Juvenile Death Penalty Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Juvenile Death Penalty College Essay Examples

Title: Juvenile Death Penalty Sentencing Is

  • Total Pages: 6
  • Words: 1651
  • Bibliography:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: hello,
this is suppossed to be an prsuasive essay, making sure every paragraph follow each other and there should be no use of the word 'i' and 'my' and 'in my opinion'since they r not convincing and they are simply an opinion. the purpose is to persuade or convince rather than merely explain or describe, there for the thesis must be arguable.
also i have a title in mind but not sure if its catchy enough and can reflect the essay, anyways i write it down, if its ok use it otherwise u can come up with your title for the essay. here we go -- "Sentencing Junelies a Cruel and Unusal Punishment"----
although its not necessary but if u can bring out the thesis in either first or second paragraph it will be great.
it should be atleast 1400 words long. although this paper should be self writen and cant be taken from any outside souce. although for biblography u have to use 6 sources 2 of which should be specialised sources that deal specifically with the topic, a god example will be journal.
the essay should be written keepin in mind to use effective reaonng and is free from logical erros. it should be written for a college level audience by defending your claim, anticipating and responding to opposing arguements.
paragraphs must be unified within themselves- one idea per pararaph. all borrowed materials must be documented , using MLA format.the overall purpose of persusive essay is to defend a position against objectors, to refute others, to modify a position, or to offer a compromise.
a lil about outline:
1)lead: use A striking opening to capure the readers interest, such as statin a problem, using a quotation, aking a question or offering some unusal fact, etc. 2) identifying he topic: discussing its importance, present you claim. 3)acknowledge, refute, or agree with the readers primary points. 4) close: restate the assertion and make a call to action, if applicable close with an answer, end a resolution/solution, restate the thesis.
i have many sources which may help u writing this better more better or if u need information so i'm going to fax those sources after i finish with this order, since most of the stuff i have its from facts.com and am not sure if u have access to those since they r only for college students and university databases and so on.
here am gonna paste a topic about juvenile death penality, its below:
juveniles death penality

The issue: Does sentencing juveniles to death constitute cruel and unusual punishment, in violation of the Eighth Amendment? Or is it an acceptable punishment for certain offenses?
Critics of the juvenile death penalty say: Because juveniles' brains are not yet fully developed and juveniles are less mature than adults, they should not be punished as adults. National consensus now recognizes the juvenile death penalty to be cruel and unusual punishment, so the practice should be declared unconstitutional.
Supporters of the juvenile death penalty say: Punishment should be based not on age but on the severity of the crime. Most young people understand that crimes such as murder are wrong. Also, the threat of being sentenced to death for certain crimes acts as a strong deterrent for would-be offenders.
Making young people pay with their lives for certain crimes has a long history in the U.S. The practice dates back to the 17th century, when a 16-year-old boy became the first juvenile sentenced to death in colonial America. More than three centuries later, the Supreme Court established 16 as the minimum age for an offender to be sentenced to death. But despite the court's recognition of the constitutionality of the practice, opponents have vigorously called for an end to it, claiming that the juvenile death penalty constitutes cruel and unusual punishment.

