Essay Instructions: Korean Culture Term Paper Requirements
Paper Title: Neo-Confucianism in South Korea
My paper is on the analysis of Neo-Confucianism in South Korea and must be focused on how “The Three Bonds and Five Cardinal Relationships” of Neo-Confucianism are applied to various aspects of modern South Korean life. My professor needs to see a good amount of critical thinking in this analysis.
The term paper must be typed, double-spaced and 5 to 6 pages in length. Proper MLA citation such as in-text citations with the page numbers referenced and a comprehensive bibliography must be included.
You are required to cite at least 5 different written sources in your term paper (in order to avoid a one-sided view on your topic). If you can find sufficient scholarly literature on the topic that you're interested in, that would be wonderful. Synthesize the points drawn from the literature and draw a meaningful conclusion on your topic.
The following is taken directly from my syllabus:
If you cannot find much scholarly literature on the topic that you're interested in, here are some suggestions that I'd like to make. You may have to weave together various available resources to make your thesis (or hypothesis) convincing. If you're interested in explaining a particular behavioral pattern of Koreans or a particular cultural phenomenon of Korea, you should think about what would have affected such a behavior or cultural phenomenon. You can provide a detailed explanation by focusing on one possible aspect of Korea (one cause), or you can think about multiple aspects (possible causes) and synthesize these aspects for your explanation. For example, if you're interested in explaining Korean youth's anti-American attitudes, you can think about historical angles (especially the political history), education system, campus culture, and Korean's value system, etc. Since your paper is only 5 to 6 pages in length (double-spaced), you should not include too many aspects (causes). Otherwise, it will become a sketchy overview rather than a meaningful analysis. When you determine which aspect(s) of Korea to use and how to combine these aspects, you need to use some critical thinking and your own sound judgment based on your knowledge of Korea. Only if possible and if it's appropriate for your research topic, you may want to interview a few Koreans and incorporate one or two paragraphs of the interview results into your paper to give a little "texture." However, I don't think that it's a good idea to base your entire paper on personal interviews or anecdotes, because the sources are not representative. Minimize discussion of your own personal experiences in the paper, and do not use the first person ("I") in an academic paper like this.
The key is the skillful weaving and synthesis of the resources available that makes your paper convincing, whether or not you have sufficient scholarly literature to use, or whether you focus on one possible aspect/cause or include multiple aspects. Draw a substantially meaningful conclusion based on what you've discussed in the body of your paper.
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Essay Instructions: This is specifications that professor gave me:
Research Paper Project - Discovering My Asian American Connection.
Each member of the class shall carry out a project individually that aims to address the theme of linking Asian American experiences to American lives. The purpose of the project is to promote a better understanding and appreciation of Asian Americans in the United States. Each student is advised to select a project topic which is most feasible based on her/his own experience, preparation or training, and interest. Moreover, the project must involve student participation or observation going beyond library research or readings alone. It is advisable, however, to begin your planning of the project by conducting some library research.
Examples of such "action" include:
Attending community meetings (church, political, social service, professional, or neighborhood) and talking with Asian American and other members;
Volunteer work tutoring Asian American children or adults in the community;
Touring or filming an Asian ethnic neighborhood, noting environment, housing, public services, and other indicators of live quality;
Interviewing extensively several persons of different ethnic background, comparing their experiences and major concerns living in the U.S.;
Arranging to spend time with one or more local Asian American families, observing and talking about family practices, history, food, customs, religion, and so on.
The Research Paper Project is to base on a theme "Discovering My Asian American Connection". You are expected to explore your interactions with individuals from one or more Asian descent in a local community or communities in the U.S. (not one existing only in the cyberspace or in Asia) and observe the multi-faceted relationships between Asian originated peoples and cultures and the daily conduct of American life. It does not matter whether your project involves the experiences of three (minimum) or twenty (maximum) individuals, but it is imperative that you clearly identify the ethnic origin(s) of your subject matter, your relationship to them, and comment on the significance of one??s ethnic origin/identity/culture in shaping experiences in America. The final product should contain components of a research paper. They include sections mentioning project goal, methodology, major findings, and conclusion/implications.
This is outline that I suggest to you @ Essay Town: If you have any problem to write paper with my outline, you just ignore my outline. However, please use a topic with Korean American Experiences. Moreover, Please include sections mentioning project goal, methodology, major findings, and conclusion/implications. These are the most important things.
