Labor Management Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Labor Management College Essay Examples

Title: Imagine asked divisional president present a 5 6 page profile labor management practices INDIA This white paper serve important decision point company establish a major facility country acquire a local company order develop global reach

  • Total Pages: 6
  • Words: 1767
  • References:10
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Imagine that you were asked by your divisional president to present a 5 ? 6 page profile of the labor management practices in INDIA. This ?white paper? will serve as an important decision point on whether or not your company will establish a major facility in this country, or acquire a local company in order to develop their global reach. The key question will be do we want to have a significant number of local employees in this country and what will be the ?hassle factor? of selecting, retaining, and perhaps discharging them.

Topics to be researched and discussed will include:

An executive summary of the country?s political, economic, and social system.
? A profile of the educational system, standards of professional degrees and preparation,
and size of the trained workforce as a percent of the general population. How large is the
educated labor pool?
? Standards of employment law. Statutory or implied terms of employment contracts and the legal conditions for discharge. Explicit and implicit terms of employment and the role of labor unions.
? Labor conditions and working times, paid-time-off, equal opportunity laws, and parttime
work practices.
? Compensation systems. What are the general prevailing labor costs and how are salaries
and wages determined? In other words, the cost of human capital.
? The identification of other cultural constraints that would influence the free flow of labor
?goods and services.?
? Based on the identification of a specific industry, a reasoned analysis for the kind of
businesses you would consider purchasing or the strategic alliance you would recommend based on the local ?human capital? conditions.

Below questions have to be answered for the country INDIA. I have attached a sample document which gives the compensation systems in Zambia.Please have a sub-title for every questions asked above..for example 1) compensation systems: write a paragraph..2) Labor conditions and working times:

Also it is important to mention the sources in the footnotes..just need the link from where the figures were taken..which will enable me to refer to them.

Please let me know if you require any further details. I can be contacted at nunnarajkumar@gmail.com.

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References

BBC News 2011, India Country Profile, BBC News, viewed 16 April 2011,

http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/country_profiles/1154019.stm

Central Intelligence Agency 2011, India, CIA - World Fact Book, viewed 16 April

2011, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html

Country Watch 2011, India: Etiquette, Country Watch, viewed 16 April 2011,

http://www.countrywatch.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/cw_topic.aspx?type=text&vcountry=78&topic=CLETQ

Datt, G 1997, Bargaining Power, Wages and Employment: An Analysis of Agricultural

Labor Markets in India, Thousand Oaks CA, SAGE Publications.

Economist Intelligence Unit 2005, India -- Country Forecast (Main Report), Economist

Intelligence Unit, viewed 16 April 2011

http://www.eiu.com/index.asp?layout=displayIssueArticle&article_id=1169362502

Economist Intelligence Unit 2010, India -- Country Forecast (Main Report), Economist

Intelligence Unit, viewed 14 April 2011,

http://www.eiu.com/index.asp?layout=displayIssueArticle&article_id=1137355898

Educational Institutions Resource Bank 2011, India Education, Educational Institutions

Resource Bank, viewed 16 April, 2011,

http://www.indiaedu.com/education-india/education-system-india.html

Guenthner, G 2009, Investing in India, Article, Penny Sleuth, viewed 16 April 2011,

http://pennysleuth.com/free-reports/investing-in-india-6/

Pathak, S 2011, Labor Laws in India, Saarbrucken, Germany LAP LAMBERT

Academic Publishing GmbH & Co. KG

Sincavage, JR & Sharma, OP 2005, Labor Cost in India's Organized Manufacturing

Sector, Manufacturing in India, viewed 16 April 2011

http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2010/05/art1full.pdf

Timmons, H 2007, For Many Big Banks, Investing in India Is No Longer Optional,

Online Article, April 13, The New York Times, viewed 16 April, 2011

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/13/business/worldbusiness/13mumbai.html

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Title: Assignment 2 Labor Relations

  • Total Pages: 6
  • Words: 1715
  • Works Cited:3
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Use the Internet to research a publicly traded U.S.-based company with a focus on its labor negotiating practices and any specific labor-related issues the company may be experiencing.

Write a six to eight (6-8) page paper in which you:

1. Discuss the company?s stance toward labor and any specific labor-related issues it may be experiencing.
2. Formulate a strategy for negotiating a labor agreement and dealing with potential impasses in the bargaining process.
3. Analyze the principle economic and administrative issues addressed during collective bargaining with your labor force and develop a bargaining position.
4. Recommend policies and procedures to administer a labor contract and resolve disputes.
5. Determine the most likely interest dispute and determine how you could leverage economic pressure to help resolve that dispute.
6. Based upon your understanding of the entire course, predict the next evolutionary step in labor management relationships (in terms of laws, key participants, or union organization) and how that step will affect the company you researched.
7. Use at least three (3) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

? Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
? Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student?s name, the professor?s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

? Analyze the actions of unions and management to determine basic compliance with the major U.S. federal labor laws.
? Explain the process for organizing and for decertifying unions.
? Formulate a strategy for negotiating a labor agreement and dealing with potential impasses in the bargaining process.
? Analyze the principle economic and administrative issues addressed during collective bargaining and develop a bargaining position.
? Develop policies and procedures to administer a labor contract and resolve disputes.
? Use technology and information resources to research issues in labor relations.
? Write clearly and concisely about labor relations using proper writing mechanics.
Grading for this assignment will be based on answer qual

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Reference list:

1. Feintzeig, R. (2013). New Twinkie Maker Shuns Union Labor. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 20, 2013 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324474004578443062380660262.html.