Society has long recognized major differences between adults and juveniles, and that is especially true in the legal system. Most offenders under the age of 18 are sent to juvenile courts, which are separate from the regular criminal courts and which cannot impose the death penalty. However, for certain crimes, such as a brutal murder, juveniles can be tried in adult courts. There they are subject to adult sentences, including the death penalty. [See 2002 Update: Juvenile Justice]
Since the first execution of a youthful offender more than 350 years ago, 365 executions for crimes committed as juveniles have been carried out in the U.S., according to the Death Penalty Information Center. Since 1976, 22 juvenile offenders have been executed (about 2% of the total executions carried out in the U.S. in that time period). Of the 38 states that allow the death penalty, 20 permit executions for crimes committed as juveniles; 15 states set the minimum age at 16, and five require the offender to have been 17 or older at the time of the crime.
However, the juvenile death penalty is not widely applied throughout the country. Just 12 states have juvenile offenders on death row, and just three--Texas, Virginia and Oklahoma--are responsible for 18 of the juvenile executions carried out since 1976. Texas alone is responsible for 13 of those executions.
The Supreme Court affirmed the constitutionality of the death penalty for juveniles age 16 and over in the late 1980s. However, in early 2004 the court accepted a case in which it will revisit the issue. The case, on which the court is expected to issue a ruling in early 2005, has intensified the debate over capital punishment for young offenders.
Critics of the juvenile death penalty point out that society recognizes young people as less mature than adults in many instances, for example by setting a minimum age for drinking and for serving in the military. Opponents ask why it is then permissible to treat juveniles as adults when it comes to punishing them. Critics also contend that the national consensus is against the death penalty, so it should be declared unconstitutional
Supporters, meanwhile, say that punishment should be based not on a perpetrator's age, but on the severity of the crime. An "adult" crime requires an adult punishment, they argue. Most young people recognize that murder is wrong, they assert, and should be punished accordingly. Proponents also say that knowing they could face the death penalty acts as a strong deterrent to juveniles.
The History of Juvenile Executions
The first recorded execution of a juvenile offender in colonial America occurred in 1642, when Thomas Graunger was executed in Plymouth, Mass., for the crime of bestiality committed when he was 16. In 1885, a Native American youth, James Arcene, became the youngest juvenile offender ever executed in the U.S. when he was executed for his part in a robbery and murder committed when he was 10. Since the start of World War II (1939-45), the youngest offender to have been executed was a black juvenile, George Stinney, who was executed in 1944 for killing two white girls when he was 14.
The Supreme Court first took on the issue of the death penalty in 1972, striking down most state death penalty statutes. However, the court did not rule that capital punishment itself was unconstitutional but rather that the death sentences were too arbitrarily imposed and amounted to "cruel and unusual punishment." After the states revised their laws, the court in 1976 upheld many of those revisions, effectively reinstating the death penalty. [See 2000 Update: Death Penalty]
The Supreme Court specifically considered the issue of the juvenile death penalty in a 1988 case, Thompson v. Oklahoma. In that case, the court ruled that the execution of a person for crimes committed at age 15 and under violated the Eighth Amendment. The following year, the court further clarified its stance in two cases, Wilkins v. Missouri and Stanford v. Kentucky, ruling that it was constitutional to execute juvenile offenders for crimes committed at age 16 or 17. In those cases, the court upheld the death sentences of Heath Wilkins, who had committed murder when he was 16, and Kevin Stanford, who had committed murder at age 17. (Despite the court's ruling in Stanford, Kentucky Gov. Paul Patton (D) eventually commuted Stanford's sentence to life in prison because of his age at the time he committed the crime.)
In January 2004, the Supreme Court accepted a case, Roper v. Simmons, in which it will once again consider the constitutionality of juvenile executions. The case concerns Christopher Simmons, who was sentenced to death for killing a woman during a burglary in 1993, when he was 17. The Missouri state Supreme Court in 2003 stayed his execution, claiming that the juvenile death penalty is cruel and unusual punishment.
The Missouri court based its decision on a 2002 Supreme Court case, Atkins v. Virginia, in which the court ruled that executing the mentally retarded constituted cruel and unusual punishment because there was an emerging "national consensus" against the practice. The Supreme Court's ruling in Simmons is likewise expected to hinge on whether the national consensus is against juvenile executions. In the 1989 Stanford decision, the Supreme Court had found no such consensus.
The court's decision in Simmons could affect the fate of the 72 juvenile inmates on death row nationwide as of late 2004. However, just as the court's ruling on the death penalty in 1976 has not quelled debate over capital punishment for adults, the decision in Simmons is unlikely to end the debate over sentencing young people to death.

