Search Our Essay Database

Ivan Pavlov Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Ivan Pavlov College Essay Examples

Title: Ivan Pavlov

Total Pages: 2 Words: 610 Sources: 1 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Specifics: 2 pages, double spaced, 12 pt font, Times New Roman, 1 inch margins.

Sources (1):
From Classics in the History of Psychology
(This should be the ONLY source used in the essay)

Topic: Ivan Pavlov
Write a 2 page essay discussing and analysizing the lecture by Ivan Pavolv (see sources above)

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: Therapeutic Methods Models

Total Pages: 3 Words: 1255 References: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: Summary:
This is a 3-page paper on psychology. It is in APA format. The paper discusses the timeline of therapeutic psychology.

Please write a 3 pages discussing three Psychologist and their Therapeutic Methods and models.
Starting with Sigmund Freud, then Ivan Pavlov, and then Carl Jung. (You will not conclude the paper; you will end the paper as you are going into the third psychologist Carl Jung You do not have to complete his methods but you must start getting into it.)

Basic Instructions:
1) Do not take up space writing the biography of these psychologists, be very brief in this area, just give some basic background. I do not want too much focus on their personal history; I want you to focus on their therapeutic methods and models only ( basically focus on how they used their methods when treating a patient, what would they do, how would they do it, what models did they use, what did the model consist of.

2) The basic idea is to get from the early 1900's up until today, explaining the different Methods leading up to the methods of today.( You will not actually get to todays methods, you will stop as you are getting into Carl Jung.)

3) I will provide you with the first page of the paper, and I want you to work the three psychologists into it.

5) This is the beginning of a time line of up to seven psychologist and their methods, when you get to the last page please do not conclude the paper. What I want you to do is start going into the next psychologist which would be. Carl Jung, going into a brief history of Jung, then start discussing when and how his methods came into play. Befor you get to the stoping point you should be starting to talk about his methods and model.

Please provide for me all the sources material you use to write this paper. I will fax you all the information I can, and please try to use it. When you send the paper to me, please send your source work from which you sited from.

I must have the work sited. Please make sure you provide me with this information.



Timeline of Therapeutic Psychology
[Name of the Institution]

Timeline of Therapeutic Psychology
Psychotherapy, which uses psychological methods to treat emotional and mental disorders, has been used in different societies for centuries. However, it was not until the nineteenth century that psychotherapeutic methods received attention of researchers and scientists. Sigmund Freud is considered as the founder of modern psychotherapy, as he was the first one to develop theoretical models for psychotherapeutic treatment. Although, some of his theories are widely questioned by the modern psychologists, his treatment methods are still used for psychotherapies in somewhat modified forms. Freud published some of his research, concerning the treatment of hysteria in 1893 & 1895, which formed the foundation of his psychoanalytical theory. In the years to come, Alfred Adler and C.G. Jung also joined him in his research and made significant contributions towards the development of psychoanalytical theories. One of the students of C.G. Jung was Jean Piaget, who did considerable research in child psychology and made a significant contribution towards developmental psychology. In addition to this, he also published his work on a number of other topics.
Psychologists like Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers introduced some improved methods of Humanistic psychotherapy. They focused towards the development of a positive and interactive client-therapist relationship, as they believed that self-awareness was essential for effective psychotherapy. Another psychologist, Albert Ellis, introduced a new method of psychotherapy, generally referred to as rational-emotive therapy, which recommends arguing with the patient about his or her negative experiences and views. Finally, Jean-Paul Sartre introduced the theory of existentialism, which allowed the psychologists to developed improved psychoanalytical models and theories.

There are faxes for this order.

Excerpt From Essay:

Essay Instructions: Assignment:

Home work assignment week five

Multiple choice questions through week four?s reading and lectures.


Home work assignment week five

Multiple choice questions through week four?s reading and lectures.


1. Psychologists use scientific methods to study

A. behavior and mental processes.

B. behavioral disorders.

C. unconscious mental processes.

D. the meaning of dreams.

2. Cognitive psychology can best be described as

A. the study of higher mental processes.

B. the therapeutic applications of critical thinking.

C. the area of psychology which attempts to reduce judgmental thinking.

D. a subspecialty of psychology based exclusively on observation rather than experimentation.

3. Who was a leading proponent of behaviorism in the United States until his/her death in 1990?

A. Carl Rogers

B. B. F. Skinner

C. Ivan Pavlov

D. Albert Bandura

4. Charles Darwin argued that ______ determines physical traits of survival.

A. cognition

B. genetics

C. environment

D. nurture

5. With what psychological approach is Sigmund Freud associated?

A. psychodynamic

B. humanistic

C. cognitive

D. sociocultural

6. Which of the following best describes a correlational study?

A. research that studies the naturally occurring relationship between two or more variables

B. research that explains the effects of one variable on another

C. research in which people are observed in their natural environment

D. research in which a carefully selected group of people is asked a predetermined group of questions

7. A researcher predicted that talking to plants enhances their growth. She gave 24 plants the same amount of food, water, and sunlight. She talked to 12 of the plants daily for 6 weeks. In this experiment, what is the dependent variable?

