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Instructions for Journalistic College Essay Examples

Title: narrative

Total Pages: 4 Words: 1138 Bibliography: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Choose an important local or national event that you remember hearing about, and use the following Web sites to help you locate newspaper or magazine articles about the event to find out more. Then, imagining that you have witnessed the event firsthand, write a 3-5 page narrative of what you experienced. Refer to Martin Gansberg's "" to see how to use dialogue in your narrative.

"" A list of links to journalistic sources including journalism organizations and libraries, research, newspapers, and radio and television channels.

"" This site offers links to media-related sites, including links to local newspapers across the United States.

"" This site offers links and in-depth information about news sources in virtually every nation in the world.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Ethics

Total Pages: 5 Words: 1427 Sources: 0 Citation Style: Chicago Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: We will pay $100.00 for this order!!


Introduction: Please read the "case study" carefully. Then, consult sources available to you: codes of ethics, books on journalism and broadcasting ethics, books on libel and privacy law - including, of course, your textbook which is Law of Mass Communications: Freedom and Control of Print and Broadcast Media, 12th edition by Teeter and Loving. Then assume the role of a news executive or public relations executive (depending on the nature of the "case study") and decide:

1) Would you publish the article or material?
2) Explain why, in detail. (Is it legal? Is it ethically supportable?)
3) Or, would you withhold this article or material from publication or broadcast?
4) If so, explain why, in detail. (Give reasons based on your research, NOT personal editorials. If you want to explain something by saying "I feel...," then chances are you haven't done enough research to find useful evidence to support your conclusions.

NOTE: You cannot rely on discussions of ethics codes by themselves. And as suggested in 4), above, you can't simply rely on your own gut feelings about this. Do research. Your decision must be based on sound legal and ethical reasons. And you must cite sources to support the points in your argument for or against publishing the material involved. Supply evidence.

Use the attached set of guidelines for citing sources in your paper. Do NOT create your own style for citing sources, and DO NOT USE "INTERNAL REFERENCES" IN PARENTHESES IN THE TEXT OF YOUR PAPER.

For citation style, follow instructions for footnotes OR endnotes from The University of Chicago Style Manual or Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations.

Your paper should be about five typewritten double-spaced pages, plus single-spaced end notes or footnotes. Don't write much more or much less, and use only one side of each page.

Endnotes are suggested, footnotes are fine, too, if you are comfortable doing them with Arabic, not Roman numerals. Citation numbers in the text should be one after the other, with no duplications: 1,2,3,4,5, etc., not i,ii,iii,iv., etc. Primary and secondary sources to which you refer must be properly cited. No bibliography is needed, because you will provide sufficiently complete information in your endnotes or footnotes.


Here are some "starters" to consult in preparing an ethics exercise. I'd begin by downloading appropriate Ethics Codes as listed in Appendix E in your textbook. If a URL has changed since the text was published in 2008, then google, say, Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics. This will provide some ethical guidelines. Then, run a google search on Journalism Ethics Sources, to see what turns up. That will lead you to web sites of universities and organizations such as The Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press.

In your readings as you begin research for an ethics paper, you are likely to find references to important scholarly publications in mass communications, including:

Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly
Journalism Educator
The Journal of Advertising Research
Journal of Broadcasting
Public Relations Quarterly
Media Law Reporter
The News Media and the Law
Journal of Communication Research
Student Press Law Center Reports
Quill Magazine
Columbia Journalism Review
American Journalism Review
Communication Law and Policy

Plus, law reviews, available in the Law School Library:

California Law Review
Columbia Law Review
Cornell Law Quarterly
Harvard Law Review
Michigan Law Review
Tennessee Law Review
Texas Law Journal
Yale Law Journal


1. Do not use "internal citations such as this: "The quick brown fox jumped a fence." (Leiter, p. 16)

2. Do use end notes or footnotes. Footnotes go at the bottom of the page. Endnotes go at the end of the paper. They are not alphabetized.

3. Both footnotes and end notes are numbered sequentially. Start with the number 1 and continue with subsequent numbers: 1,2,3,4,etc. Do not repeat source numbers in the text of your paper.

4. Once you cite a source fully on first reference and want to cite that source again, here's how it should be done.

1. Kelly Leiter, Julian Harriss, Stanley Johnson, The Complete Reporter, 7th ed., Boston, Allyn & Bacon, 2000, 16.

If your next citation comes immediately from that same source, same page, it should be cited this way:

2. Ibid.

If the next cite is same source, different page, make it:

3. Ibid., p. 22.

If, however, a different source is cited as endnote 2, and you want to cite Leiter, et al., again, make it:

4. Leiter, Harriss, and Johnson, p. 23.

5. If you cite a court decision, use this style, but only if you have read the case itself, complete with correct page numbers, either in the Law Library or as located on the internet. If you simply read the case from your textbook, you should acknowledge where you found it, citing the textbook, too, and the relevant page(s).

