Essay Instructions: PAPER ? Please use the following outline to construct the paper:
a. The introduction should describe your general opinions and observations about the relationship between the media and society, and the importance of systematic analysis of media effects. Focus on the concepts noted in attached slides and reading. It is OK to take one side or the other as long as the opinion is backed up in the paper, e.g. ?the media has a profound effect on society.?
b. Length: 1 paragraph.
II. Media Use Explanations
a. Watch any two political ads at:
b. Choose one for Romney and one from Obama, write three paragraphs that explain how your experience with the ads can be classified on the basis of the following dimensions of media effects.
1. The first paragraph should analyze one ad according to these dimensions: cognitive/affective/behavioral; content-dependent/content-irrelevant; and micro
2. The second paragraph should analyze the other ad according to these dimensions: intended/unintended; change/reinforcement; and short-term
3. The third paragraph should analyze either of the ads that was discussed in the previous paragraphs according to these dimensions: macro and long-term
c. REMEMBER: you can experience multiple dimensions of media effects from each ad. During your viewing, you will not be able to experience macro or long-term effects, but should be able to envisage the prospects of these effects.
d. Length: 3 paragraphs
a. Discuss the implications of your findings in terms of their magnitude, limitations, positive and negative forces, or any other issues that you think are important. Your conclusions should be related to the findings expressed in the paragraphs about your media exposures.
b. In the conclusion section, you may also write about whether there are any effect dimensions that you were more likely to experience or whether there any effect dimensions that you were less likely to experience? Why? You could also discuss whether you consider yourself more or less vulnerable to media effects and why.
c. Length: 1-3 paragraphs
? The written portion of this assignment should be no more than 2 full pages
? Please use 1" margins all around (under page setup), 12-point Times New Roman font, double spaced paragraphs.
? A Works Cited is REQUIRED. You?ll need to cite ads. If you quote from anything, you must give a citation for that as well (though citing from outside sources is not required). APA format. The works cited is the last page and does not count towards the two-page limit.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Everything needed to complete this order has been uploaded to the fax board.
A Critique of Pluralistic/Functional Approach in Mass Communication Research
“Pluralism” is an academic label typically pinned to explanations of social reality that emphasize not only legitimacy of existing social institutions (e.g., mass media), but more importantly, positive contribution made by existing social institutions toward social harmony. When applied to the field of mass communication research, a prevalent functionalist/pluralistic conception of media is treating the industry as “the marketplace of ideas.” Truth will eventually emerge, according to this school of thought, through creative, free, and democratic exchange of ideas.
Your task is to offer your own critical interpretation of this perspective of media and society. Specifically, you ought to pay close attention to challenges from critical studies to pluralistic framework of explanation. You may defend or offend, so to speak, pluralism relying on what you have read so far, but chiefly your personal reflections. Please illustrate your point with a recent news event in Hong Kong (e.g., news coverage of the chief executive election).
Your claims and conclusions are not evaluated by “right” or “wrong” criteria. We only assess the logical rigor in the argument. Brevity is appreciated.
There are faxes for this order.
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Essay Instructions: This is for Media Studies: An introduction to mass communication. The sources used should be scholarly and I would like a couple of newspapers used as well. I would like the writers' strike of 1988 referred to in the paper and compare it, as well as the outcomes to the current Writers' Guild of America strike. If Lexis Nexis, Business and Company, or Business Source Premier searches are ideal. The following information is from the instructor regarding the paper:
I have several objectives for this assignment:
To allow you to explore in more depth than is typically possible in a survey class a specific contemporary media-and-society or media-and-culture issue that is of interest to you.
To allow you to gain experience in academic research and writing.
To allow you to become acquainted with a small portion of the academic literature that relates in various ways to your topic.
To allow you to ask and begin to answer an original research question.
Although brief as research papers go, your paper will include all the elements found in most academic writing:
- research question
- brief review of literature
- your own original analysis of the issue/texts/effects
- the conclusions and implications you draw as a result of reviewing both prior literature and new texts/issues: in other words, an answer to the research question that you posed
What should your paper be about?
