Mainstream Media Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Mainstream Media College Essay Examples

Title: networked age

  • Total Pages: 6
  • Words: 2665
  • References:2
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: SPECS:

(1750-2000 words)
Include bibliography at end with citations in MLA or Chicago format
At least two peer reviewed academic chapters or articles as sources
Citations from at least two of the class readings


You will conduct original secondary research to explain the issues at stake in a current event related to the Internet and to critique how major news outlets are covering it.

Consider the readings and course material thus far. Choose a current event or topic related to our course materials and themes that is being covered by the mainstream news media.

Collect at least three articles from major mainstream news publications about this event. These should be major papers or online news outlets, not blogs, or smaller or more specific publications. Find at least two in depth articles/journals about this event or topics related to this event.

*****Develop a thesis to answer the following question: Is the mainstream media coverage of your event/topic providing the public with enough information and background to engage in a meaningful dialog about the public interest as related to this topic? Why or why not?

After the introduction, in which you briefly describe your event/topic and clearly state your thesis, you should describe the relevant details of your current event/topic and analyze how the news stories you read are covering it. (For example: What assumptions are the writers making about the Internet and how people use it? Do you identify a common thread in how various players in the story are represented?)

For the second part, use your academic research and at least two sources from the readings to give an in depth explanation of the issues at stake related to your topic. (For example: What qualities about the Internet or its history have made this event/topic possible and/or important? What greater themes we have touched on does it relate to, such as equality, democracy, empowerment, privacy, etc.? Who are the players who have a stake in the issue? What do are their positions, needs or points of view?). Do not summarize your academic sources ??" use relevant citations to explain your own argument about what is important about this topic.

In the final part, explain and defend your thesis in answer to the *****question above. If you believe the mainstream media is not fully informing the public, say what information the public needs for an informed discussion of your topic/event and suggest some possible innovative ways this information could get to the public. If you think the mainstream media is fully informing the public about your topic, suggest what actions should be taken moving forward, if any, and what implications this topic/event has for living in a networked society.

In the final part of your paper, you may also reflect on whether in depth coverage in mainstream media is sufficient for the public to become informed about your topic.

Paper requirements:

Have a clear thesis
Effectively support the thesis
Include citations from at least two academic chapters or articles from the journal databases or academic books
Include relevant citations from two class sources
Support arguments with specific evidence from your sources (mainstreams news article and academic sources) and clear analysis
Engage thoroughly with the ideas in relevant readings
Answer all parts of the assignment completely
Exhibit evidence of deep engagement with the subject
Follow all assignment instructions and specs
Use proper grammar and spelling
There are faxes for this order.

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Works Cited

Abelson, Harold, Ken Ledeen, and Harry R. Lewis. "Naked in the Sunlight." Blown to bits: your life, liberty, and happiness after the digital explosion. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley, 2008. 19-29. Print.

Auerbach, David, and Gabriela Coleman. Here Comes Nobody: Essays on Anonymous, 4 chan and the Other Internet Culture. N/A: Triple Canopy, 2012. Print.

Castells, Manuel. "Occupy Wall Street: Harvesting the Salt of the Earth." Networks of outrage and hope: social movements in the Internet age. Cambridge, UK: Polity, 2012. 156-177. Print.

Lanier, Jaron. You Are Not a Gadget: A Manifesto. NYC: Vintage, 2011. Print.

Lessig, Lawrence. "Piracy." Free culture: how big media uses technology and the law to lock down culture and control creativity. New York: Penguin Press, 2004. 62-71. Print.

Zittrain, Jonathan, and Molly Sauter. "Everything You Need to Know About Wikileaks | MIT Technology Review." MIT Technology Review. N.p., 9 Dec. 2010. Web. 15 May 2014. .

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Title: Hello I d a bid a 10 page paper cost utilizing outline research questions a half a majority annotated bibliography attached I fax papers email I guess I t send books Or writers access sources I supplement research sources

  • Total Pages: 10
  • Words: 3049
  • Works Cited:10
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Hello, I'd like a bid on what a 10 page paper would cost utilizing this outline, and research questions (not all of them, of course, but at least a half to a majority of them)...and the annotated bibliography is also attached. I can actually fax the papers themselves or email them I guess...but I can't send the books. Or, the writers can access their own sources and I will supplement with my research of those sources. I'd like to get this done tonight. Thanks, Oliver at 415-244-1856. P.s. I'm a member of your service.