Abrams v. United States, 250 U.S. 616, 429, 40 S.Ct. 17, 22 (1919).

6. If you did not read a court decision in the Law Library, but found it, say, on the internet, provide URL with your first citation of that case so your readers can look up the same source. And to cite from your textbook:

Abrams v. United States, 250 U.S. 616, 621, 40 S.Ct. 17, 19 (1919), as cited in Dwight L. Teeter, Jr. and Bill Loving, Law of Mass Communications, 12th ed., New York, Foundation Press, 2008), pp. 26-27.

Otherwise, you are wrongly claiming research you did not do.

7. If you are citing an academic or professional journal, use this style:

Don R. Pember, "The Pentagon Papers Decision: More Questions Than Answers, Journalism Quarterly 48:3 (Autumn 1971), p. 404.


Diane Zimmerman, "False Light Invasion of Privacy: The Light That Failed," Quill, March, 1977, p. 15.


Dwight L. Teeter, Jr. and Don R. Pember, "The Retreat from Obscenity: Redrup v. New York," Hastings Law Journal, Vol. 21 (Nov. 1969), pp. 175-189.

For a popular magazine:

Richard Schickel, "Dream Work," Time, April 28, 1980, p. 76.

And for a newspaper cite:

Tony Mauro, "Journalist may need taped evidence of quotes," USA Today, June 21, 1991, p. 8A.

8. Don't simply download sources from the internet. You should do a substantial amount of library research for each exercise. Internet citations need to be annotated: tell whose website it is, provide the URL, give page numbers whenever possible, and list when you visited that site.

If you do your endnotes or footnotes properly, there is no need for a Bibliography.


"President Barack Obama will need to preserve the gains in Executive Branch power achieved during the George W. Bush administration."

Quotes should have a name or source attached to them. For example:

Former Vice President Dick Cheney said, "President Barack Obama will need to preserve the gains in Executive Branch power achieved during the George W. Bush administration.

Do you agree with this blind quote?

"It is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for a great man to be elected president of the United States."

But use attribution:

German dictator Adolf Hitler said, "It is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than for a great man to be elected president of the United States." (NOW do you agree with that statement? See the differences that attribution makes?)

Then in the endnotes or footnotes give the complete citation: author, title, publisher or publication, edition, date, page number(s).

REMEMBER: In citations, COMPLETENESS counts: Author, title, publisher or publication, place of publication if it's a book, year, volume number, and page number(s).


The Situation:

You are the managing editor of the Portland Post, a large general circulation daily with a rapidly expanding web presence. Your top political reporter, Woodward Bernstein, has been investigating rumors that your state's U.S. Senator, Harry Berry, had molested a number of women in recent years. Senator Berry is running for re-election to another six-year term.

Those rumors included stories that he had drugged women before molesting them. Bernstein's checking of the rumors included talking repeatedly to a former Berry aide, Mabel Mosby. She finally told Bernstein that she had left Berry's senatorial office because she had been drugged and molested last year, and that she believed that the public needed to know about Berry. Mosby swears to that information in an affidavit, and tells Bernstein he may use her name when he breaks a story on Senator Berry's illegal and immoral behavior.

Four other women who have suffered similar mistreatment are named by Bernstein's first source. They offer confirming details, but do not want their names used in his story. Reporter Bernstein doggedly stays on the story, finally convincing the women that they will be identified only in general terms. These women finally agree to sign affidavits, including that they would testify in court if Senator Berry sues the Portland Post for libel.

About four months before the general election, the newspaper is ready to break its story. The managing editor tells his publisher and the corporation's lawyer that it has evidence of immoral behavior by Senator Berry from five trustworthy women. The account is proposed for publication, using no names but only brief listings of information about the women, their ages, job categories, education, and so forth.

Journalistic codes of ethics - see, for example, the Society of Professional Journalists Code - say that before a story attacking someone is published, that individual should be given a chance to respond. The day before a story is to be published, Senator Berry is telephoned about noon by reporter Bernstein, who tells him the nature of what will be published. Does Senator Berry wish to comment?

Senator Berry replied angrily, "No comment, you sleazy _____(epithet deleted). You choose to ruin my life and my career as a public servant with words you say come from nameless accusers...hypothetical accusers who don't dare show their faces."

