $300 billion to $400 billion every year. Such a outsized revenues besides providing a strong motivation to deal in drug, gives them access to latest, state ??"of- the- art technological edge. Since the traffickers have a superior budget than drug enforcement agencies, they have resources to come up with more advances and sophisticated means of manufacturing, transporting, and smuggling drugs (Massing, 2000). Research indicates that in past few years the drug cartels have purchased commercial jetliners and have erected a fleet of small submarines to transport drugs to the United States. Lots of these drugs have slipped the border in large propane tanks, hazardous containers, canned food, and drums of jalapeno peppers. One such instance is when one of the groups effectively trafficked drugs from Mexico into the United States and further into Canada concealed in a special mold of porcelain toilets. These facts indicate strongly that he present DEA budget is highly insufficient in fighting against the immeasurable resources at to drug traffickers disposal (Hamowy, 1987).
Depending entirely on anti-narcotics efforts abroad, the government agencies would have to spend $783 million more annually to cut cocaine consumption by 1 percent; similarly depending on prohibition, it would have to splurge $366 million extra, and on domestic law enforcement, $246 million. Relying solely on treatment, however, the government would have to spend only $34 million more to attain that 1 percent decrease. According to one study called as the RAND, treatment was seven times less expensive than local law enforcement, ten times more effectual than prohibition, and twenty-three times more cost effective than going out hunting down the drug cartels (Massing, 2000).
Massing and others are convicted that drug therapy is not only more successful at decreasing drug abuse than prohibiting it, but in addition way more cost friendly for the American taxpayers.
Massing. M, 2000, The Fix, University of California Press.
Hamowy, R, 1987, Dealing with Drugs: Consequences of Government Control. Pacific Research Institute for Public Policy: San Francisco.
Effects of Drug Trafficking Across the Border on Law Enforcement
Over the last several decades, the total amount of drug smuggling across the US border has been increasing rapidly. Part of the reason for this, is because the United States is considered to be one of the most profitable markets in the world for illegal drugs. Evidence of this can be seen with the increasing amounts of competition in Mexico. As both Mexican and Columbian based drug organizations, are competing for the lucrative West as well as East Coast markets. This is has caused the number of illegal drugs (crossing the border) to increase dramatically, as the gangs are shipping a wide variety of substances to include: Crystal Meth, Cocaine, Marijuana, Ecstasy and Heroine. (“Drug Trafficking,” 2004) This is significant, because it shows how some kind of change needs to take place in the approach that is being used. To determine how this can be achieved requires: declaring the intended audience, creating an annotated bibliography and determining the thesis statement. Together, these different elements will focus the preliminary research, surrounding the various challenges associated with this continuing problem.
The Target Audience
The target audience will be: policymakers, educators, scholars, the general public, law enforcement and drug treatment advocates. These different groups were selected, because they play a vital role in supporting the idea that some kind of change needs to take place (when it comes to drug control policy). As they are having an impact upon how the issue is framed and what the debate will look like going forward. The reason why, is due to the fact that these groups are influential in the process of setting various policies and regulations going forward. As a result, these groups were selected, because discussing these issues with them will help to find a solution to address the problem. While not, creating adverse changes that could have a negative impact upon a select group of people. Once this takes place, it will ensure that any kind of policy that is implemented, will take these different views into account. This is significant, because it is showing how this kind of approach could be successful at addressing the underlying problem.
Drug Trafficking. (2004). Policy Almanac. Retrieved from: http://www.policyalmanac.org/crime/archive/drug_trafficking.shtml
This source discusses the all of the different drugs that are being smuggled into: the United States and the total impact that it is having. Where, it citing various DEA statistics to underscore how the problem is starting to become worse. This is despite the fact that larger amounts of resources and focus have been placed on addressing these challenges. Yet, in spite all of the different strategies nothing seems to be effective, at slowing the total amount of illegal drugs. A good example of this can be seen with a DEA study that was conducted in 2001. They found that despite billions of dollars and an increasing focus on the problem (since the 1980’s), the flow of illegal drugs has remained consistent. Evidence of this can be seen with Cocaine prices, where the DEA found that they have remained low and stable. This is troubling because, it means that in spite all of the different efforts to disrupt supplies; they have continued to remain strong. As a result, this is showing how the policy approach that has been taken is a failure, by not having any kind of effect on reducing the total amounts of Cocaine on the street (as the level of prices is an indication of this supply). The information from this source is useful, because it provides a total big picture view of the overall scope of the problem. This is important, because it can be used to establish how the current approach and policy are ineffective at addressing the underlying challenges.
Enforcement versus Prevention. (2010). All About Addiction. Retrieved from: http://www.allaboutaddiction.com/addiction/enforcement-vs-prevention-and-treatment-solving-our-addiction-problem-requires-all-three
This sources talks about how there is not an emphasis on drug treatment programs in the United States. As they point out how there is no vested interested in reaching out to addicts, because it is politically unpopular. Evidence of this can be seen with the fact that most major insurance companies refuse to cover any of the costs associated with someone going to a drug treatment facility. The information from this source is useful, because it highlighting how there is a lack of focus on this part of the problem. As a result, this can be used with previous sources to show how the government is taking an approach of interdiction (as far as the supply is concerned). While at the same time, they are placing little emphasis on providing effective treatment options for users.
Law Enforcement Officers. (2010). Drug Rehab. Retrieved from: http://www.drug-rehab.com/news/law-enforcement-officers-advocate-for-treatment-rather-than-prison-sentences-2087.php
The information from this source discusses the impact that the current policy is having. As the majority of law enforcement officials believe, that an approach of sending addicts to treatment would be more effective at addressing the problem. This is because the status quo has caused the prison system to fill up with addicts (who may not be considered to be criminals other circumstances). As a result, this information is useful, because it can help corroborate how the current approach is not working.