All adult bonding unions, marriages and consecrations; as well as divorces should be publically regarded within the same parameters of respect, hopefulness and, if dissolved, regret ? and without prejudicial notice of the configuration of the genders of the partners.
It is therefore systemically unfair that the mainstream media ? religious, political, entertainment, and educational -- extol the values of marriage and all its activities differently, dependent upon whether the consenting adult role models share sexual category or not.

A. Current Empirical Facts: (2 pgs.)
a. State Constitutions and The States of marriage:
1. The Vermont Model
2. The Massachusetts model
3. The California Model
4. Major Laws Pending: In and Out of Court
5. One or Two, International equivalents

b. Federal Laws and Founding Documents: (1 pgs.)
1. Declaration of Independence
2. Federal Constitution
4. After DADT, as it applies to a spousal dependent

B. Major Representatives of the Public Page, Broadcast and Internet (2 pgs.)
C. Media Methodology: (4 pgs.)
a. Common methods of portrayal of Heterosexual Marriage
b. Contrasted methods of portrayal of Homosexual Marriage
c. Civil Unions.
d. The Learning Curve: Educational Institutions

D. Major Organizations, Pro vs. Con: (4 pgs.)
a. Subjectively Review:
1. Psychological and Medical
2. Religious
b. Objectively Review:
1. Legal
2. Economic

E. Summation: Conflicts and Solutions: (2 pgs.)
a. Alternatives
b. Consequences

Annotated Bibliography
Campbell, D. E., & Monson, J. (2008). The religion card. Public Opinion Quarterly, 72(3), 399-419.
The authors Campbell and Monson (2008) depict, sometimes by state, a contradictory array of public responses to ballot initiatives and/or a candidate interpretation. They correlate non-related world view identity issues with a voter?s political awareness of basic gay marriage issues. A racial cross-over is given as an example of these attitudes becoming a candidate-defining factor. Factors are discussed as linked to the success or failure of hypothetical and actual candidates -- as well as to the pre-election-indicators of the composition of their constituency bases. It becomes therefore important to understand the applicability of presumed religious bias vs. presumed secular outlook upon the mobilization or demobilization of political participants. Apparently, one might surmise, it is important not only to emphasize the American tradition of separation of church and state, but also to identify the hailing of the values of one or the other; or both.
Chauncey, G. (2005). Why Marriage? : The history shaping today's debate over gay equality. New York: Basic Books.
Following the 2004 American presidential election, a series of local ballot initiatives, hills of public advertising, and heaps of television, and radio, and Internet traffic emerged as the naysayers of political or organizational affiliation with the human equivalent of gay marriage i.e. gay people. Public sentiment in large portions of the country, taking corporeal form, divided into winning legions efficiently changing State Constitutions; while the losing legions -- seeking sympathetic alliances with human rights organizations ? managed to change the image of gay people ? from feverishly seeking sex, to fervently committed to love. Parenting by same-gender couples increased very dramatically, as did the controversy and isolated prohibitions against it ? in spite of glowing and growing reports of its benefits, especially to children in need. Aligning gay marriage with abortion, child abuse and the end of civilization ? strange bed fellows indeed ? the religious right reigned supreme as the bully pulpit. A reasonable question evolves from this volume, as to the depth of this segregation and to what extent it betokens further violence and victimization vs. respect and cooperation. ?The Present as History? (Chauncey, Contents page, 2004) has been quoted on both sides as undoubtedly this could supersede even the struggles for choice under the doctrine of ?Separate, But Equal? ? since the losers could be adjudicated unequal and legally separate.
Crowley, S. (2007). Tolerance and the christian right. Communication & Critical/Cultural Studies, 4(1), 102-105. doi:10.1080/14791420601138427
Inerrancy, as a social norm, knows no boundaries. Neither logic, love, nor the laws of the land may limit its vision, so concludes Crowley (2007) in this terse testament of the values and taboos common to certain sections of the American religious right. Additional links are given to relevant websites that should be explored in terms of their portrayal of gay marriage and non-gay intimacy, within the constellation of legal and ethical co-habitation. By studying these sites and the unseen operators, a logical assessment of how it is possible for mutually seeking, sexually mature, and pair bonded sexually active persons who are living together under their roof of any sexual orientation(s) and genital configuration(s) to be socially accepted within the context of this branding by conservative Christianity. A small sampling of radio responses could initiate a larger survey.
Films Media Group. (2003). Homosexuality: A religious perspective. Films On Demand. Retrieved from Flash, (Accessed March 04, 2011) by permission.
By viewing a series of short films or DVD?s, I was able to see and to hear the testimony of over one-hundred and fifty individuals commenting on their general opinion or their official opinion of homosexuality and/or gay marriage. The series was made by visiting an equal number of sites in England and abroad. The makers have made every effort to include all faiths, genders, racial and national groups, ages, and sexual orientations. Care has been taken when possible, to ?knit? together testimony that ?tags? or connects to the other. The name and affiliation is often imposed as are footnotes. Actual locations of historical sites relevant to the discussion are used to setup some scenes prior to dialogue about a targeted time or subject area. In all ways this is a neutral and professional audio video document which requires no script or action line, other than the introductions to parts, and the brief final presentations that accurately summarize the speaker?s points of view. Its usefulness lies primarily in the emotional context of official dogma or passionate personal opinions, and the occasional conflict between that same dogmatic position and a personal conversion.