Look at relevant libel and privacy decisions, and also at a journalistic yardstick such as the Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics. Considering the legal and ethical ramifications of this situation, should the newspaper:

1) Publish the story? Why or why not?
2) Is it ever proper to publish a story based on anonymous sources?
3) If the senator resigns, is the story still newsworthy?
4) What if Senator Berry calls the newspaper before a publication, threatening suicide if the story is published? So you still publish the story?
5) Does the public need to know this information?
6) What impact would use of anonymous sources have on the newspaper's reputation for accuracy and fairness?
7) What steps would you take to make sure that the women accusing Senator Berry are telling the truth?
8) What legal ramifications (if any) might result from the newspaper publishing this story based on its confidential investigation of confidential courses?

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Blogging

Total Pages: 20 Words: 6204 References: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: APPLY Coupon Code: 5-45305320

This is a Masters Research Paper in Communications

SPECS: 20 pages, 30+ sources , MLA citation style

TITLE: ?The Impact of the Blogs?
I have provided a general outline with some notes/examples to help you get started.

Please email me if you have any questions. My email is or call 914/469-8725.

Due: May, 8, 2005



III. IMPACT: Politics, Journalism, Corporate World, Academia


-Bloggers influence on mainstream media.

-Presidential candidate Howard Dean used blogs to rally supporters

-Example: Blogs detailing documents that CBS used to question President Bush?s -National Guard Service were picked apart by bloggers, who pointed out font differences in the documents and thus raised questions about their authenticicity. Scandal known in blogosphere ?as Rathergate.? Blogs have been credited with forcing an apology from CBS News anchor Dan Rather for use of questionable documents in las fall?s ?60 Minute?s Wednesday? report on President Bush National Guard service.

-Example: Bloggers detailed Senator Trent Lott?s glowing ments in 2002 about Strom Thurmond?s presidential run in 1948 during which he supported segregation. Later Lott gave up a bid to be Senate majority leader

-use other examples you feel worth mentioning

B) Journalism:
-Touch on the debate?critics of blogging phenomenon argue that there is a loss of journalistic integrity, but I would argue that it is keeping traditional media in check (fact checkers) ?less agenda promoting by journalists/reporters..

-Infiltration and integration---weblogs are plementary media available to journalists.

-Use examples of popular newspapers/major Media Corporation that have incorporated weblogs into their organization.

-Blogs can be udated any time, the reporter can update from anywhere using a laptop (REAL TIME NEWS) i.e.) Bloggers immediate feedback from December?s tsunami in Asia, instant feedback from war in Iraq

-Promoting free speech, free-expression

(You may want to glean from this?up to you!)

Weblogs are a fairly new phenomenon, and their adaptation into the journalism is even more recent. Since the technology has only recently found popularity, its application into journalism is bound to be faced with problems. The most controversial problem is whether or not weblogs should remain unedited, as if they do the information is perhaps not as credible, but if they don?t, the spontaneity, and one of blogging?s greatest appeals is lost. On top of that, weblogs also face other disadvantages. Due to the nature of blogs, it?s possible that some of the content may offend readers. Furthermore, there?s also the possibility that reports may bee too personal, over analysed or feature meaningless observations.
Weblogs are a fairly spontaneous medium, and as a result of that, content of news reports in blogs may offend some readers. This is one of the biggest problems the journalism industry faces when using weblogs as a method of reporting the news. For example, in a film review in The New Republic magazine, blogger Gregg Easterbrook called two Hollywood executives ?Jewish Executives? who ?worship money above all else?. This ment was viewed by many readers as anti-semitic and the magazine was inundated with plaints. (Heyboer, 2003)

C) Corporations/business:
-How are pany?s using weblogs? Marketing---web diaries are moving from the personal to the professional without losing their personal touch, and it's that inherent chatty format that makes blogs the ideal way to build credibility with customers.

-Company employees operating blogs about pany.

-Blog-related firings prompt calls for better policies. i.e.) Google employee, Microsoft contractor(Michael Hans), Delta Air emplyoyee (Simonetti)

-Microsoft, Sun Microsystems, General Motors and Boeing are just some of the panies that use blogs to municate with their employees and outsiders

D) Academia/Higher Education

E) Personal journal-style blogging:


-Why do people blog? Solidarity, networking, social implications

(You may want to glean from this ?up to you!)

