I DESPERATELY NEED IT FOR THE DEADLINE.
the time scale is between the ottoman empire to 2001. It needs to be more statistically based as opposed to quotations, refering to historians and authors involved will get me more marks. DO NOT tell the story. Keep repeating, this is a key political turning point.... and words to that effect.
I'm arguing that the creation of Israel was the key turning point because it was the fundamental basis. It achieved Zionists original aims etc
Below is basically what Im working on. Ive put each subject that Im arguing my point with to show you what needs to be worked on.
I would like you to take some of my work and improve it, show how the .... was another important turning point that came out of the creation of Israel
My Plan is the introduction, which i feel just needs some tweeking.
I then want to go on and say that the Balfour declaration could also be seen as a key political turning point, then argue against this to prove how the creation of Israel was more significant because it actually made the partition offical. I want to say as you will understand in my original essay that the Balfour declaration created a driving force for Zionists and hopes etc
I then need to say why the Creation was the most significant turning point in a paragraph explaining this, may also relate to other events mentioned in the essay. I have made a 'pigs ear' of this part quite frankly, i wanted to put how WWII created sympathy for the Jews and created a felt need to give them a homeland. explain how the Creation of Israel changed the political.... in relation to the question.
After that I want to move on to how the Six Day War 1967 was a key political turning that later derived from the issues of rejection from the Creation of the State of Israel. It changed the territory landscape of the Middle East, relations, made Israel more powerful, put them in position to negotiate etc
And finally i want to say how the Oslo Accords, due to the initial partition of Palestine was made possible and use this to say that it is the closest Israel has ever got to peace, therefore a key political turning point.
Conclusion arguing that the creation of the state of Israel is still the most significant political turning point because... etc
I trust that you can write this to a higher standard than what I can, I am panicking because I desperately need to get an A grade
this is what I have:-
The Creation of the State of Israel 1948 is the key turning point in the political development of the Middle East. From 1948 onwards Israel was an independent state ruled by their own government which brought Israeli organisations together under one rule, liberated from foreign influence. After the creation of the State of Israel, frequent wars in opposition to its existence broke out such as the immediate reaction of the Arab-Israeli war 1948, the 1956 Suez War, 1967 Six Day War, 1967-1970 War of Attrition and Yom Kippur 1973. It was wars such as these that forced Israel to become militarily powerful, proving to be more dangerous than any other country in the Middle East now processing nuclear weapons, therefore even capable of mass destruction.
However prior to the establishment of the State of Israel, the Balfour Declaration on the 2nd November 1917 could also be seen as a turning point. The declaration of British support caused outbreaks of unorganised violence, British reports found Arabs to be the culprits, nevertheless their negative presentation was not wholly deserved as the rebellion was arguably actions of defence, they saw themselves losing their homeland they had occupied since the 7th Century. Arabs approached the League
to ask for an election for an independent Palestine, that way they believed they could prevent immigration by force. Eventually the White Paper 1922 was issued by the British government in an attempt to calm violence, assuring them that there would not be a Jewish state and that it was not meant so in the Balfour Declaration.
Despite it not amounting to much change politically, it is a turning point nonetheless as a huge step in the right direct. What the Balfour Declaration did do was create a driving force within the Zionists causing them to become increasingly determined and convinced that a Jewish homeland in Palestine was within reach. It certainly proved they had support from powerful people, despite Winston Churchill denying the meaning of the Balfour Declaration in 1922 in the White Paper an example of support was delivered on the 7th February 1918 when Balfour himself cleared up any confusion of his meaning when he told a Jewish gathering ‘my personal hope is that the Jews will make good in Palestine and eventually found a Jewish state...we have given them their great opportunity.’
CREATION OF THE STATE OF ISRAEL
By the end of 1917 11% of Palestine was Jewish, by 1939 the Zionist movement had encouraged a total of nearly 450,000 to inhabit Palestine. Although Arabs still claimed a hefty 89% majority they were to face complete devastation during the Second World War and it seems no amount of physical force could stop Zionists returning to their homeland. The Second World War was a significant turning point in pushing a stronger political stance on creating an independent state for Jewish survivors of the Holocaust. Six million Jews had been killed and the Zionists were in no mood to be patient, they were convinced that they now had justice and the international public on their side, the war gave an official need for a state to be created for the refugees. It was also significant in pushing Zionists to look for support from the US. There were 2 million Zionists in New York alone; therefore they were in a great position to put pressure on the US government. The British were put in an impossible situation. As more and more Arabs became ‘landless and discontented’ British reports all recognised their fear of losing their country, so the British made plans to restrict immigration and land sales in order to protect the Arabs and prevent dangerous uproar; but they failed their objective
Although Arabs at this point still claimed a hefty 89% majority they were vulnerable in 1939 due to the outbreak of the Second World War that proved to have devastating effects on Arab control of Palestine. Jews suffered the Holocaust which John Pilger indentifies as Jews becoming once again the victims of ‘ethnic cleansing’ under Nazi Germany.