A. the same amount of food, water, and sunlight

B. the plants

C. talking

D. plant growth

8. A researcher predicted that talking to plants enhances their growth. She gave 24 plants the same amount of food, water, and sunlight. She talked to 12 of the plants daily for 6 weeks. In this experiment, what is the independent variable?

A. the same amount of food, water, and sunlight

B. the plants

C. talking

D. plant growth

9. In a formal experiment, which group is the control group?

A. the group that is subjected to manipulation

B. the randomly assigned group

C. the group that is not subjected to manipulation

D. the group that is representative of the general population

10. In a formal experiment, which group is the experimental group?

A. the group that is subjected to manipulation

B. the randomly assigned group

C. the group that is not subjected to manipulation

D. the group that is representative of the general population

11. Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The mean of these five scores is

A. 10

B. 15

C. 20

D. 25

12. Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25, and 40. The median of these five scores is

A. 10

B. 15

C. 20

D. 25

13. Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 20, and 40. The mode of these five scores is

A. 10

B. 15

C. 20

D. 25

14. The primary function of dendrites is to

A. keep the cell alive.

B. transmit outgoing information.

C. secrete hormones.

D. receive incoming information.

15. Which subpart of the brain is located at the rear base of the skull?

A. forebrain

B. corpus callosum

C. midbrain

D. hindbrain

16. Conscious experience and voluntary actions are mediated by the

A. limbic system.

B. cerebral cortex.

C. cerebellum.

D. cingulate cortex.

17. The area critical for processing visual information is the

A. parietal lobe.

B. occipital lobe.

C. frontal lobe.

D. cerebellar cortex.

18. Most neurons send information to

A. glial cells.

B. the nucleus.

C. other neurons.

D. muscle groups.

19. The three-foot-spike which damaged the Phineas Gage?s frontal lobe resulted in

A. a hearing loss.

B. reduced ability to interpret visual information.

C. reduction in immunity to common diseases.

D. changes in personality.

20. The left hemisphere of the brain moves

A. the legs and forearms.

B. the right side of the body.

C. the left side of the body.

D. all areas contacted by the peripheral nervous system.

21. Every day, you see, hear, smell, taste and feel stimuli from the outside world. Collecting data about that world is the function of _________, and interpreting the data collected is the function of __________.

A. the brain; the spinal cord

B. the spinal cord; the brain

C. sensation; perception

D. perception; sensation

22. You are aware of the thoughts running through your mind and the emotions triggered by some of those thoughts. You are also aware of the sounds you hear and the things you see in the room and outside the window, and of the smell of coffee brewing in the kitchen and the smell of freshly cut grass coming in the window. You would be considered to be in a state of

A. consciousness.

B. transcendence.

C. divided perception.

D. heightened sensation.

23. According to Freud, mental processes that occur without a person being aware of them are

A. daydreams.

B. unconscious.

C. nonconscious.

D. conscious.

24. Sleep deprivation has been shown to

A. increase the inability to sustain attention.

B. impair the storage and maintenance of memories.

C. increase difficulty in making moral decisions.

D. have any or all of these influences upon people.

25. In classical conditioning situations, the _____ connection is innate, but the _____ connection is learned.





26. Which of the following is NOT associated with Skinner?

A. the Skinner box

B. operant conditioning

C. schedules of reinforcement

D. free will

27. Dr. Meyer is known for his difficult pop quizzes. Immediately before he springs a pop quiz on his students, he typically goes to the classroom door and closes it. Students soon learn to anticipate a pop quiz whenever Dr. Meyer closes the classroom door. Closing the door has become a(n)

A. CS.



D. CR.

28. The behavioral approach to learning defines learning in terms of

A. thoughts and feelings.

B. wishes and fantasies.

C. change.

D. grades.

29. Every week during football season, Fred and his friends have fun following the local high school teams. Before the games, Fred never really talks too much about how the games will turn out. On Monday, however, it is a different scenario altogether. Fred is more than happy to share with his friends that the games came out exactly as he thought they would and why. Fred is demonstrating

A. overconfidence bias.

B. hindsight bias.

C. inductive reasoning.

D. deductive reasoning.

30. According to Noam Chomsky, the fact that children all over the world acquire language at the same time indicates that

A. nature provides children with a prewired universal grammar.

B. language is learned through reinforcement.

C. language is learned through imitation.

D. language is influenced by the parents? vocabulary.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: spanking

Total Pages: 3 Words: 793 Bibliography: 0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: Please let me know any question you might have.