Personal blogging also has cultural and social implications in today?s modern society. As a subset of gender, this topic reflects on how social and cultural circumstances impact on people?s reasons for using weblogs.
Long before the terrorist attacks of 911 and the War on Iraq, people, mostly women, began using blogging to counter their country?s cultural beliefs and get their voices heard in a place where they could not be persecuted (Herring, Kouper, Scheidt and Wright, 2003). The history of other online discussion forums, as with weblogs, shows that a ?democratising? technology does not result in social equality and points to the importance of social and cultural factors surrounding technological adoptions and their use (Herring, Kouper, Scheidt and Wright, 2004).
Weblogs are providing a way for women in Iran to talk freely and ment on taboo subjects such as sex and boyfriends, share their fears and aspirations and are providing insight into an otherwise closed society (Hermida, 2002).
"Women in Iran cannot speak out frankly because of our Eastern culture and there are some taboos just for women, such as talking about sex or the right to choose your partner. I have the opportunity to talk about these things and share my experiences with others,? stated one female blogger (Hermida, 2002).
However, blogging in countries where culture affects what people can and cannot discuss isn?t just for women. Although in places such as Iran, Iraq and other middle eastern countries, where men have a higher status than women and have the ability to work, speak their mind and overall have more access to technology than women, there are still issues that men cannot talk about in public which they air in their blogs.
?It was a good tool to get to know what is happening in Iran, what the youth are talking about and what their problems are,? said Hossein Derakhshan, creator of one of the first blogs in Persian (Hermida, 2002).
The subtopic of gender discussed how gender affects the type of blog that a person uses. Adult males have been seen to use filter type blogs and k-logs, which are politcally and news based, while teenage females and females in general are the main consumers of journal blogs, which detail the days events and the bloggers thoughts (Herring, Kouper, Scheidt and Wright, 2004).
The reasons that shape which type of blog will be chosen on the basis of author demographics, such as age and gender, is affected by the social and cultural boundaries of society. The stereotypical roles of men and women, such that the men earn the money and the women take care of the house and their children, affects the fact that women like to talk more about personal things, rather than men who talk about business, news, current events and politics, this is evident in the type of blogs that they choose. Teenagers are similar to women in that they are experiencing new things all the time, going to school and dealing with physical and emotional changes and therefore they need an outlet to voice their feelings (Barista, 2004).
Blogging is just part of the mix of reality TV, celebrity exposed and live news being beamed into our living rooms around the clock (Blogging ? The New Voyeurism 2002). It can be seen that the cultural and social trends that are prevelent in the world today, although varying from country to country, have a major affect on how people interact with others, how they portray themselves and what type of weblog they use. Overall these boundaries shape the way the society works and the way that people view personal blogging.

? Where is blogging going? (I would argue that blogging is not just a trendy thing, but rather here to stay.)

-You might want to pare the weblog impact to that of the printing press, radio, TV and/or telephone.

(Tie-in somewhere in the paper) Marshall McLuhan: Blogging is going to revolutionize the way we get information and will shake-up the sanitized, puritanized, homogenized corporate media plex, Marshall McLuhan, in his groundbreaking work ?Understanding media?, recognized how fundamental media is to learning and how media can effect the socio-psychological construct of our culture. Also, very importantly, I think, McLuhan was really focused on media?s impact on the individual, he defined media as technological extensions of the human body. Back in 1964, when color TV was catching on and long before the Apple Computer, McLuhan wrote of electronic media as extensions of our nervous system. Talk about presience?.Now we can share our news, our perceptions, our experiences, our insights, our understandings. This collective munication can and will bee the body of knowledge that informs our culture and society. If the medium is the message, then the message is simple -- we are taking back the collective understanding of our society and our culture away from the media gatekeepers who decide what it is we should know and how we should know it long before they report.

Blogging?the evolution of cyberrelationships---sort of a manifestation of McLuhan?s ?Global Village?. He predicted that electronic technology would decentralize power and information, which would allow people to live in areas far from major urbane center and still have access to the same information.

VI. Conclusion

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Joyce Carol Oates

Total Pages: 4 Words: 1500 Works Cited: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: This is a research paper/essay on Joyce Carol Oates. In this paper we are to discuss changes in her non-fiction literary style from her earliest works to her most recent. We are supposed to refer to when her first non-fiction article was published and when her most recent article appeared. Then we are to give examples from them or other non-fiction works of hers that show changing trend in her literary style over time. We also have to cite the examples we use from her works and make comments on the examples we give. In particular, we are supposed to look at whether Oates has become more "Literary" or "journalistic" in her writing over time. We must have a bibliography of all works cited.

Excerpt From Essay:

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