2. Farrell, J. (2013). Twinkies and Labor Unions: Explaining the Hostess Collapse. Retrieved May 21, 2013 from http://www.policymic.com/articles/19288/twinkies-and-labor-unions-explaining-the-hostess-collapse.

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Title: Managing Expatriate Employees Employment Law issues and answers

  • Total Pages: 5
  • Words: 2139
  • Bibliography:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Focus on the management of expatriate employees in China.

1. Diversity

2. Culture

3. labor management relationship

4. legal issues

5. federal workplace laws to American citizens employed abroad by American companies.

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References

Author Unknown. (May 15, 2003) "Demand for Expatriates in China remains high" Retrieved at http://www.hewittasia.com/hewitt/ap/resource/articleindex/articles/article_05_15_03.htm

Falkoff, Rebecca. "Hong Kong City Guide" Retrieved at http://workabroad.monster.com/print/?article=/articles/hongkongguide/Index.asp

Glossary: Women Artists of the Americas" Retrieved at http://www.getty.edu/artsednet/resources/Maps/Women/glossary.html

Gross, Ames; McDonald, Timothy. (Spring 1998) "Meeting Diverse Staffing Needs in China" GROing Connexions. Retrieved at http://www.pacificbridge.com/pdf/pub_china_1998_diverse.pdf

Gross, Ames; Lepage, Shawna. (September 2001) "Issues for Expatriates and Foreign Workers" Retrieved at http://www.pacificbridge.com/pdf/pub_asia_2001_expats.pdf

John, Witt Fabian. (May 2004) "Can Chinese Industry be made Safe?" Project Syndicate. Retrieved at http://www.project-syndicate.org/article_print_text?mid=1552&lang=1

Riley, William B; Yester, Maria M; Elkin, Randyl. "The Expatriate Experience in China" Retrieved at http://www.relojournal.com/dec2000/expatinchina.htm

US and China to Broaden Co-operation" Retrieved at http://japan.usembassy.gov/e/p/tp-20040622-04.html

Young, Laura W. (2004) "Hiring and Managing Employees in China" West Group's International HR Journal. Retrieved at http://www.wangandwang.com/hiring.htm

Zhang-White, Ying. "An Unsafe Playing Field: Labor Relations in Foreign Enterprises in China." Harvard Asia Quarterly. Retrieved at http://www.fas.harvard.edu/~asiactr/haq/199903/9903a009.htm

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Title: Leading People

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 560
  • Sources:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: please use this information and integrate the 2 areas for an essay on the below book.

competencies: *Conflict Management, *Leveraging Diversity,
*Integrity/Honesty, *Team Building

ECQ 2
Leading People
This core qualification involves the ability to design and implement strategies that maximize employee potential and foster high ethical standards in meeting the organization's vision, mission, and goals.


Key Characteristics:
Providing leadership in setting the work force's expected performance levels commensurate with the organization's strategic objectives; inspiring, motivating, and guiding others toward goal accomplishment; empowering people by sharing power and authority.

Promoting quality through effective use of the organization's performance management system (e.g., establishing performance standards, appraising staff accomplishments using the developed standards, and taking action to reward, counsel, or remove employees, as appropriate).

Valuing cultural diversity and other differences; fostering an environment in which people who are culturally diverse can work together cooperatively and effectively in achieving organizational goals.

Assessing employees' unique developmental needs and providing developmental opportunities that maximize employees' capabilities and contribute to the achievement of organizational goals; developing leadership in others through coaching and mentoring.

Fostering commitment, team spirit, pride, trust, and group identity; taking steps to prevent situations that could result in unpleasant confrontations.

Resolving conflicts in a positive and constructive manner. This includes promoting labor/management partnerships and dealing effectively with employee relations matters, attending to morale and organizational climate issues, handling administrative, labor management, and EEO issues, and taking disciplinary actions when other means have not been successful.