Instructions start

I need a one sided debate on the attached Research Paper.

It needs to have a thesis, supporting points, and a conclusion. Use the research journal articles(at the end of this text) to provide support for the controversial issue.

These are not moral absolute topics, with one right answer; you should be able to present arguments on either side of the issue, regardless of your personal opinion, because you are a Formal Operational thinker. It is often wise to debate the opposing side, just to test or to strengthen your opinion.

The Debate assignment should be different from the Research Paper, although it covers some of the same information and uses the same research sources. The Debate still uses formal language, but is more personal or persuasive since it is intended for an audience of your classmates. It also has some graded categories that are not necessary for the Research Paper. Write the Debate as if you were orally presenting it to an audience. Your classmates will watch your Power Point presentation and read your Debate as if they were watching and listening to you.

Instructions end

Research Paper...

There is perhaps no more inflammatory a topic within the subject of childrearing than the topic of corporal punishment. This is an issue that people tend to feel very strongly about one way or the other ? strength of feeling that is most usually based in moral and ethical beliefs rather than purely empirical ones. This paper attempts to examine the issue from a more empirical perspective, considering the nature of the research on this issue more than simple emotional responses to the topic. Nevertheless, this paper does take as an initial hypothesis the assumption that corporal punishment is a not an appropriate method by which to discipline a child. This position is actually twofold: This paper seeks to prove whether or not it is true that corporal punishment is harmful to children not only from a moral or ethical point of view but also from a purely pragmatic one.
A question of definition should be addressed first. The range of behavior that is included here under ?corporal punishment? includes spanking and slapping. It does not include more severe forms of physical punishment (from punching to beating with any sort of implement.) This latter range of behaviors are considered under law to be child abuse, and we shall for the purpose of this paper set those aside.
Many people ? those who are opponents of all forms of corporal punishment ? believe that even such relatively mild forms of physical punishment as spanking are in fact forms of child abuse. The strongest opponents of corporal punishment consider the use of physical force to be not only morally wrong but also counterproductive. Opponents of corporal punishment tend to believe that spanking and other forms of physical punishment make children more aggressive as well as less well adjusted socially ? conditions that tend to exacerbate whatever behavior it was that prompted the spanking or slapping to begin with. This means that this unwanted behavior is likely to reoccur in an even more exaggerated form and be even harder to stop.

Classical Learning Theories and the Pragmatics of Corporal Punishment
There is, in fact, not a small amount of psychological research to support at least the pragmatic arguments against corporal punishment ? setting the moral ones aside for a moment. The reasons for the limited usefulness of corporal punishment lie in the way in which humans learn. To understand this, we will turn briefly to two classical psychological models of human behavior.
Pavlovian conditioning is in fact a type of learning. Indeed, it is perhaps the most famously documented type of learning that there is. It is difficult indeed to imagine that there exists a college student anywhere in the Western Hemisphere who has not heard the story of how Ivan Pavlov came up with the idea of teaching his dog to associate the sound of a ringing bell with the introduction of food. (We all know the ending of this story: Pavlov was able to make his dog salivate in anticipation of being fed whenever he heard the meal-time bell ? and even after Pavlov no longer followed up the bell with food the dog continued to salivate for a number of repetitions of the experiment.)
Pavlovian Learning makes use of various types of stimuli and responses to those stimuli. A conditioned stimulus is one that initially has no connection to the response to be learned (a ringing bell means food is on its way = a conditioned response). An unconditioned stimuli is a stimulus that produces the response you want without the animal having to learn it (moving your hand away from fire = an unconditioned response).