This paper is based upon the interview I have had with my employers, a first generation Korean-American, and their daughter, the second generation. My interview focuses on both a similarity and a difference between them with respect to how each of them identifies themselves and her. First, I will describe the interview with the father and mother, and based upon the interview, I will try to give my own understanding and perspective on the issue of identity for Korean-American. And then, I will describe the interview with the daughter (Sunny, 24 years old girl) and will do the same. The main issue that structures the whole paper will be the relation between identity and language.
Being "Korean" can be attributed to our understanding of the history, both the struggles and accomplishment of people in the motherland and here in the United States, and an attempt to add to the history itself. Moreover, it should be cemented in understanding and practice of the language.
2-1. Interview with parents, a first generation
2-2. Parents'' perspective on their daughter''s learning Korean
2-4. my opinion
here is some excerpt from 2.
They lived America for 27years, of course, they feel more comfortable speak Korean. They think that their daughter learns some subtle Korean culture from them and that is
a great treasure and remembering where she came from is very important.
They asked me that the blood that runs through me. is it Korean or American?
They think that their daughter grew up here. Therefore, she cannot but reflect some of the environment in which she grew up in, which is America. There is nothing wrong with that; it''s just being true to who she is. However, they don''t think she could ever say, "I''m American".
3-1. Interview with daughter, a second generation
3-2. Daughter''s perspective on learning Korean
3-4. my opinion
Here is some excerpt from 3.
One thing she feels strongly is that she does not consider her as 100% American. She thinks that in this society people still look at her race and categorize her by her skin color. The mere fact that she speaks English perfectly and that she identifies herself with Americans more than Koreans doesn''t mean that she is an American. However, she doesn''t feel learning Korean is necessary.
I think that her stance on not learning the Korean language simply because she didn''t see the need to do so is completely justified. It would be good if she were be able to speak Korean given that she identifies herself as a Korean-American. I believe that language is a crucial element in understanding cultural and historical background.
If I am correct, then her understanding Korean will definitely help her to identify herself better. This is important since she is not only just a Korean descendent but also identifies herself as a Korean-American.
Please don''t use the book called "Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues (Author: Min, Pyong Gap)." This is my textbook. My professor said not to use textbook.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: PLEASE NOTE THAT I NEED A REFUND ON A PAYPAL ORDER I PLACED TODAY (THE 21ST) THAT WON'T CLEAR UNTIL MAY 27TH. I DO NOT WANT THAT ORDER PLACED AND PROCESSED, JUST THIS ORDER HERE.
Below are the initial four pages I've written for this essay. Please work with this material to bring the page total to 7. Rework, correct, or add to material already present. Also, please rework the provided sources into proper MLA format and provide the additionally requested sources.
Without doubt, the 1960s represent the main time frame in which South Korea and Israel laid the framework for future economic prosperity. Not only that, the most torrid economic development occurred at this time. The most critical propellant of this prosperity, of which will be the primary topic of this paper, was the state-led policy linkages shared between South Korea and Israel. Discussion will be limited to the 1960s because this decade predated nearly twenty years of economic decline for both nations, and also because of the above-mentioned reasons. Further exploration of this intervention will focus on government financing, investment, and the use of economic nationalism.
In light of the economic development that both nations experienced in the 1960s, the hardships that both South Korea and Israel endured during this time must be mentioned if only to highlight the true wonder of their expansion. The 1960s saw Israel affected by the most constrictive period of the Arab Boycott, which prevented Arab states from importing goods and services originating from Israel. This had deprived Israel of many possible local trading partners. During the 1960s, Israel spent 9% of its GDP on defense initiatives aimed at keeping its regional enemies at bay, far more military spending than most other developing nations. Finally, Israel had to cope with the massive influx of immigrants who doubled Israel’s population within the decade. Considering the greater emphasis Israel placed on welfare when compared to South Korea, expenditures on housing, food, and education for these immigrants placed a huge strain on the Israeli economy. As for South Korea, its people lived under the repressive military dictatorship of General Park Chung-hee while also reeling from the destruction of the Korean War. In addition, a scarcity of natural resources contributed to a national per capita income in 1960 of $80 (1). To counter these deficiencies, both nations exploited a reality that was unique to themselves among other developing nations, in that each state was able to form a cohesive national identity. Each population has a longstanding history with their own singular historical narrative. With this unity at their disposal, each respective government was capable of pursuing a nationalist economic agenda.