By 1939 nearly 450,000 Jews inhabited Palestine.
SIX DAY WAR
The Partition of Palestine, 1948 led to a great advancement of power in Israel. In 1967 the map of the Middle East was completely transformed. The Six Day war proved an ultimate success for the Israelis. In May 1967 leaders of the Soviet Union took it into their own hands to force another Arab-Israeli war to try to weaken US influence in the Middle East confident that balance of power would be outered by a localised war. On the 22nd May Nasser announced Egyptian troops were ready for war, ‘The Jews want war, we tell them hello.’ The fact that Nasser was utterly convinced by the false report, trusting the Soviets with no evidence depicts the hatred in relations , the quote also portrays the aggression that was representational of all the surrounding Arab neighbours, at the time it seemed probable that Israel would be victimised and destroyed. They faced being attacked by Syria from the North, Jordan from the East and Egypt from the south but the Six Day war proved immense strength on Israel’s behalf the loosers were the Soviets own allies.
In just 6 days the armed forces had quadrupled the territory Israel controlled. From Syria they took the Golan Heights, From Jordan the West Bank and the old city of Jerusalem and from Egypt they took the Gaza and the Sinai desert. With so much land to trade Israel was in the best possible position to negotiate peace.
Their most substantial gain was the Old City. The Israelis flocked to Jerusalem in celebration, they had claim to one of the most significant religious cities in the world and they were determined to keep hold of it. Original Zionist aims were now complete; they had wanted Palestine as their state because of its ancient religious heritage, at the end of the war they had achieved their mission of invoking the religious ‘redemption’ of an ancient sacred homeland, returning to the place of their spiritual birth.
Israelis wanted to hold onto the West Bank for the time being but they were willing to negotiate giving back the Golan Heights to Syria and the Sinai desert to Egypt in exchange for recognition and peace. Israel put forward their offer marking a major turning point in political development, Israel were no longer fighting for land, they were turning their objectives towards peace and recognition.
However ultimate peace is something that still hasn’t been achieved today. In Cairo it was concluded that the proposal from Israel was the best they were likely to be offered and the Foreign minister was advised to accept it, but Egypt was simply not willing to recognise Israel as a state at this point in time. On returning to power Nasser rejected the peace plan, he was seen as a hero to his Arab people and therefore could not risk his reputation by being seen negotiating with the enemy.
A significant change in perspective came in the first Intifada 1987. It brought out Palestinian frustration but also demonstrated that neither terrorism nor street revolt would solve political problems. The PLO had formed to reclaim all of Israel for the Palestinians, but now Abu Masdan suggested that they be realistic, it was a turning point in that they finally recognised that the only way to retrieve the West Bank and Gaza was to negotiate the terms that were offered in 1967 and accept the Partition of Palestine; this was a huge step forward toward negotiations.
In 1992 Rabin had brought the labour party back into power in a stunning election, he promised Peace talks with the Arabs, announcing that an agreement would be reached within one year, Arafat was in exile in Tunis and away from his homeland which made him willing to compromise and both sides now had common aims and needs. The change of attitudes is a key turning point, it provided the willingness of agreements to be made, and although tension remained high both sides had come to an understanding that they needed to converse with one another to settle disputes, it meant significant political changes could go underway.
The USA intervened playing a significant role during the Oslo negotiations, acting as a catalyst. President George Bush arguably caused the result of the peace treaty through holding the two sides together and forcing negotiations to continue when it seemed likely they would give up. On 6th March 1991 he announced ‘we must do all that we can to close the gates between Israel and the Palestinians there can be no substitute for diplomacy the time has come to put an end to the Arab-Israeli conflict.’ Peace negotiations took place in Washington on common ground, representing improvement in relations, although the awkward tension was obvious, it was the first time the two sides had ever met, this agreement alone represented both sides putting their differences aside and attempting to converse with the other to come to an agreement.
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