Liebler, C. M., Schwartz, J., & Harper, T. (2009). Queer tales of morality: The press, same-sex marriage, and hegemonic framing. Journal of Communication, 59(4), 653-675. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2009.01451.x
Framing, as an interpersonal theory, is a technique of forming consensus utilized by journalists and social communitarians with a pragmatic tool. This technique will be described and utilized to examine the journalist?s own manner of preparing for mass communication and for establishing the balance(s) for which this trade is known. Liebler (2009) questions whether the daily papers and wire services are ? contrary to the examination put upon other minority-marriage news belonging in the venue of power and cultural context ? sufficiently likely to challenge hegemonic hetero-normative definitions of marriage. Specifically, I will deploy the relevant framing which references the dryads of comparison between civil rights, moral choices and political expediency. I will examine the larger question as to whether the apparent impact is neutral and has existed so for centuries, without posing any diminishing effect upon the dominate hegemony, which has been designed, after all, as a means of enforcing property rights.
Lipton, M. (2006, October). Commentary: Queer comes the bride. Canadian Journal of Communication. pp. 937-945.
This witty journal paper is concerned with several genre films. The author proceeds with a scholarly examination of the coherence of the contractual differences, inherent between heterogeneous marriage and marriages between human beings who do not or cannot fulfill the macroscopic standards very well, but who can fulfill or exceed the microcosmic extensions exceedingly well ? at least on film. Initially the paper appeals to the lust of our young country. The poetic tensions of a young girl for a similar lady titillates without the effort of either. In another, there is the telling of the civil wedding of a rather young (consenting adult) male with another. The tabloid film introduces the exchanges of pasties, labyrises, cock rings and leather. This lubricates the imagination and reminds us of the inexorable free will celebration of choice. Unfortunately this also postulates a non-ancillary playground of guilt in which all must suffer. Thereafter the pangs of two mature want-to-be married women who commit snow angels on the church lawn of one of their fathers ? who is also the reverend minister there -- is a lament for the inevitable rejection by the Grace United Methodist Church. The conclusion concerns a different young man whose wedding attire conceals all that is legal, and reveals all that is lethal to the desire incarnate that could lead to the burning of faggots at the stake. It?s a fashion ?stake-ment.? While obviously assimilation will bring on many changes, it is likely to be an exotic parade. There are those who seek marriage to emulate a nuclear family; and those who seek to unify and to explode blissfully, but differently.
Moats, D. (2004). Civil wars: A battle for gay marriage. Orlando: Harcourt Press, Inc.
A personal war, with seemingly the aid or the opposition of every person in Vermont, USA, is cataloged on these pages by the Pulitzer Prize champion. According to the political opponents that day, the day and the vote for civil unions passed ? because so many of the nays became yeahs! According to the public opponents, the speech given that day was the greatest heard in the State house for decades ? giving Vermonters, a pause to ponder and to reflect upon their love for their daughters and sons. This loving account details the struggle of two women in love, no matter who liked it, and who taught all who would listen how to respect their desires for public inclusion. Our obvious quest is to contrast marriage, by name, with de facto civil unions. Is this the big picture for any and all couples who care not about religious solemnities?
Moscowitz, L. M. (2010). Gay marriage in television news: Voice and visual representation in the same-sex marriage debate. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 54(1), 24-39. doi:10.1080/08838150903550360
During the 90?s, during the Military vs. Clinton era of debate about ?Don?t Ask, Don?t Tell,? a public stage was set up on the Mall and all comers could apply to be cable televised during the daylight hours that hot Washington weekend. Radical and more than radical GLBT and supportive groups used the rotating microphones as much as possible to discuss Civil Rights, AIDS, re-assigned gender, cross dressing, public sex, and, occasionally, the freedom to serve the country in various ways. The panorama was weakly met in the polls, perhaps, because so many viewers left this TV caf? as quickly as possible. But, from the GLBT community as in the past, it was the radicals who came forward in colorful numbers to protest injustices. During the 2000?s, during the re-invention by the gay community of the postcard to itself, and by the re-visitation and re-discovery of GLBT Community Centers, mini-malls, gymnasiums, etc. -- the media reconfigured a visual miasma of the gay style of life. Today?s same-gender, safe-culture woman and man scape is analyzed, cataloged and coded differently by the in and out press, and documented in this journal essay. The resonant issues today are very different. I will discuss what appears to have been a conscious effort on the part of television journalists to decide how to show the product.
Phy-Olsen, A. (2006). Same-sex marriage. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
Regarding gay marriage, the author patiently moves from religion to religion and nation by nation, to compare social conditions that are favorable vs. those that are hostile to the principles. Thus a global perspective is developed with an emphasis on public policy. Using this international cosmology of what has been implemented and whether any circumstances have proved prohibitive ? the author concludes with a lengthy discourse of possible means to inform and to educate the segment of the population leaning to learn. Furthermore, to assist those resistant, a case is made as to the ?Precarious State of Matrimony,? (Phy-Olsen, p.131, 2006) if the current heterogeneous practices remain extant. A contrasting discourse on the use of the entertainment industry, which has helped and healed the nation during periods of change (slavery, civil rights, prohibition, depression, war and women?s rights) is offered. Because the author offers such a broad viewpoint and suggests a contemporaneous social media to refocus the public view, the research will consider the efficacy of this approach.