************************************************
Published by Soundview Executive Book Summaries, 10 LaCrue Avenue, Concordville, Pennsylvania 19331 USA
?2002 Soundview Executive Book Summaries ? All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or part is prohibited.
Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence
PRIMAL
LEADERSHIP
THE SUMMARY IN BRIEF
Great leaders move us. They ignite our passion and inspire the best in
us. When we try to explain why they are so effective, we speak of strategy,
vision, or powerful ideas. But the reality is much more primal: Great leadership
works through the emotions.
Humankind?s original leaders earned their place because their leadership
was emotionally compelling. In the modern organization this primordial
emotional task remains. Leaders must drive the collective emotions in a
positive direction and clear the smog created by toxic emotions whether it
is on the shop floor or in the boardroom.
When leaders drive emotions positively they bring out everyone?s best.
When they drive emotions negatively they spawn dissonance, undermining
the emotional foundations that let people shine.
The key to making primal leadership work to everyone?s advantage lies
in the leadership competencies of emotional intelligence; how leaders handle
themselves and their relationships. Leaders who exercise primal leadership
drive the emotions of those they lead in the right direction.
Concentrated Knowledge? for the Busy Executive ? www.summary.com Vol. 24, No. 8 (2 parts) Part 1, August 2002 ? Order # 24-19
CONTENTS
The Vital Emotional
Component of Leadership
Page 2
Why Good Leaders
Must Read Emotions
Pages 2, 3
The Four Dimensions
Of Emotional Intelligence
Pages 3, 4
The Leadership Repertoire
Pages 4, 5
Developing Emotionally
Intelligent Leaders
Pages 5, 6
The Motivation to Change
Pages 6, 7
Building Emotionally
Intelligent Organizations
Pages 7, 8
Reality and the Ideal
Vision
Page 8
Creating Sustainable
Change
Page 8
By Daniel Goleman,
Richard Boyatzis and
Annie McKee
FILE: LEADERSHIP
?
What You?ll Learn In This Summary
In this summary, you will learn the secrets of primal leadership by:
? Understanding what primal leadership is and why, when practiced
correctly, it creates resonance in your organization.
? Understanding the neuroanatomy that underlies primal leadership
and what emotional intelligence competencies you need to succeed.
? Understanding the six leadership styles you can use ? from visionary
to coaching to pacesetting ? to inspire others, and when to use each
one.
? Understanding who you are and what you need to change to become
a primal leader, and then develop a plan to make those changes.
? Learning how to build emotionally intelligent organizations.
The Vital Emotional
Component of Leadership
Gifted leadership occurs where heart and head ?
feeling and thought ? meet. These are the two things
that allow a leader to soar. All leaders need enough
intellect to handle the tasks and challenges at hand.
However, intellect alone won?t make a leader. Leaders
execute a vision by motivating, guiding, inspiring, listening,
persuading and creating resonance.
As a result, the manner in which leaders act ? not
just what they do, but how they do it ? is a fundamental
key to effective leadership. The reason lies in the
design of the human brain.
The Open Loop
The brain is an open loop. We rely on connections with
other people for our emotional stability. Scientists describe
the open-loop system as ?interpersonal limbic regulation,?
whereby one person transmits signals that can alter hormone
levels, cardiovascular function, sleep rhythms and
even immune function inside the body of another. Other
people can change our very physiology and our emotions.
The continual interplay of limbic open loops among
members of a group creates a kind of emotional soup,
with everyone adding his or her flavor to the mix.
Negative emotions ? especially chronic anger, anxiety or
a sense of futility ? powerfully disrupt work, hijacking
attentions from the tasks at hand.
On the other hand, when people feel good, they work at
their best. Feeling good lubricates mental efficiency, making
people better at understanding information and making
complex judgments. Insurance agents with a glass-ishalf-
full attitude, for example, make more sales, in part
because they are able to withstand rejection better than
their more pessimistic peers.
A study on 62 CEOs and their top management shows
just how important mood is. The CEOs and their management
team members were assessed on how upbeat ?
energetic, enthusiastic and determined ? they were. They
were also asked how much conflict the top team experienced.
The study found that the more positive the overall
moods of people in the top management team, the more
cooperative they worked together and the better the company?s
business results. The longer a company was run by
a management team that did not get along, the poorer the
company?s market return. ?
Why Good Leaders
Must Read Emotions
Dissonance, in its original musical sense, describes an
unpleasant, harsh sound. Dissonant leadership produces
groups that feel emotionally discordant, in which people
have a sense of being continually off-key. Ranging from
abusive tyrants to manipulative sociopaths, dissonant
leaders are out of touch and create wretched workplaces
2
PRIMAL LEADERSHIP
by Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis and Annie McKee
? THE COMPLETE SUMMARY
Soundview Executive Book Summaries?
Published by Soundview Executive Book Summaries (ISSN 0747-2196), 10 LaCrue Avenue, Concordville, PA 19331 USA, a division of Concentrated
Knowledge Corporation. Publisher, George Y. Clement. V. P. Publications, Maureen L. Solon. Editor-in-Chief, Christopher G. Murray. Published monthly.