After reviewing the relevant pieces of literature, we have developed a thesis statement to examine the total impact of drug trafficking (listed below).
• The overall effort to reduce the supply of drugs has failed. This has caused an imbalanced approach to be taken, which is making the situation worse. To effectively rectify the problem, means that a new strategy must be embraced that will address the supply and demand (on both sides of the border). This is the only way to intelligently tackle the problem, by using proven techniques that will go after it at its sources (the suppliers and users).
Th? curr?nt inv?stigation has to do with th? ?ff?ct of drug trafficking on law ?nforc?m?nt. Th?r? ar? many diff?r?nt typ?s of drugs that ar? traffick?d across bord?rs, from ill?gal pr?scription drugs and h?roin to marijuana. Th?r? is a lot of d?mand for drugs in th? US, and ?sp?cially sinc? th? 80s, th?r? has b??n a mor? wid?spr?ad us? of cocain? for r?cr?ational us?. Pr?vious to this, cocain? was v?ry hard to g?t, and its us? was r?strict?d to a f?w p?opl? in th? ?lit? circl?s of music stardom and oth?r ar?as which hav? a lot of transf?r?nc? with drugs. But in th? 80s, cocain? b?cam? a lot mor? wid?ly acc?ssibl?, and a strong d?mand for it gr?w, b?caus? it has s?rious addictiv? qualiti?s as a drug. Th?r?for?, sinc? drugs ar? prohibit?d in th? US, a larg? black mark?t trad? d?v?lop?d, with a larg? criminal und?rworld in charg? of it, b?tw??n ar?as in which cocain? is cultivat?d and proc?ss?d (mostly in South Am?rica) and ar?as wh?r? it is consum?d (th? US and ?ls?wh?r?).
Th? US has a strong stanc? against drugs, oft?n call?d th? “war on drugs.” Most p?opl? associat? drug trafficking with gangs and organiz?d crim?. This is p?rhaps b?caus?, unlik? som? countri?s in ?urop?, th? Unit?d Stat?s has fost?r?d a cultur? that is b?ginning to s?? a blurr?d lin? b?tw??n non-viol?nt and viol?nt crim?. Som? p?opl? argu? that l?galizing and r?gulating c?rtain drugs and making th?m availabl? in a saf? and
productiv? mann?r in th? Unit?d Stat?s would both boost th? ?conomy and r?duc? th?
black-mark?t viol?nc? that has sprung up around ill?gal drug trafficking and s?lling.
Th? history of producing and trafficking ill?gal drugs unfortunat?ly has a long and intricat? story lin?. Th? amount of mon?y that can b? mad? off of just on? succ?ssful cultivation and smuggling op?ration almost ?nsur?s a n?v?r ?nding supply of p?opl? willing to risk prison or wors? to mak? that on? big scor?. And b?caus? th? app?tit? for drugs is so voracious in th? Unit?d Stat?s and ?urop?, th?r? is an ?conomic syst?m in plac? that k??ps th? drug cultivation busin?ss running.
Th? b?st and most r?liabl? plac? to look for data and lit?ratur? p?rtaining to drug
cultivation, drug trafficking and th? ?ff?cts of law ?nforc?m?nt to polic? it, ar? th?
gov?rnm?ntal ag?nci?s ?mpow?r?d to do that job. B?sid?s th? D?A and th? FBI and th?
INS, th?r? is anoth?r s?gm?nt of th? f?d?ral gov?rnm?nt that has an ?nforc?m?nt profil?
and is a font of information about drug cultivation and trafficking and attacking it wh?r?
it b?gins. How?v?r, th? failur? of US drug policy in Latin and South Am?rica is a probl?m that has not happ?n?d ov?rnight. It is a probl?m that has tak?n y?ars, d?cad?s ?v?n, to f?st?r and ?volv? into th? curr?nt stat? of affairs. It will th?n obviously tak? mor? than a f?w bromid?s and political stump sp??ch?s to fix. It will tak? consci?ntious and w?ll thought out action on th? part of politicians and on th? part of th? citiz?ns of th? ar?as that ar? most impact?d by th? ph?nom?na of drug trafficking across th? bord?r, and it will tak? ?xt?nsiv? ?ducational ?fforts to combat th? ?pid?mic of drug us? within th? Unit?d Stat?s’ bord?rs as w?ll.
Th?r? ar? two prongs to this attack that should bod? w?ll for th? ag?nci?s charg?d with stopping drugs and ill for thos? int?nt on flaunting th? law of th? land. Th? first and
most pow?rful motivation is th? on? of stopping drugs at th? bord?r. Th? s?cond prong
will b? th? fall out ?ff?ct caus?d by th? incr?as?d surv?illanc? and dilig?nc?. It may b?
put in plac? to addr?ss th? probl?m of cultivation and trafficking of h?roin, but it will
hav? a s?condary bonus ?ff?ct of putting pr?ssur? on drug traffick?rs and grow?rs who ar? oft?n abl? to op?rat? in th? sam? locations with r?lativ? impunity. “Th? k?y to curbing h?roin production and trafficking li?s with th? sourc? countri?s. Th? profitability of growing opium poppy and th? lack of r?sourc?s or commitm?nt by r?gional gov?rnm?nts to impl?m?nt crop substitution, alt?rnativ? d?v?lopm?nt, or ?radication ar? k?y factors that pr?v?nt significant progr?ss toward r?ducing opium production” (H?roin, 2005).
Drug ?nforc?m?nt Ag?ncy (2003) Drug Trafficking in th? Unit?d Stat?s. usdoj.gov
January 2003. pp. 1-14. Downloaded from http://usdoj.gov/d?a/conc?rn/drug_
Heroin??"Facts and Figures (2011). US Government.
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