Pinello, D. R. (2006). America's struggle for same-sex marriage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Written as a chronicle and full of emotion, the author holds forth his hope and joy for this movement for all to consider, regardless of the outcomes. Although initiated into the fray during the Massachusetts decision, the writer became so involved that duty mandated following the progress across the nation all the way to, and up to the time of the irrevocable marriages of 2008 in California. The author has committed to remain a movement documentarian -- connecting, in the process, directly with the formative leaders of nations and national institutions. As a serving professor of John Jay College of Criminal Justice of the City University of New York, the researcher has gone forth to impartially interview thousands of people whose involvement is substantive, and to record their contributions. The index within the volume is comprehensive, brief and interactive with the on-line resource. The website at has been an invaluable source of professional and balanced coverage during the research for this treatise. I will wish to continue to make good use of it in this paper to update my sources and information.
Pories, K., & Leavitt, D. (2004). The m word: Writers on same-sex marriage. Chapel Hill, N.C: Algonquin Books of Chapel Hill.
What use are the public sentiments, common sense statements and emotions that have been either spoken or penned by professional writers in current same gender relationships? Although what they say and express in daily living about their choice has hitherto fore largely been ignored in the ?media,? some community sharing has occurred. Some open their pages to discuss ?homo-domesticus.? Others are somewhat bitter by exclusion from membership in what some call ?the couple?s club.? All are at risk of exclusion from the body of laws that protect those legally united with a certificate from ?I do? to post-mortem; and, which provides thousands of social and economic benefits to almost everyone else. Therefore we may employ some parts of this volume to question to what extent members on either side of the issues are harmed and ? specifically ? to what extent are American civil rights diminished and/or human rights increased by the legal prohibition of same-sex unions.
Roleff, T. L., & Williams, M. E. (1997). Marriage and divorce. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press.
I will use only the relevant last chapter of this remarkable book. Our part is a contrasting collection of the pronouncements regarding same-sex marriage of publicly identified individuals who are well known in America society and who represent moderate to very large constituencies. Half do not agree, with the other. They are therefore pendulums of public attitudes in a pluralist society. They represent, in effect, the electorate, the university, the private or public press and the church. While it is substantively true that free speech, public assembly and the unfettered press, is guaranteed in the First Amendment; there are also laws, conventions and powerful interests that frequently overrule controversial statements. The conglomerate of the ten articles within the book, coupled with the single over-view, will compress the prevailing sense and sentiments of an eon. I will listen and balance our debate.
Sandel, M. J. (2009). Justice: What's the right thing to do?. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
What are the relevant political philosophies within the Justice community regarding this issue or issues? Within are the core arguments and basically the conundrum of problems; the problems, of course, for the opposition i.e. those who continue to reframe a distaste for lesbians and homosexuals, and doubly so for any measure which consolidates their voices or justifies their participation as equals under Constitutional Law. This slim and succinct work, created by Dr. Sandel of Harvard University provides insight into compromises necessitated by forestalling implementation of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights ? especially the liabilities of continuously granting special rights and conditions to evade implementing equal rights. Therefore, I intend to utilize the perspective of Dr. Sandel to: 1) introduce the benefit of Aristotelian logic as it, or if it applies, 2) briefly contrast the issues with those facing Thurgood Marshal and others during the fight and foregone conclusions against Plessey vs. Ferguson, (1896) and 3) the disestablishment proposal of opinion writer, Michael Kinsley as we contemplate the relevant decision of Chief Justice Marshall of the Massachusetts Supreme Court (2003).
Strasser, M. P. (1997). Legally wed: Same-sex marriage and the constitution. Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University Press.
The Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and The Declaration of Independence are clearly core documents. The author challenges whether the current revisionist positions before the Supreme Court will weaken or reinforce traditional marriage and other decisions in place that are designed to safeguard racial, religious and gender minority interests. A simple compendium of these analysis offered to conservative, radical right or religious right organizations could, but should not, be used to demand exceptions and compensation for loss of Constitutional freedoms ? especially if second class citizenship is allowed to be codified in or near Constitutional law. A strong, but brief case, for resolving this controversial, but constitutionally simple conflict will be offered.
Sullivan, A. (2004). Same-sex marriage, pro and con: A reader. New York: Vintage Books.
Beginning with the oratory of Plato and progressing with either literary or cautionary observations through ancient history, the author has given us an anthology with a very long view. This canon seeks to be a cogent and comprehensive collection, and provides insightful interviews, comments and articles from elevated personages, highly literate and influential religious leaders quoting and explaining the fundamental Old Testament and Quran passages, as well as editors or writers from almost every credible publication. As such it is a reference rock of ages, and will be employed as such.