The simplest answer is this: a contemporary issue or phenomenon or effect or controversy involving media and society (or media and culture) that you are strongly interested in.
During our class discussions, panels, and deprivation papers, you’ve all made clear to me that in various ways you are deeply and personally involved with media forms, media texts, media products, and/or the media industries. You spend time online, watching TV, listening to music, reading magazines/newspapers/books, being exposed to advertising, going to movies, listening to the radio, etc. In short, for better or worse, the media are clearly important parts of your own lives and the lives of the people you care about. Your paper should explore a topic that relates to one of your media interests.
How to turn your interest into a research paper topic
All academic research is guided by a “research question”—the issue, phrased in the form of a question, that you are investigating and hoping to (in at least some small way) answer. In other words, academic research does not simply involve compiling a pile of pre-existing facts about a topic—that’s what encyclopedias (and elementary school reports) do!
Rather, real academic research is much more narrowly focused and involves more creativity and originality. It is based on asking and attempting to answer a specific question—ideally, one that has never been asked or answered before—and, in doing so, generates new knowledge
While there are as many possible research paper topics and research questions as there are researchers, for the purposes of this assignment, it might be most helpful to think about your topic—and, therefore, structure your research question—in one of the following ways:
Investigation of a new/different phenomenon
Let’s say you’re intrigued by a new media technology, or a movie that’s significantly different from all others that have been produced, or the latest (“state of the art”) digital TV programs. You might phrase your research question as follows:
“How is [media issue/phenomenon X] new or different from what’s been available before”?
This, then, provides a framework for your own paper—it opens the door for a paper that includes (a) a brief review of the research about existing/old/traditional elements of your topic, and (b) a review of whatever research may exist about the new elements of your topic, and (c) your own original analysis.
Effects/impact/influence of a media phenomenon on society
Let’s say your interest is not so much in a technology or a program or a text in itself as much as it is in how one of those things is affecting people (as individuals, as a group within a culture, as an entire culture, as a society, as the world). Then your research question might be like one of these:
“What effects does X have on [group of people]?”
“How do [group of people] respond to X?”
“How do [group of people] feel about X?”
“In what ways are [group of people] incorporating X into their lives?”
“How is X changing the lives of [group of people]?”
“Why do [group of people] respond to X the way they do?”
“Why do [group of people] use X?”
A question/focus like one of these allows you to review what’s been studied about topics similar to yours as well as offer your own thoughts on what’s going on.
Controversies concerning a media/society issue
Another possibility is for you to explore neither a media text/phenomenon nor its effects, but rather the discussion or controversy that may be swirling around the text/phenomenon. In this case, your research question might be like one of these:
“What are the issues raised by X?”
“How do [group of people A] and [group of people B] differ in their reactions to X—and why?”
“Why is X controversial?”
What to do now
Start thinking about
- media-and-society issues that interest you
- the types of question(s) you might want to investigate that relate to your chosen issues
IF you have the time, motivation, and “know-how” to do so at this point, start doing database searches using Academic Search Premier (or other databases available through the library’s web site) to see what’s already been written about your topic.
Questions to ask
- How to do database searches
- What counts as academic research
- How to approach and write a literature review
- How to refine research questions
This memo concerns the technical aspects of writing academic papers: citations and references.
There are many formatting styles used in academic writing, including APA (American Psychological Association), MLA (Modern Language Association), Chicago, and others. The communication discipline favors APA style, which is also used by most scholars in the social sciences (psychology, sociology, anthropology, etc.) APA style guidelines dictate (among many other things) the following:
12-point type, Times New Roman font, double-spacing, 1” margins on all sides, page numbers at in the upper right corner or centered at the bottom of the page.
When you’re referring to another scholar’s work, you do so NOT with footnotes or endnotes, but rather by including the author’s last name and publication year in parentheses in the text itself. If you are quoting exact words, you also include the page number on which those words were found; if you are not quoting exact words, you don’t need the page number.