Juvenile Death Penalty Opposed
Critics contend that executing young offenders is cruel and unusual punishment, a violation of the Eighth Amendment. Young people lack the maturity of adults, they argue, and therefore should not be punished as adults. "Teenagers may look like, act like and even shoot like adults, but they think like children," says James Alan Fox, a professor of criminal justice at Northeastern University in Boston, Mass.
Critics point out that society generally recognizes the lack of maturity in juveniles by setting age limits in such matters as voting, drinking and serving in the military. They argue that capital punishment should be treated the same way. "As a society, we don't let adolescents consume alcohol, and we have different restrictions on them because we know they don't have the best judgment," Dale Baich, an attorney specializing in capital punishment cases, asserts. "I think we have to hold that view when we make them eligible for the death penalty."
To back up their assertions, critics point to recent research showing that the human brain continues to develop into the 20s. According to the studies, the frontal lobe of the brain, which is responsible for controlling impulses and making decisions, is the last part of the brain to develop.
In an American Medical Association (AMA) brief in Roper v. Simmons, the AMA discussed the impact of late cognitive development on juveniles. "From a biological perspective, an anxious adolescent with a gun in a convenience store is more likely to perceive a threat and pull the trigger than is an anxious adult with a gun in the same store," David Fassler, a psychiatrist at the University of Vermont in Burlington, wrote in the brief.
Opponents draw parallels to the execution of the mentally retarded, which the Supreme Court in Atkins found to be cruel and unusual punishment. The court determined that the national consensus had turned against executing the mentally retarded, and critics of the juvenile death penalty say that public opinion is similarly against executing juveniles. They point to a trend in decreasing death sentences for juveniles. In 1999, 15 juveniles were sentenced to death, while seven were sentenced to death in both 2000 and 2001, four in 2002 and just two in 2003. They also note that, since 1976, just seven states have executed juvenile offenders.
Critics of the juvenile death penalty also contend that there are similarities in the cognitive functioning of juveniles and of the mentally retarded. In Atkins, Justice John Paul Stevens wrote in the majority opinion that "because of their disabilities in areas of reasoning, judgment, and control of their impulses" the mentally retarded "do not act with the level of moral culpability that characterizes the most serious adult criminal conduct." Critics say the same reasoning can be applied to juveniles. "If you just look at the Atkins decision, almost everything they say about mentally retarded people applies to children," says Stephen Bright of the Southern Center for Human Rights.
Opponents also assert that juveniles are among society's most victimized and vulnerable individuals. For instance, they point out, 60% of juveniles sentenced to death were neglected or abused growing up. Death is too extreme a punishment for young people who are victims of their circumstances, critics argue.
Finally, opponents question how the U.S. can continue to execute young people when most other countries in the world have ceased the practice. Since 2000, only three other countries have executed youthful offenders, they note, putting the U.S. in same category as the Democratic Republic of Congo, Iran and Pakistan--and all three of those countries have either abolished the juvenile death penalty or are in the process of doing so.
Capital Punishment for Youth Advocated
Supporters of the juvenile death penalty assert that the U.S. justice system is based on the idea of the punishment fitting the crime. There is nothing "cruel and unusual" about assessing the ultimate punishment for a gruesome murder, whether the perpetrator is an adult or a juvenile, they argue. Nancy Arias, whose sister, Patricia Baeuerlen, was killed by a 16-year-old boy, says: "[Patricia] was begging for her life. She was crying, telling him that she had kids. The only cruel and unusual punishment in this case was the...brutal way that he killed her."
Proponents reject the argument that the brain is not fully developed in juveniles so they should be held less responsible for their actions. Even with brains not fully developed, there is "little room for doubt that at least some adolescent killers most assuredly have the mental and emotional wherewithal to plot, kill and cover up in cold blood," argues Alabama Attorney General Troy King in a brief in Roper v. Simmons. "They should not evade full responsibility for their actions by the serendipity of chronological age," he continues.
Supporters accuse critics of misrepresenting recent brain studies to further their anti-death penalty agendas. "There is science, and then there is junk science," says Dianne Clements, president of victims' rights group Justice for All. "This is an effort by those in the scientific community who oppose the death penalty to use science to argue their position."
Supporters also say that knowing they could be put to death for murder serves as a very strong deterrent to juveniles. According to Mitch Brim, a Los Angeles lawyer for Justice for All, Simmons "told his friends he could get away with it because of his age." Brim adds, "If he knew he was going to receive the ultimate punishment, an innocent woman would be alive today. We need to send a message to juveniles who understand right from wrong and the consequences of their actions. They better think twice or they'll pay the ultimate price."
Supporters also criticize the notion of basing the constitutionality of the juvenile death penalty on whether there is an evolving national consensus against it. Justice for All claims that the Supreme Court's determination of evolving standards is arbitrary and subjective because no set guidelines exist on which to base their decision. Rather, supporters say, the decision should be left to juries. "Juries have an amazing ability to distinguish between horrible acts of murder and immaturity," Joshua Marquis, Oregon district attorney, asserts.
Finally, some supporters point out that in considering the death penalty, courts and juries must make their determination on an individual basis, with consideration of each crime and all the mitigating factors in the crime. In considering juvenile offenders as a group based on age, such individual consideration is lost, they assert. "Instead of grouping juveniles together as a class and drawing a bright line rule based on age, this court should look at juveniles individually and respect them as human beings with unique characteristics, life experiences, personal responsibilities and moral blameworthiness," Justice for All contends in a brief for Roper v. Simmons.
Supreme Court to Determine the Future of Juvenile Executions
Opinion polls show that much of the public is opposed to the juvenile death penalty, even among those who support the death penalty in general. In a 2002 Gallup poll, while 72% of respondents said they favored the death penalty, 69% said they were opposed to sentencing juveniles to death. And, states are increasingly taking action on their own against the juvenile death penalty. Wyoming and South Dakota both abolished the juvenile death penalty in 2004, and eight other states are currently considering such legislation.
However, the fate of juvenile executions in large part rests with the Supreme Court's upcoming decision in Roper v. Simmons. In a separate concurring opinion in the 1989 Stanford decision, Justice Sandra Day O'Conner wrote, "The day may come when there is such general legislative rejection of the execution of 16- or 17-year-old capital murderers that a clear national consensus can be said to have developed. Because I do not believe that day has yet arrived, I concur." Whether that day has finally come is once again up to the Supreme Court to determine.
There are faxes for this order.