Subscriptions: $195 per year in U.S., Canada & Mexico, and $275 to all other countries. Periodicals postage paid at Concordville, PA and additional offices.
Postmaster: Send address changes to Soundview, 10 LaCrue Avenue, Concordville, PA 19331. Copyright ? 2002 by Soundview Executive Book Summaries.
Available formats: Summaries are available in print, audio and electronic formats. To subscribe, call us at 1-800-521-1227 (1-610-558-9495 outside U.S. &
Canada), or order on the Internet at www.summary.com. Multiple-subscription discounts and Corporate Site Licenses are also available.
The authors: Daniel Goleman is Codirector of the
Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in
Organizations at Rutgers University. Richard Boyatzis is
Professor and Chairman of the Department of
Organizational Behavior at the Weatherhead School of
Management at Case Western Reserve University. Annie
McKee, who is a member of the faculty of the University
of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education, consults
to business leaders worldwide.
Copyright? 2002 by Daniel Goleman. Summarized by
permission of the publisher, Harvard Business School
Press, 60 Harvard Way, Boston, MA 02472 (for print and
electronic rights) and Audio Renaissance, 175 Fifth
Avenue, New York, NY 10010 (for audio rights). 306
pages. $26.95. 0-57851-486-X.
For more information on the authors, go to:
http://my.summary.com
Laughter and the Open Loop
A study at Yale University showed that among working
groups, cheerfulness and warmth spread most easily.
Laughter, in particular, demonstrates the power of
the open loop in operation.
Unlike other emotional signals which can be feigned,
laughter is largely involuntary. In a neurological sense,
laughing represents the shortest distance between two
people because it instantly interlocks limbic systems.
This immediate, involuntary reaction might be called a
limbic lock. Laughter in the workplace signals trust,
comfort, and a shared sense of the world.
(continued on page 3)
? although they have no idea how destructive they are,
or simply don?t care. Meanwhile, the collective distress
they trigger becomes the group?s preoccupation, deflecting
attention away from their mission.
Emotionally Intelligent Resonance
Resonant leaders, on the other hand, are attuned to
their people?s feelings and move them in a positive
emotional direction.
Resonance comes naturally to emotionally intelligent
leaders. Their passion and enthusiastic energy resounds
throughout the group. When there are serious concerns,
emotionally intelligent (EI) leaders use empathy to
attune to the emotional registry of the people they lead.
For example, if something has happened that everyone
feels angry about (such as the closing of a division)
or sad about (such as a co-worker?s serious illness) the
EI leader not only empathizes with those emotions, but
also expresses them for the group. The leader leaves
people feeling understood and cared for.
Under the guidance of an EI leader, people feel a
mutual comfort level. They share ideas, learn from one
another, make decisions collaboratively, and get things
done. Perhaps most important, connecting with others at
an emotional level makes work more meaningful. ?
The Four Dimensions
Of Emotional Intelligence
There are four domains to emotional intelligence: selfawareness,
self-management, social awareness and relationships
management. Within the four domains are 18
competencies. These competencies are the vehicles of primal
leadership. Even the most outstanding leader will not
have all competencies. Effective leaders, though, exhibit
at least one competency from each of the domains.
The four domains and their competencies are listed
below:
Self-awareness
? Emotional self-awareness: Reading one?s own
emotions and recognizing their impact and using
?gut sense? to guide decisions.
? Accurate self-assessment: Knowing one?s
strengths and limits.
? Self-confidence: A sound sense of one?s self-worth
and capabilities.
Self-management
? Emotional self-control: Keeping disruptive emotions
and impulses under control.
? Transparency: Displaying honesty, integrity and
trustworthiness.
? Adaptability: Flexibility in adapting to changing
situations or overcoming obstacles.
? Achievement: The drive to improve performance to
meet inner standards of excellence.
? Initiative: Readiness to act and seize opportunities.
? Optimism: Seeing the upside in events.
Social Awareness
? Empathy: Sensing others? emotions, understanding
their perspective, and taking active interest in their
concerns.
? Organizational awareness: Reading the currents,
decision networks, and politics at the organizational
level.
3
Primal Leadership? SUMMARY
(continued on page 4)
Soundview Executive Book Summaries?
Leadership and the Brain?s Design
New findings in brain research show that the neural
systems responsible for the intellect and for the emotions
are separate, but have intimately interwoven connections.
This brain circuitry provides the neural basis
of primal leadership. Although our business culture
places great value in an intellect devoid of emotion, our
emotions are more powerful than our intellect. In emergencies,
the limbic brain ? our emotional center ?
commandeers the rest of our brain.
There is a good reason for this. Emotions are crucial
for survival, being the brain?s way of alerting us to
something urgent and offering an immediate plan for
action ? fight, flee, freeze. The thinking brain evolved
from the limbic brain, and continues to take orders
from it when it perceives a threat. The trigger point is
the amygdala, a limbic brain structure that scans what?s
happening to us moment by moment, always on the
alert for an emergency. It commandeers other parts of
the brain, including the rational centers in the cortex,
for immediate action if it perceives an emergency.