Since all in-text citations must include two or three pieces of information (name, year, and possibly page number), you have a number of options as to how/where you structure and place the citation within a sentence. Here are just a few of the many possibilities:
Smith (2004) found that movie violence has increased over the last decade.
Movie violence has increased over the last decade (Smith, 2004).
Movie violence has increased in recent years. As Smith (2004) reported, 50% of American films include gun fights or bloodshed.
While violence in movies appears to have increased recently (Smith, 2004; Thomas, 2003), audiences are less likely to consider violence a reason not to see a film, according to Brown (2002).
While some scholars (Smith, 2004; Williams, 1999) believe that movie violence is decreasing, others, such as Jones (2006), sharply disagree. As Jones argues, “the degree, the graphic nature, and the frequency of violence in 21st-century films are unprecedented” (2006, p. 101).
While some scholars (Smith, 2004; Williams, 1999) believe that movie violence is decreasing, others, such as Jones (2006), sharply disagree. “The degree, the graphic nature, and the frequency of violence in 21st-century films are unprecedented” (Jones, 2006, p. 101).
[NOTE: when mentioning several scholars/studies in the same parentheses, put the authors’ names in alphabetical order, not chronological order.]
In APA-style writing, complete reference information is placed in a separate References page (or section) at the end of the document. At the top center of this page/section, write “References.”
Only include references in your References page if you had an in-text citation of the scholar’s name and year in the body of your paper. In other words, your References page does not include every article you read when researching your paper. It includes only those that you actually mentioned somewhere in your paper. Here are all the picky guidelines for formatting an APA-style References page.
Order: the References page lists all of your (mentioned!) sources in alphabetical order by lead author’s last name. If you have more than one source by the same author, list the older source first.
Authors’ names: authors are referred to only by last name and first initial (or first and middle initial if the author uses a middle name/initial), and in the same order in which the names appeared in the authors’ own article. (In all these examples, Smith is the “lead author.”)
- Smith, J.
- Smith, J., & Brown, A.
- Smith, J., Thomas, P., & Weiss, D.
Italics: The only elements of an APA reference that are italicized are journal titles and book titles. Article titles and chapter titles are not italicized.
Journal volumes/pages: If your source is an academic journal article, your reference will include the journal volume (which is also italicized) and the starting and ending pages of the article (which are not italicized). Here’s an example journal article reference:
Smith, J., & Jones, A. (2007). Recent increases in movie violence. Journal of Mass Communication and Society, 18, 332-341.
If your source is a non-academic journal (magazine or newspaper), you don’t include volume, but you do include the publication month/date—and you write “p.” or “pp.” in front of the page number(s):
Elliott, S. (2007, April 3). TV commercials using fewer “real” models. New York Times, p. A12.
Books and book chapters: If your source is a book all of whose contents are written by the same author, you format the reference as follows:
Brown, D. (2003). The Da Vinci code. New York: Doubleday.
If your source is a chapter in an edited collection, you format the reference as follows:
Weiss, D. (2005). Violence in 21st-century children’s movies. In D. Gross (Ed.), Trends in contemporary cinema (pp. 45-61). Berkeley: University of California Press.
I've attached an article written/formatted in APA style. Click on this link to see it.
 In APA-style writing, footnotes are used very sparingly. Their only purpose is to provide commentary or additional information that would be disruptive to the flow of your writing if included in the main text. This note is itself an example!
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Paper should be an argument that is made on a controversial mass media issue - 4-5 pages long typed and double-spaced, have a references page (bibliography) consisting of at
least 6 outside sources other than or in addition to classroom book "Taking Sides" Mass media and society tenth edition - authors Alison Alexander, Jarice Hanson. It should also follow APA or MLA citation and style rules.
I would like the paper written on ISSUE 2 pg 26 (Taking Sides) Is Television Harmful for Children? I chose YES pg 28 authour W. James Potter "On Media Violence"
Excerpt From Essay:
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