Flaubert, Gustave Madame Bovary. Ed. And trans. Paul De Man. New York:
W.W. Norton, 1965.
Chopin, Kate. The Awakening. A Norton Critical Edition. Ed. Margo Culley. 2nd ed.
New York W.W. Norton, 1994.
Champagne, Roland A. Emma's Incompetence as Madame Bovary. Orbis Litterarum 57, 2002. pp. 103-119.
Corse, Sarah M. & Westervelt, S.D. Gender and Literary Valorization: The Awakening of a canonical novel. Sociological Perspectives, Vol 45, No. 2. Summer, 2002. pp. 139-161
Dauner, Louise. Poetic Symbolism in Madame Bovary. South Atlantic Quarterly 5.2, 2007.
Elz, A. Elizabeth. The Awakening and A Lost Lady: Flying with Broken wings and Raked Feathers.
Hartford, Jason. Flaubert, Ethics and Queer Religious Art: "La Legende de Saint Julien L'Hospitalier" French Studies. Vol LXI, No. 4, pp. 434-446.
Holder-Salmon, Marilyn and Chopin, Kate. Kate Chopin's The Awakening: screenplay as interpretation. University Press of Florida, 1992.
Porter, LM and Gray, EF. Gustave Flaubert's Madame Bovary: a reference guide. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002.
Wagner-Martin, Linda. "Wharton, Edith." World Book Online Reference Center. 2006.
Oct 2006] http://www.aolsvc.worldbook.aol.com/wb/Article?id=ar600060.
Overview of Wharton's life, with interesting reminder in light of Lily's despair over not being able to earn enough money through, work, that Wharton supported her own husband financially during their marriage.
Flaubert, Gustave. Madame Bovary: Life in a Country Town. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Thornton, Lawrence. The Fairest of Them All: Modes of Vision in Madame Bovary," in PMLA: Publications of the Modern Language Association. Vol. 93. No. 5.1978, p. 982-91.
Homais' own explanatory support for the reasons he should be awarded the Medal of Honor are presented in an even more ironic manner. The only thing related to this profoundly amoral character that deserves admiration is his stubbornness to get that medal. The medal is the symbol of his complete success, the recognition of his life achievements that although highly questionable, are nonetheless worthy of praise in his own eyes. He deceives himself and the whole public opinion he relies on for his success to the point where he even gets the Medal of Honor. This is the biggest irony of all since that medal should be awarded for bravery, for outstanding merits outside the line of duty, for exceptional capacities and for exceptional deeds.
Since Homais eventually got the Medal of Honor, the society that made possible his existence appears to fall into derision. If Homais is publicly recognized as an outstanding, out of the ordinary, brave man, that means that the rest of his ordinary countrymen are worthy of everyone's despise. The great qualities of life, the guarantee to succeed appear to be: deception, lies, manipulation and lack of respect for life in general as long as it does not provide any direct benefits to the person him or herself. Everything about Homais is ironic and the best writer to come up with such a character was Flaubert.
Flaubert, G. Madame Bovary: Life in a Country Town. 1998. Gerard Hopkins; Oxford University Press