A Partial List of Research Questions
1. What is the logic or intent of the language used by elected officials when supporting or opposing gay marriage?
2. What are some of the substantive positions by elected officials or by the spokesperson(s) of any worldly government regarding gay marriage?
3. What, if any, political or related financial consequences are current or potential?
4. Can you state a point of view, accepting or opposing any of the salient points?

5. What is the language or the intent of the logic used by the media when framing the dimensions, effects or repercussions of gay marriage?
6. What, if possible, are the contrasting attitudes of various media sources about gay marriage?
7. What are the significant bench marks of the media coverage of gay marriage?
8. To what extent does the Internet have to do with the issues, the participants, the potential for change one way or the other?
9. Can you state a point of view, accepting or opposing any of the media stances of which you are aware?

10. What court actions, adjudications, decisions and so on have been presented and what, if any, has been the impact within their jurisdiction?
11. Are there any significant issues that you can address, recognize, or question yet to be resolved?
12. Can you state a point of view, accepting or opposing any of the salient points either to be heard or concluded?

13. Briefly, how many gay marriages approximately have been registered in the United States and other countries? What is the breakdown by State? How does this contrast numerically with civil unions?

14. What is the logic and relevant substantial issues regarding the conclusions, preachments and choice of authority by the various churches that have spoken out about gay marriage?
15. What are some of obvious moral arguments, if any, regarding gay marriage and ? if related ? to any sexual activity or orientation?
16. What are some of the polarities of opinion within the various religious communities?
17. Have there been any dynamic changes within the religious community regarding gay marriage?

18. What, if any, are the variety of beliefs and attitudes about gay marriage within the GLBT community?

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Works Cited:


Black's law dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. (2011). Library of Congress. Retrieved from http://

Gallagher, M. (2006, May 15). Banned in Boston. The Weekly Standard, 11(33), 3.