Today we face complex social realities with a brain
designed for surviving physical emergencies. And so
we find ourselves hijacked ? swept away by anxiety
or anger better suited for handling bodily threats than
office politics.
Fortunately, emotional impulses pass through other
parts of the brain, from the amygdala through the prefrontal
area. There an emotional impulse can be
vetoed. The dialogue between neurons in the emotional
center and the prefrontal area operate through a
neurological superhighway. The emotional intelligence
competencies hinge on the smooth operation of this
circuitry. Biologically speaking, then, the art of primal
leadership interweaves our intellect and emotions.
Why Good Leaders Must Read Emotions
(continued from page 2)
? Service: Recognizing and meeting follower, client
or customer needs.
Relationship Management
? Inspirational leadership: Guiding and motivating
with a compelling vision.
? Influence:Wielding a range of tactics for persuasion.
? Developing others: Bolstering others? abilities
through feedback and guidance.
? Change catalyst: Initiating, managing and leading
in new directions.
? Building bonds: Cultivating and maintaining relationship
webs.
? Teamwork and collaboration: Cooperation and
team-building. ?
The Leadership Repertoire
The best, most effective leaders act according to one
or more of six distinct approaches to leadership. Four of
the styles ? visionary, coaching, affiliative and democratic
? create the kind of resonance that boosts performance.
The other two ? pacesetting and commanding
? should be applied with caution.
The Six Styles of Leadership
1. Visionary. The visionary leader articulates where a
group is going, but not how it gets there ? setting people
free to innovate, experiment and take calculated risks.
Inspirational leadership is the emotional intelligence
competence that most strongly undergirds the visionary
style. Transparency, another EI competency, is also crucial.
If a leader?s vision is disingenuous, people sense it.
The EI competency that matters most to visionary leadership,
however, is empathy. The ability to sense what
others feel and understand their perspectives helps leader
articulate a truly inspirational vision.
2. Coaching. The coaching style is really the art of
the one-on-one. Coaches help people identify their
unique strengths and weaknesses, tying those to their
personal and career aspirations. Effective coaching
exemplifies the EI competency of developing others,
which lets a leader act as a counselor. It works hand in
hand with two other competencies: emotional awareness
and empathy.
3. Affiliative. The affiliative style of leadership represents
the collaborative competency in action. An affiliative
leader is most concerned with promoting harmony
and fostering friendly interactions. When leaders are
being affiliative, they focus on the emotional needs of
workers, using empathy.
Many leaders who use the affiliative approach combine
it with the visionary approach. Visionary leaders
state a mission, set standards, and let people know
whether their work is furthering group goals. Ally that
with the caring approach of the affiliative leader and
you have a potent combination.
4. Democratic. A democratic leader builds on a triad
of EI abilities: teamwork and collaboration, conflict management
and influence. Democratic leaders are great listeners
and true collaborators. They know how to quell
conflict and create harmony. Empathy also plays a role.
A democratic approach works best when as a leader, you
are unsure what direction to take and need ideas from able
employees. For example, IBM?s Louis Gerstner, an outsider
to the computer industry when he became CEO of
the ailing giant, relied on seasoned colleagues for advice.
5. Pacesetting. Pacesetting as a leadership style must
be applied sparingly, restricted to settings where it truly
works. Common wisdom holds that pacesetting is
admirable. The leader holds and exemplifies high standards
for performance. He is obsessive about doing
things better and faster, quickly pinpointing poor performers.
Unfortunately, applied excessively, pacesetting
can backfire and lead to low morale as workers think
they are being pushed too hard or that the leader doesn?t
Primal Leadership? SUMMARY
The Four Dimensions of Emotional Intelligence
(continued from page 3)
4
(continued on page 5)
For an example of how one company identified and developed
distinguishing competencies, go to: http://my.summary.com
A Visionary Leader
When Shawana Leroy became director of a social
agency, there were clearly problems. Her predecessor
had mired the agency in rules that the talented staff
the agency had attracted because of its mission found
draining. Despite increased needs for the agency?s
services, the pace of work was slow.
Leroy met one-on-one with staff and found out that
they shared her vision.
She got people talking about their hopes for the
future and tapped into the compassion and dedication
they felt. She voiced their shared values whenever
she could. She guided them in looking at whether
how they did things furthered the mission, and
together they eliminated rules that made no sense.
Meanwhile, she modeled the principles of the new
organization she wanted to create: one that was
transparent and honest; one that focused on rigor and
results. Then Leroy and her team tackled the changes.
The agency?s emotional climate changed to reflect her
passion and commitment; she set the tone as a
visionary leader.
Soundview Executive Book Summaries?
trust them to get their job done.
The emotional intelligence foundation of a pacesetter
is the drive to achieve through improved performance
and the initiative to seize opportunities. But a pacesetter
who lacks empathy can easily be blinded to the pain of
those who achieve what the leader demands.