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Amnesty International. 1998. Juveniles and the Death Penalty: Execution Worldwide Since 1990. November.

Berk, R.; R. Weiss; and J. Boger. 1993. Chance and the Death Penalty. Law and Society Review 27: 89-110.

Bureau of Justice Statistics.1997. Capital Punishment 1996. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Capital Punishment Research Group. 1998.. Report. Headland: AL: Capital Punishment Research Group (January 12).

Gross, S. And R. Mauro. 1989. Death and Discrimination: Racial Disparities in Capital Sentencing. Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press,

Paternoster, R. 1991. Capital Punishment in America. New York: Lexington Books.

Potter, Gary. 1999. The Juvenile Death Penalty. The Advocate. Nov., 1999.

Roper v. Simmons, No. 03-633, U.S. Supreme Court. Mar. 1, 2005.

Streib, V. 1998. The Juvenile Death Penalty Today: Death Sentences and Executions for Juveile Crime, January 1973 - October 1998. Ada, OH: Claude W. Pettit College of Law, Ohio Northern University.

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Title: Juvenile Death Penalty One of

  • Total Pages: 7
  • Words: 2456
  • Sources:10
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Each student will write an 8 - 10 page typed double-spaced position or issue paper on the juvenile death penalty. Write a description of the issue, discussing both sides of the issue, and close by stating their reasoned position on the issue. The paper must include at least 10 scholarly sources and must be in APA style. It is a good idea to develop an outline of your project that serves as a project guide.
The paper will demonstrate their critical thinking abilities by presenting both sides of an issue and developing a position on the issue. The paper should represent the best professional writing and work. As such, the focus should pay careful attention to paragraphing, sentence structure, quotation conventions, spelling, appropriate citation and other aspects of grammar.

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American Bar Association. Juvenile Death Penalty Amicus Briefs. http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/184748.pdf

Bradley, Curtis A. (2002, Dec.) The Juvenile Death Penalty and International Law. Duke Law Journal, Vol. 52. Downloaded from Social Science Research Network, http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=348501

Cothern, Lynn. (2000, Nov.). Juveniles and the Death Penalty. Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/184748.pdf

Death Penalty Information Center. (2009). The Legal Context of the Juvenile Death Penalty. http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/juvenile-offenders-who-were-death-row#streiblegal

Heise, Michael. (2004). Mercy by the Numbers: An Empirical Analysis of Clemency and Its Structure. Center for the Study of Law and Society Jurisprudence and Social Policy Program. Downloaded from escholarship.org.

Liptak, Adam (2009, May 4). Justices Agree to Take Up Sentencing for Young Offenders. New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/05/us/05scotus.html?_r=2

Richey, Warren. (2005, March 2). Juvenile death penalty abolished. The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0302/p01s01-usju.html

Sherman, mark (2009, Nov 8). High court to look at life in prison for juveniles. The Associated Press, http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/ap/washington/6709826.html

Streib, Victor L. (2005). The Juvenile Death Penalty Today: Death Sentences and Executions for Juvenile Crimes, January 1, 1973-February 28, 2005. Ohio Northern University http://www.law.onu.edu/faculty_staff/faculty_profiles/coursematerials/streib/juvdeath.pdf

Voice of Aurora. (2009). Time for America to Move Past Capital Punishment. Death Penalty Information Center. http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/editorials-time-america-move-past-capital-punishment

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Title: CRIJ 6620 Instructions PLEASE PLEASE follow instructions word word I expect a written grammatically correct essay The essay approximately 3 single spaced pages length counting References page Please make paper NOT PLAIGRIZED

  • Total Pages: 5
  • Words: 1773
  • References:5
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: CRIJ 6620 Instructions

PLEASE PLEASE follow the instructions word-for-word. I expect a well written, grammatically correct essay. The essay should be approximately 3 single-spaced pages in length (not counting the References page). Please make sure this paper is NOT PLAIGRIZED. I need this paper to be strong from start to finish. This paper is a graduate-Master?s level.