Gill, R. & Herdieckerhoff, E. (2006). Rewriting the romance. New femininities in chick lit?

Feminist Media Studies, 6(4), 487-508.

Hetsroni, A. (2007). Three decades of sexual content on prime-time network programming: A

longitudinal meta-analytic review. Journal of Communication, 57, 318-348.

Holz-Ivory, A., Gibson, R. & Ivory, J.D. (2008). Gendered relationships on television:

Portrayals of same-sex and heterosexual couples. Mass Communication and Society,

12, 170 -- 192.

Kim, J.L., Sorsoli, C.L., Collins, K., Zylbergold, B.A., Schooler, D. & Tolman, D.L. (2007).

From sex to sexuality: Exposing the heterosexual script on primetime network television.

Journal of Sex Research, 44(2), 145-157.

Landau, J. (2009, March). Straightening out (the politics of) same-sex parenting: Representing

gay families in U.S. print news stories and photographs. Critical Studies in Media

Communication, 26(1), 80-100.

Li, X. & Liu, X. (2010). Framing and coverage of same-sex marriage in U.S. newspapers. The Howard Journal of Communications, 21, 72 -- 91.

Severino, R. (2007). Or for poorer? How same-sex marriage threatens religious liberty. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 30(3), 939-942.

Williams, S. (2010). Which states allow gay marriage? Care2, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.

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Title: Media review

  • Total Pages: 8
  • Words: 2918
  • Bibliography:6
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Choose one Canadian event or topic, related to labour unions, that has been in the news recently. Collect several different sources discussing this event or topic, including both mainstream media and alternative media sources, and examine them for evidence of the dominance/resistance model, the propaganda model, or Martin's frames. Do these analytical tools help explain coverage of your event? How does perspective shape coverage? Do the media sources provide balanced coverage of the event you are examining? Is there a difference between mainstream sources and alternative sources? How might workers or unions use the media better to their advantage?

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Bloomberg. (2012). Canadian Auto Workers Union Serves 72-Hour Strike Notice at Viking Air Limited. Accessed March 5th, 2012 from:

Bloomberg. (2011). Viking Air Limited Workers Vote 94% in Favor of Strike Action. Accessed March 5th, 2012 from:

CAW. 2012. Union Serves 72-Hour Strike Notice at Viking Air. CAW -- TCA, Canada. Accessed March 5th, 2012 from:

Reeuwyk, C.V. (2012). Viking Air workers could strike on Thursday. Oak Bay News. Accessed March 5th, 2012 from:

Victoria, B.C. (2012). CAW Union Serves 72-Hour Strike Notice at Viking Air. Accessed March 5th, 2012 from:

Wilson, C. (2012). Viking union delivers strike notice -- Contract expired Oct. 31, 2010; job security for 270 workers a key issue. Times Colonist. Accessed March 5th, 2012 from:

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Title: Manipulation of Media coverage during war on Iraq

  • Total Pages: 10
  • Words: 3487
  • Sources:10
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: I will include the main points that our prof. stressed on in our outline, it has some sources that you can use (It would be preferable to use), try to fucus more on Canadian and American Journals.
The idea of the research is to demonstrate
a) that you are aware of mainstream content and perspectives on your topic,
and b) that you are familiar with alternative perspectives. Present these, then compare, discuss, and analyse them.
For a U.S. intervention in a country (I want IRAQ) , indicate how the mainstream media portrayed this event, and what an alternative and/or critical perspective is, from websites such as, and authors such as Noam Chomsky, Ed Herman, Michael Parenti, etc., or critical books published by Black Rose Books or Common Courage Press, or other progressive publishers. William Blum‘s Killing Hope is an excellent place to start. For mainstream content you may search the Globe and Mail or Toronto Star. Or, any of the Southam-CanWest newspapers more recently, and the Toronto Star, through Canadian Newsstand Full text. It‘s better to do something which is analytical rather than merely descriptive. Be sure to pick an appropriate title which indicates the topic. In fact, write this last, right after you've written your introduction (which should be second last) and when you are really sure what it is that you've written about.
A paper makes an argument, a carefully crafted one, which is stated at the outset and then developed through to a conclusion, with supporting evidence along the way. It's not a collection of haphazard thoughts, on your part or that of other people. It‘s not a rant. It has to be a coherent argument. You have to know where it is you are going with your argument and make decisions about what elements are relevant and which are not. Don't throw in extraneous material, no matter how interesting. And don't provide a smorgasbord, covering everything including the kitchen sink.
Along the way, don't leap to conclusions or put in statements of "fact" which are, in fact, your assumptions. "It's generally felt that..." should sound an alarm for you, as it does for me. Avoiding this is part of using careful attribution. Where do the ideas come from? This should be painstakingly documented.
For sources you may rely on popular sources such as newspapers, magazines, etc., especially for mainstream content. But you should also rely on journal articles and books. Material from the internet and WWW is fine, if it is reputable and properly referenced. (Who wrote it, who are they, URL, etc.) Remember, you are writing a scholarly paper, not for the six o'clock news. Go to the appropriate journals, such as the Canadian Journal of Communication, (on line is fine), The Canadian Journal of Sociology, the (American) Journal of Communication, Journalism Quarterly, The Journal of Canadian Studies, The Newspaper Research Journal, Critical Studies in Mass Communication, The Canadian Journal of Political and Social Theory, et cetera. You should use a minimum of five such sources (articles, books) for your paper. Do not use course texts beyond occasional reference. Don’t overuse any source.