Pacesetting works best when combined with the passion
of the visionary style and the team building of the
affiliate style.
6. Commanding. The command leader demands
immediate compliance with orders, but doesn?t bother
to explain the reasons. If subordinates fail to follow
orders, these leaders resort to threats. They also seek
tight control and monitoring.
Of all the leadership styles, the commanding approach
is the least effective. Consider what the style does to an
organization?s climate. Given that emotional contagion
spreads most readily from the top down, an intimidating,
cold leader contaminates everyone?s mood. Such a
leader erodes people?s spirits and the pride and satisfaction
they take in their work.
The commanding style works on limited circumstances,
and only when used judiciously. For example,
in a genuine emergency, such as an approaching hurricane
or a hostile take-over attempt, a take-control style
can help everyone through the crisis.
An effective execution of the commanding style draws
on three emotional intelligence competencies: influence,
achievement and initiative. In addition, self-awareness,
emotional self-control and empathy are crucial to keep
the commanding style from going off track. ?
Developing Emotionally
Intelligent Leaders
The key to learning that lasts lies in the brain.
Remember that emotional intelligence involves circuitry
between the prefrontal lobes and the limbic system.
Skills based in the limbic system are best learned
through motivation, extended practice and feedback.
The limbic system is a slow learner, especially when
trying to relearn deeply ingrained habits. This matters
immensely when trying to improve leadership skills.
These skills often come down to habits learned early in
life. Reeducating the emotional brain for leadership
learning requires plenty of practice and repetition.
That?s because neural connections used over and over
Primal Leadership? SUMMARY
The Leadership Repertoire
(continued from page 4)
(continued on page 6)
The Case of Too Much Pacesetting
The superb technical skills of Sam, an R&D biochemist
at a large pharmaceutical company, made him
an early star. When he was appointed to head a team
to develop a new product, Sam continued to shine,
and his teammates were as competent and self-motivated
as their leader. Sam, however, began setting the
pace by working late and offering himself as a model
of how to do first-class scientific work under tremendous
deadline pressure. His team completed the task
in record time.
But when Sam was selected to head R&D, he began
to slip. Not trusting the capabilities of his subordinates,
he refused to delegate power, becoming instead
a micro-manager obsessed with details. He took over
for others he perceived as slacking, rather than trust
that they could improve with guidance. To everyone?s
relief, including his own, he returned to his old job.
For a story of how one visionary leader inspired janitors,
go to: http://my.summary.com
Soundview Executive Book Summaries? 5
1. My ideal self:
Who do I want to be?
Boyatzis?s Theory
of Self-Directed Learning
2. My real self:
Who am I?
My strengths:
Where my ideal and
real self overlap
My gaps:
Where my ideal and
real self differ
3. My learning agenda:
Building on my strengths
while reducing gaps
5. Developing trusting
relationships that help, support
and encourage each step
in the process
4. Experimenting
with new behavior,
thoughts and feelings
Practicing
the new behavior,
building new neural pathways
through to mastery
become stronger while those not used weaken.
Self-Directed Learning
To work, leadership development must be self-directed.
You must want to develop or strengthen an aspect of
who you are or who you want to be. This requires first
getting a strong image of your ideal self, and an accurate
picture of your real self.
Self-directed learning involves five discoveries, each
representing a discontinuity. The goal is to use each discovery
as a tool for making the changes needed to
become an emotionally intelligent leader.
People who successfully change move through the
following stages:
? The first discovery: My ideal self ? Who do I
want to be?
? The second discovery: My real self ? Who am I?
What are my strengths and gaps?
? The third discovery: My learning agenda ? How
can I build on my strengths while reducing my
gaps?
? The fourth discovery: Experimenting with and
practicing new thoughts, behaviors and feelings to
the point of mastery.
? The fifth discovery: Developing supportive and
trusting relationships that make change possible. ?
The Motivation to Change
The first discovery ? the ideal self ? is where
change begins. Connecting with one?s passion, energy,
and excitement about life is the key to uncovering your
ideal self. Doing so requires a reach deep inside.
You, Fifteen Years from Now
Think about where you would be sitting and reading
this summary if it were fifteen years from now and you
were living your ideal life. What kinds of people are
around you? What does your environment look and feel
like? What would you be doing during a typical day?
Don?t worry about the feasibility. Just let the image
develop and place yourself in the picture.
Write down your vision, or share it with a trusted
friend. After doing this exercise, you may feel a release
of energy and optimism. Envisioning your ideal future
can be a powerful way to connect with the real possibilities
for change in our lives.
Next, determine what your guiding principles are.
What are your core values in the areas of life that are
important to you, such as family, relationships, work,
spirituality and health. Write down everything you want
to experience before you die. Doing so will open you up
to new possibilities.
Look at Your Real Self
Once you see your ideal self, you need to look at your