Burdened with the responsibility of sustaining Israel’s newly acquired existence, the government sought to oversee the fruition of industrializing their economy away from the stagnant and once dominant dependency upon agriculture. Even though they were put in power through democratic elections, Israeli officials consolidated their power away from non-government actors, such as interest groups and business firms. This gave them the ability to control the direction of the Israeli economy. Officials in the newly formed Ministry of Finance drew from a talented pool of economists from the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Privileged positions were filled from within the bureaucracy and were obtained through exceptional performance instead of cronyism or nepotism. Of great importance to their autonomy, officials were able to disconnect themselves from total reliance on local funding thanks to financial assistance from the international community and reparations from Germany. Two figureheads within the government guaranteed a decisive and coherent economic policy: Levi Eshkol of the Ministry of Finance, and Pinhas Sapir of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. They worked hand-in-hand to formulate a unifying agenda that bureaucrats from both departments could pursue towards a single common goal.
As for South Korea,
The end-product of this labor in both nations was a financial structure in which banks, and by extension the government at large, controlled the flow of capital. On one hand, banks in Israel were autonomous only to the extent that the central bank’s severe regulations and restrictions allowed. The government used the banking system as a means of regulating its own financial initiatives. Private domestic capital, of which includes bonds and savings accounts, had restrictions enforced by the MOF so that the government could quickly utilize these funds should the state’s budget deficit spiral out of control. The Bank of Israel, Israel’s central bank, also set high liquidity ratios to limit the amount of credit banks could extend to keep monetary expansion at a safe pace. Banks were also the major beneficiaries in the Israeli stock boom of 1962-1964, due to their ownership of 22 of the 34 companies listed on the exchange. This success was due to the fact that the central bank cherry picked which bank-funded projects best coalesced with the government’s most valued sectors of development. This subject will be expanded upon further two paragraphs down.
On the other hand, the banking system in South Korea was owned and controlled by the government with an iron grip. Even after centralizing the five major banks in 1961, South Korea failed to utilize private domestic capital in the way that Israel had.
Instead of allowing the market to determine what sectors investment monies were to be spent in, South Korea and Israel dictated investment policies through plan-based initiatives. One instance where the state formulated and guided a successful investment endeavor was in the case of textiles. Israeli officials, in particular MOCI chief Pinhas Sapir, envisioned in the Textile Industry Development Plan that by 1966, twelve major textile manufacturing plants would be operational and ultimately produce 26% of Israel’s total economic output. The government indulged the project with total financial backing, and by 1968, textile income grew sixfold (3). Unfortunately, total textile production was more than double of what Israelis were consuming. To shed the extra product, Israel began an export regimen guided by large government subsidies. By 1971, textiles became Israel’s most lucrative export.
Textiles also played an enormous role in jumpstarting the South Korean economy.
As for what psychological imperatives drove these events, economic nationalism was active in both South Korea and Israel. South Koreans realized as early as the end of the Korean War that their nation needed to engage free-market nations as trading partners if they were to ever achieve heavy industrialization. Although this might seem to be a minor shift towards liberalization compared to their past economic behavior, xenophobic fears and an ideological commitment to industrial norms and values drove South Koreans to block any vestige of foreign investment within their country. Where did this “ideological commitment” come from? Confucian values deeply imbedded in Korean culture emphasize “diligence, loyalty, and education as well as the respect for authority”. (4) The other “Asian Tigers” held similar beliefs during their economic ascension in the 20th century. Where individualism fueled capitalist growth in Western nations, a loyalty to one’s community permeated South Korean culture and thus was used by the government as a rallying point to industrialization.
While still following the mindset of economic collectivism, Israelis believed that a free market economy would have to coexist with nationalist sentiment should Jewish colonization of Palestine succeed. Once the Jews achieved political sovereignty, this event solidified the consensus towards collectivism. Also contributing to the movement towards nationalism was the fact that the local bourgeoisie had no intension of overseeing and controlling national economic development, and instead left that task in the hands of the Labor Party. The state built its initial monetary foundation on the notion that the Jewish character of Israel would elicit donations from world Jewry.
4. http://www.questia.com/ by Andrew Eungi Kim , Gil-sung Park Nationalism, Confucianism, Work Ethic and Industrialization in South Korea.
5. http://www.geocities.com/michaelshalev/Papers/IsrAff.htm Michael Shalev, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, December 1997
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