Berkhalter, Denise L. "Behind the Boycott.," The Crisis (March-April 2006).
Brown, Nikki L.M. And Stentiford Barry. The Jim Crow Encyclopedia: Greenwood Milestones in African-American History. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2008.
Dailey, Jane, Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth and Simon Bryant. Jumpin' Jim Crow: southern politics from Civil War to civil rights. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Hasday, Judy L. The Civil Rights Act of 1964: An End to Racial Segregation. New York: Chelsea House, 2007.
Simpson, Brooks D. Union and emancipation. Kent: The Kent University Press, 1997.
Brooks D. Simpson, Union and emancipation (Kent: The Kent University Press, 1997), 102.
Judy L. Hasday, The Civil Rights Act of 1964: An End to Racial Segregation (New York: Chelsea House, 2007), 36.
Nikki L.M. Brown and Barry Stentiford, The Jim Crow Encyclopedia: Greenwood Milestones in African-American History (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2008), 348.
Denise L. Berkhalter, "Behind the Boycott," The Crisis (March-April 2006), 22.
Jane Daily et al. Jumpin' Jim Crow: southern politics from Civil War to civil rights (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000), 31.
Ferris State University, (2012). What was Jim Crow. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from http://www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/what.htm
Merriam-Webster Dictionary, (2014). Social Pathology: Full Definition of Social Pathology. Retrieved March 28, 2014 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/social%20pathology
The decision in Plessy was the definitive law on segregation until Brown v. Board of Education. In Brown, the plaintiff alleged that being forced to attend a Black-only school was a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. Because the Supreme Court had consistently approved racially segregated facilities, the legal team in Brown provided substantial evidence, not only that the facilities provided to Blacks were inferior, but also that these inferior facilities had detrimental effects on Black students. The resulting decision, now referred to as Brown I, was that separate educational facilities were inherently unequal. Unfortunately, the decision in Brown I lost much of its bite the following year, when the Court, in a decision now referred to as Brown II, directed states to comply with the decision in Brown I with all deliberate speed. The reality was that compliance with Brown took many years.
While actual compliance with Brown was not immediate, Brown was significant in that it marked the end of legal segregation. Although Brown was only aimed at overturning school segregation, Brown's effect was much broader. Having decided that school segregation violated the Fourteenth Amendment, the Court could no longer rubber-stamp other segregationist laws. Brown was followed by the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which gave teeth to the decision and opened up the door to federal enforcement of state civil rights violations.
Looking at the history of race legislation in the United States, one sees a history of laws that restrict the rights of Blacks, legislation aimed at defeating discrimination, and then retaliatory laws. Currently, the United States is in a period of expanded rights for minorities. However, there have been several incidents of people using laws aimed at correcting the evils of slavery and racial discrimination to promote whites above minorities by claiming reverse discrimination. Even though there is more racial equality in the United States than there has been at any other time in its history, it would be naive to assume that racial equality will continue to grow without another wave of serious opposition.
Chinese Exclusion Act (Accessed 5-20-07)
Davis, Ronald Ph.D. Creating Jim Crow: In-Depth Essay (Accessed 5-20-07)
Definition of Jim Crow Laws (Accessed 5-20-07)
Johnson, Kevin (1998) Race, the Immigration Laws, and Domestic Race Relations: a "Magic Mirror" into the Heart of Darkness, 73 Indiana Law Journal 1111-1159, 1112-1148
Racial policy and racial conflict in the urban United States, 1869-1924 *.
From: Social Forces | Date: December 1, 2003 | Author: Shanahan, Suzanne | More results for: evolution of racial exclusion laws