real self ? the second discovery. Then, and only then,
can you understand your strengths. Taking stock of your
real self starts with an inventory of your talents and passions
? the person you actually are. This can be painful
if the slow, invisible creep of compromise and complacency
has caused your ideal self to slip away.
How do you get to the truth of your real self? You
must break through the information quarantine around
you. Actively seek out negative feedback. You can do
this using a 360-degree evaluation ? collecting information
from your boss, your peers and your subordinates.
Multiple views render a more complete picture
because each sees a different aspect of you.
Once you have a full picture of yourself, you can
examine your strengths and gaps. Do this by creating a
personal balance sheet, listing both. Don?t focus solely
on the gaps.
Metamorphosis: Sustaining Leadership Change
It?s now time to develop a practical plan to learn leadership
skills, which is the third discovery. Focus on
improvements you are passionate about, building on
your strengths while filling the gaps. Craft specific,
manageable learning goals that are tied to the goals that
motivate you. When goal-setting, consider that:
6
Primal Leadership? SUMMARY
Soundview Executive Book Summaries?
(continued on page 7)
How One Leader Changed
When Nick, a star salesman, took over as head of
an insurance agency in a new city, he knew he needed
help. The agency was in the bottom quartile. He hired
leadership consultants, who determined what type of
leader Nick was. He fit the pacesetting mold, with elements
of the commanding style. As pressure mounted,
the atmosphere grew increasingly tense.
Nick was encouraged to focus on his salespeople?s
performance rather than his own. This required he use
the coaching and visionary styles. Fortunately, some
of the traits that made him a great salesman ? empathy,
self-management and inspiration ? transferred
well. He seized the opportunity to work one-on-one
and stifled his impulse to jump in when he got impatient
with someone?s work. Eighteen months later, the
agency had moved from the bottom to the top and
Nick became one of the youngest managers to win a
national award for growth.
Developing Emotionally Intelligent Leaders
(continued from page 5)
For an example of how limbic learning works,
go to: http://my.summary.com
? Goals should build strengths.
? Goals must be your own, not someone else?s.
? Plans must be flexible and feasible, with manageable
steps.
? Plans must fit your learning style.
The Experimenting Stage
The fourth discovery requires you to reconfigure your
brain as you practice new behaviors to the point of mastery.
You can only do this by bringing bad habits into
awareness and consciously practicing a better way.
Rehearse the behavior at every opportunity until it
becomes automatic.
Improving an emotional intelligence competency
takes months because the emotional centers of the brain
are involved. The more often a behavioral sequence
repeats, the stronger the underlying brain circuits
become, as you rewire your brain. Like a professional
musician, you must practice and practice until the
behavior becomes automatic.
A powerful technique you can use is the mental rehearsal.
Envision yourself repeating the behavior you want to
master over and over again. This, coupled with using the
behavior as often as possible, will trigger the neural connections
necessary for genuine change to occur.
Supportive and Trusting Relationships
Finally, begin applying the fifth discovery ? the power
of supportive relationships. For anyone who has gone
through leadership development that works, the importance
of the people along the way is obvious. Having
supportive people around when you want to change can
make a big difference. Positive groups help people make
positive changes, especially when the relationships are
filled with candor, trust and psychological safety.
For leaders, that safety may be crucial for learning to
occur. Leaders often feel unsafe in the spotlight, and
avoid risk-taking change. Where can you find these
relationships? One approach is to find a mentor.
Another is to hire an executive coach. ?
Building Emotionally
Intelligent Organizations
When it comes to leadership, changing a single leader
is only the beginning. The rest of the job is to develop a
critical mass of resonant leaders and thereby transform
how people work together.
Parallel Transformations
The most effective leadership development works
hand in hand with parallel transformations in the organizations
that those leaders guide. Groups only begin to
change when they understand how they work, especially
if there is discordance. They must understand what the
underlying group norms are, and then develop the ideal
vision for the group.
The Power of Group Decision-Making
Group decision-making is superior to that of the
brightest individual in the group ? unless the group
lacks harmony or the ability to cooperate. Even groups
with brilliant individuals will make bad decisions in
such an environment. In short, groups are smarter than
individuals when (and only when) they exhibit the qualities
of emotional intelligence.
Leaders ignore
the power of the
group at great
cost. You can?t
assume that the
force of your
leadership alone
is enough to
drive people?s
behavior. Don?t make the common mistake of ignoring
resonance-building leadership styles and steam-rolling
over the team using the commanding and pacesetting
styles exclusively.
To lead a team effectively, you must address the group
reality. Leaders who have a keen sense of the group?s
pivotal norms and who are adept at maximizing positive
emotions can create highly emotionally intelligent teams.
Maximizing the Group?s Emotional Intelligence
A group?s emotional intelligence requires the same