Reading and Writing Assignments for the Death Penalty Essay
Material on the Death Penalty is easy to find. Do your own research on the Death Penalty, then locate and read these cases on the Death Penalty generally (from findlaw):

Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972) - temporarily outlawing the use of the Death Penalty because its application was arbitrary.
Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153 (1976) - reinstating the use of the Death Penalty because the State of Georgia set up a fair (?) statutory scheme for the imposition of the Death Penalty.
McCleskey v. Kemp, 481 U.S. 279 (1987) - questioning whether the Death Penalty has actually been ?fixed.?

Mental Retardation and the Death Penalty:
Penry v. Johnson (this is a difficult case to read, try to get the gist of it but do not get bogged down in the details) link: http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=000&invol=00-6677

Atkins v. Virginia: link: http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=000&invol=00-8452

Juvenile Death Penalty: Roper v. Simmons link: http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=000&invol=03-633

COMMENTS: Again, several of the cases assigned for this lesson are difficult to read. The factual details in the Gregg case, for example, are not of much value for the ?death penalty? essay. There is a huge amount of information on the Internet debating the effectiveness of the death penalty in terms of deterrence and retribution.

Death Penalty Essay Question: Explain the evolution of the Death Penalty in America and how recent death penalty cases add to, and depart from the earliest Supreme Court cases addressing capital punishment. What indications can be found in Supreme Court cases that the Court will someday entirely abolish the death penalty?

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Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002).

Death Penalty Information Center. (2010). Part I: History of the Death Penalty. Retrieved November 17, 2010, from http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/part-i-history-death-penalty

Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972).

Gregg v. Georgia, 428 U.S. 153 (1976).

McGautha v. California, 402 U.S. 183 (1971).

Penry v. Johnson, 532 U.S. 782 (2001).

Penry v. Lynaugh, 492 U.S. 302 (1989).

Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (2005).

U.S. v. Jackson, 390 U.S. 570 (1968).

Witherspoon v. Illinois, 391 U.S. 510 (1968).

Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280 (1976).

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Title: How should society deal with information about the genetic code

  • Total Pages: 6
  • Words: 2159
  • Works Cited:6
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: In one sense, this paper is where ?the rubber meets the road.? This is where your perception of theory is realized in social policy. How do the results and effect of this type of research affect the society in which we live?

Until recently, the genes that are associated with the appearance of different inherited disorders were invisible. Whether or not an individual would be born with or develop a serious disorder, a disorder that impacts one?s ability to function successfully in society, was pretty much a random event. Sure, we are all aware of the unwritten rule that first cousins should not marry because of the increased probability of having retarded children, but 26 states allow marriage between first cousins. We may also be aware of the data that show that women who have their first child after age 40 have an increased chance of having a child with serious problems. Previously it was believed that the sperm had relatively little impact on these types of disorders. There are now data that the age of the father may have an effect on the appearance of these disorders.

As we acquire more and more information about the genetic code, eventually we will have the information that will enable us to predict which code is responsible for which inherited disease. We will be able to predict the odds that a particular individual may develop disorder. This ability will enable us to modify our behavior in order to prevent the occurrence of the disorder in most cases. This change in behavior is already appearing in those women who find out that they carry one or more mutated copies of a gene (BRCA-1 or BRCA-2) associated with breast cancer.

Based on what you have read and thought about, how should society deal with this information? Should there be laws governing what happens with this information? What are the individual?s responsibilities to society? What are society?s responsibilities to the individual?

Please choose either A or B and write a six-page paper that reflects your thoughts and answers all the questions under which letter you chose. While you must answer each question in either A or B, your paper should NOT consist of a list of the questions and your answers. You should use the questions as guideposts for the development of your paper as you express your thoughts. You may arrange the answers in any order that best fits the organization of your statement.

Should parents have their genetic code analyzed and the probability of their having offspring with congenital defects or high sensitivity to diseases determined?
Since the cost of treating these medical problems may be exorbitant, should people whose genetic analysis shows a higher than average probability of having offspring with medical problems pay higher health insurance premiums?
Should people who refuse genetic testing pay higher health insurance premiums?
Who should have access to personal genetic information, and how will it be used?
How does personal genetic information affect an individual and society's perceptions of that individual?
Does genetic information affect members of minority communities differently? How?