Note: Format or citation Use Oxford style guide, with footnotes.

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Aday, S., Livingston, S., & Hebert, M. Embedding the truth: A cross-cultural analysis of objectivity and television coverage of the Iraq War. Harvard International Journal of Press / Politics, 10(1), 3-22. 2005.

Bennett, W.L. The news about foreign policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1994.

Center for Media and Public Affairs. The media go to war: TV news coverage of the war in Iraq. Media Monitor, 2003, July-August, 17(2), 1-8.

Chief of the General Staff, General Sir Mike Jackson, Ministry of Defence Press Conference, London, 28 March 2003.

Department of Defense, Office of General Counsel, An Assessment of International Legal Issues in Information Operations, May 1999, pp. 6-9,

Entman, R.M., & Page, B.I. The news before the storm: The Iraq War debate and the limits to media independence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1994.

Gans, H. Deciding what's news. New York: Vintage. 1979

Project for Excellence in Journalism, Embedded Reporters: What Are Americans Getting? April 2003,

Project for Excellence in Journalism. Return to normalcy? How the media have covered the war on terrorism. Retrieved November 12, 2002, at

Ralph Peters, Kill Faster, New York Post, 20 May 2004.

Rick Atkinson, General: A Longer War Likely, The Washington Post, 28 March 2003, p. A01. For more detail on the background of this episode, see Rick Atkinson, In the Company of Soldiers (London: Little Brown, 2004), pp. 171-75.

US CENTCOM briefing transcript, 27 March 2003, Release No. 03-03-70, http://www.centcom, mil / CENTCOMNews/News_Release.asp?NewsRelease-20030370.txt.

Walter Cronkite, Reuters report, 22 April 2003.

Gans, H. (1979). Deciding what's news. New York: Vintage.

Rick Atkinson, "General: A Longer War Likely," The Washington Post, 28 March 2003, p. A01. For more detail on the background of this episode, see Rick Atkinson, In the Company of Soldiers (London: Little Brown, 2004), pp. 171-75.

Department of Defense, Office of General Counsel, "An Assessment of International Legal Issues in Information Operations," May 1999, pp. 6-9,

Ralph Peters, "Kill Faster," New York Post, 20 May 2004.

Bennett, W.L. (1994). The news about foreign policy. In W.L. Bennett & D.L. Paletz (Eds.), Taken by storm: The media, public opinion, and U.S. foreign policy in the Gulf War (pp. 12-42). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Entman, R.M., & Page, B.I. (1994). The news before the storm: The Iraq War debate and the limits to media independence. In W.L. Bennett & D.L. Paletz (Eds.), Taken by storm: The media, public opinion, and U.S. foreign policy in the Gulf War (pp. 82-104). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Project for Excellence in Journalism, "Embedded Reporters: What Are Americans Getting?" April 2003,

Chief of the General Staff, General Sir Mike Jackson, Ministry of Defence Press Conference, London, 28 March 2003.

Walter Cronkite, Reuters report, 22 April 2003.

Ralph Peters, "Kill Faster," New York Post, 20 May 2004.

Manipulation of Media coverage during war on Iraq

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