capabilities that an emotionally intelligent individual
does ? self-awareness, self-management, social awareness
and relationship management. A group expresses
its self-awareness by being mindful of shared moods as
well as the emotions of its members.
Emotions are contagious, and a team leader needs to
understand how to keep a bad mood from spreading.
For example, imagine a meeting held in an out-of-the
Primal Leadership? SUMMARY
The Motivation to Change
(continued from page 6)
Soundview Executive Book Summaries? 7
(continued on page 8)
Are You a Boiling Frog?
If you drop a frog into boiling water, it will instinctively
jump out. But if you place the frog in a pot of
cold water and gradually increase the temperature,
the frog won?t notice the water?s getting hotter. It will
sit there until the water boils. The fate of that poached
frog isn?t so unlike some leaders who settle into a
routine or let small conveniences solidify into large
habits ? and allow inertia to set in.
Groups are smarter than
individuals when
(and only when)
they exhibit the qualities
of emotional intelligence.
way location and a team member arriving late exclaiming
that the meeting location is very inconvenient for
him. If the member?s anger is allowed to fester, it will
infect the whole team. But if instead, the leader
acknowledges the sacrifice the member is making and
thanks him, the anger dissipates.
The leader who wants to create an emotionally intelligent
team can start by helping the team raise its collective
self-awareness. This is the true work of the team
leader. Initiate the process by looking at what?s really
going on in the group. Uncover the team?s less-productive
norms and work with the team to change them. ?
Reality and the Ideal Vision
Just as was the case with teams, a leader who wants
to change an organization must first understand its reality.
Change begins when emotionally intelligent leaders
actively question the emotional reality and cultural
norms underlying the organization?s daily activities and
behavior. To create resonance and results, the leader has
to pay attention to people?s emotions. Even toxic organizations
can change.
Dynamic Inquiry
A process called dynamic inquiry can help you discover
an organization?s emotional reality ? what people
care about,
what is helping
them, their group,
and the organization
to succeed, and
what?s getting in
the way. The
process uses
focused conversations and open-ended questions
intended to get to feelings.
Themes become apparent from these conversations,
which are then taken to small groups for more discussion.
The conversations that ensue about what?s right
and what?s not create momentum. People feel inspired
and empowered, willing to work together to address
their collective concerns.
Once they do, you will be able to help the organization
define its ideal vision ? one that is in sync with
individual hopes and dreams. ?
Creating Sustainable Change
How does a leader create sustainable resonance in an
organization? Every large organization has pockets of
resonance and dissonance. The overall ratio determines
the organization?s emotional climate and performance.
To shift the ratio toward resonance, cultivate a dispersed
cadre of emotionally intelligent leaders.
To do that, leadership training must be the strategic
priority and be managed at the highest level.
Commitment must come from the top. That?s because
new leadership means a new mindset and new behaviors,
and in order for these to stick, the organization?s
culture, systems and processes all need to change.
Let?s say that as a leader, you get it. You?ve set the
stage by assessing the culture, examining the reality and
the ideal. You?ve created resonance around the idea of
change, and you?ve identified the people who will take
top leadership roles. The next step is to design a process
that lets those leaders uncover their own dreams and
personal ideals, examine their strengths and their gaps,
and use their daily work as a learning laboratory. That
process must also be self-directed and include the following
elements:
? A tie-in to the organization?s culture.
? Seminars emphasizing individual change.
? Learning about emotional competencies.
? Creative learning experiences.
? Relationships that support learning, such as
executive coaching. ?
8
Primal Leadership? SUMMARY
Soundview Executive Book Summaries?
Building Emotionally Intelligent Organizations
(continued from page 7)
For a story of how one Ivy League school changed, go to:
http://my.summary.com
For examples of group havoc, go to:
http://my.summary.com
Shoney?s Transformation
The Shoney?s restaurant chain had a close-knit
group of executives at the top ? people who knew
each other well, shared history and beliefs, and generally
thought they knew how to run their business. In
reality, they were an old-boy?s network of white male
senior executives with an underlying culture that left
people of color behind.
All that changed when the company paid $132 million
to settle a class-action lawsuit by employees and
applicants who alleged discrimination. A cadre of new
leaders have changed the company?s culture and
broadened opportunities so much that ten years later,
the company was listed as one of the top 50 companies
for minorities by Fortune magazine.
The change occurred because the lawsuit was a
wake-up call regarding the reality of the company?s
dissonant culture. The new leaders identified an ideal
vision that would guide hiring practices, and the
organization embraced that vision.
A leader who wants
to change an organization
must first understand
its reality.

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Goleman, D., R. Boyatzis, and A. McKee. (2001). Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence. Harvard Business School Press.

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