Please use at least six to eight articles as your references. You will write your paper according to the APA format.

Below is a list of assigned reading for this class. Your references are not limited to this list.


Becker, G. S. (1965). A theory of the allocation of time. Economic Journal. 40(299), 493-508. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database. http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=5331888&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Coase, Ronald H. (1937). The nature of the firm. Economica. 4, 386-405. (Not available in the Excelsior College Library; We do have this journal from 1965-1 year ago)

Lucas, Jr. R. E. (1972). Expectations and the theory of money. J. Economic Theory. 4, 103-124.

Ando, A. & Modigliani, F. (1963). The ?life cycle? hypothesis of saving: aggregate implications and tests. American Economic Review. 53(1), 55-84. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database. http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=8737517&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Williamson, O. E. (1979). Transaction cost economics: the governance of contractual relations. J. Law and Economics. 22(2), 233-261. Retrieved from JSTOR Arts and Sciences IV Collection database. http://www.jstor.org.vlib.excelsior.edu/stable/725118

Henriques, D.B. (2010, January 20). F.B.I. Charges Arms Sellers With Foreign Bribes . New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/21/business/21sting.html?adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=7-qEJmNWE0sEiKai5P9mWSZA

Political Science

MacKuen, M., Erikson, R. and Stimson, J. (1989). Macropartisanship. American Political Science Review. 83(4), 1125-42. Retrieved from JSTOR Arts and Sciences IV Collection database. http://www.jstor.org.vlib.excelsior.edu/stable/1961661

Bartels, L. M. (2000). Partisanship and voting behavior, 1952-1996. American Journal of Political Science. 44(1), 35-50. Retrieved from JSTOR Arts and Sciences IV Collection database. http://www.jstor.org.vlib.excelsior.edu/stable/2669291

Lien, P., Pinderhughes, D. M., Hardy-Fanta, C. & Sierra, C. M. (2007). The voting rights act and the election of nonwhite officials. PS: Political Science and Politics. 489-494 (DOI 10.1017/S7070746)

Wood, B.D. & Waterman, R.W. (1991). The dynamics of political control of the bureaucracy. American Political Science Review. 85(3), 801-28. Retrieved from JSTOR Arts and Sciences IV Collection database. http://www.jstor.org.vlib.excelsior.edu/stable/1963851

Segal, J. & Spaeth, H. (1996). The influence of stare decisis on the votes of United States supreme court justices. American Journal of Political Science. 40(4) 971-1003. Retrieved from JSTOR Arts and Sciences IV Collection database. http://www.jstor.org.vlib.excelsior.edu/stable/2111738

Canes-Wrone, B. & de Marchi, S. (2002). Presidential approval and legislative success. The Journal of Politics. 64(2), 491-509. Retrieved from JSTOR Arts and Sciences IV Collection database. http://www.jstor.org.vlib.excelsior.edu/stable/2691858

Binder, S. A. (1999). The dynamics of legislative gridlock, 1947-1996. American Political Science Review. 93(3) 519-533. Retrieved from JSTOR Arts and Sciences IV Collection database. http://www.jstor.org.vlib.excelsior.edu/stable/2585572


Adler, N. E., Ozer, E. J., Tschann, J., (2003). Abortion among adolescents. American Psychologist. 58(3), 211-217. Retrieved from PsycARTICLES database. http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=pdh&AN=amp-58-3-211&site=ehost-live

Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist. 55(5), 469-480. Retrieved from PsycARTICLES database. http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=pdh&AN=amp-55-5-469&site=ehost-live

Arnett, J. J. (2002). The psychology of globalization. American Psychologist. 57(10), 774-783. Retrieved from PsycARTICLES database. http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=pdh&AN=amp-57-10-774&site=ehost-live

Barnett, R.C. & Hyde, J.S. (2001). Women, men, work, and family. American Psychologist. 56(10), 781-796. Retrieved from PsycARTICLES database. http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=pdh&AN=amp-56-10-781&site=ehost-live

Burger, J.M. (2009). Replicating Milgram: would people still obey today? American Psychologist. 64(1), 1-11. Retrieved from PsycARTICLES database. http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=pdh&AN=amp-64-1-1&site=ehost-live

Ceci, S.J. & Papierno, P.B. (2005). The rhetoric and reality of gap closing: when the "have-nots" gain but the "haves" gain even more. American Psychologist. 60(2), 149-160. Retrieved from PsycARTICLES database. http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=pdh&AN=amp-60-2-149&site=ehost-live

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