Although Pavlovian conditioning as a form of learning is usually contrasted with operant conditioning as a form of learning, for the purposes of this paper (and the experiment that it describes) I shall argue that operant conditioning as a way of learning is in fact closely related to Pavlovian conditioning.
It is true that there are differences between Pavlovian and operant conditioning, primarily the fact that in the latter a response is not connected to a stimulus but rather to a a reward or a punishment. However, I would argue that while it is true that the rewards and punishment that are usually used in experiments involving operant learning are more abstract than the stimuli that are generally associated with Pavlovian learning, this greater degree of abstraction does not mean that the two forms of learning are not in fact fundamentally the same.
Operant conditioning is a model in which a subject learns to increase the frequency of a behavior because that behavior is followed by a reward or ? the converse ? a subject learns to decrease the frequency of a behavior because he or she has learned to associate the activity with a punishment. It seems clear to me that there is a fundamental epistemological similarity between a subject?s learning to do something because he or she hears a bell ringing and a subject?s learning to do something (or learning not to do something) because he or she will be given a toffee sundae for complying.
An essential point about experiments involving both operant and Pavlovian conditioning is that psychologists have consistently found through positive reinforcements (what we might in lay language call rewards) tend to be highly effective, negative reinforcements (what we usually call punishments) are in fact unlikely to produce substantial behavioral changes.
Those parents ? and teachers ? who believe that corporal punishment is not only effective but also necessary in general argue that physical discipline is in fact the only kind of response that children truly understand. They argue that the less well-developed cognitive skills of children make it impossible to reason with them in the same way that those parents or teachers could reason with other adults.
Physical punishment, proponents of it conclude, is the only way to ensure not only will the children be well behaved but that they will grow up to be disciplined and productive teenagers and adults. They argue against the psychological research by pointing to their own experiences both as children and as adults.

Intercultural and Intracultural Variation
It should noted that ideas about the appropriateness and effectiveness of corporal punishment vary widely from one cultural group to the next as well as from individual to individual within each group. Many European nations now have laws forbidding the use of any corporal punishment, which children (and their attorneys) have successfully argued violates the European convention on human rights.

There is a high degree of variation amongst American populations as to the efficiency and value of corporal punishment. Poorer parents (who are more likely to be minorities) tend to be more inclined to approve of corporal punishment ? in large measure because they feel that it is their responsibility in a world in which they have power over little else.

Literature Review
One of the reasons that Americans at least ? if not Europeans ? have such mixed ideas about the appropriateness and effectiveness of corporal punishment is that many of the experts for whom they rely on for advice about childrearing are themselves rather conflicted over the issue.
For example, if we look at a survey conducted in 1998, we find that pediatricians reflect the range of opinions held by Americans in general about corporal punishment. This survey, which asked opinions of members of the American Academy of Pediatrics, defined corporal punishment to be ?the use of spanking as a form of discipline ? not include hitting, beating or other actions that might be considered child abuse.?
While pediatricians always recommended against the use of spanking as the initial form of punishment to be used, some did believe that it was appropriate some of the time.
Pediatricians' Opinions on Use of Corporal Punishment
(percent of pediatricians reporting)

Generally oppose the use of corporal punishment by parents,
but an occasional spanking under certain circumstances can
be an effective form of discipline
Completely oppose the use of corporal punishment by parents
under any circumstances
Support, in principle, the limited use of corporal punishment
by parents
Unsure of opinion on the use of corporal punishment by parents 53.4%




Source: AAP Periodic Survey #38, Division of Child Health Research

However, just four years later, this past month the American Academy of Pediatrics ? in association with the National Education Association ? came out with a much stronger statement against corporal punishment.

All children need discipline on hundreds of occasions but there are alternatives to spanking, such as redirecting (distracting) the child, taking away a privilege, or sending a child to his or her room. We can raise children to be agreeable, disciplined, responsible, productive adults without ever spanking them.
There are several good arguments for not using corporal punishment at all. Spanking carries the risk of triggering the unrelated pent-up anger that many adults carry inside them. This anger could escalate a well-intentioned spanking and result in child abuse. Parents who turn to spanking as a last resort for ?breaking their child?s will? may find that they have underestimated their child's determination. In addition, physical punishment worsens aggressive behavior because it teaches a child to lash out when he or she is angry. Other forms of discipline can be more constructive, leaving a child with some sense of guilt and contributing to the formation of a conscience.

The range of beliefs and practices concerning corporal punishment are as much due to personal ? and personality ? differences as to such structural differences as class and ethnicity. This article in the American Psychological Association's Journal of Family Psychology argued that class is often the best predictor of how adults are likely to feel about the efficacy and ethics of using corporal punishment.
Low-income parents tend to endorse much harsher discipline, according to a new study, in part because they hold stronger beliefs about the value of spanking and experience higher levels of stress. And even though a parent's ethnicity didn't have a direct affect on discipline responses, African American parents did report higher levels of stress and used harsher discipline when their children misbehaved.

Adult attitudes about corporal punishment are important for two distinct reasons. The first of these is the more obvious: Adults are the ones who administer corporal punishment, and so if they do not believe in it they will not administer it. But adult attitudes are also important because they create a psychological context within which children (both those who are hit and those who are not) understand the nature of their punishment.
Children growing up in communities in which corporal punishment is commonplace tend to be less psychologically damaged by being spanked or hit than those children who grow up with friends who are not subjected to corporal punishment.
Marjorie Gunnoe, a psychologist, verified this rather commonsense finding. In a study that she performed with 1,110 children (who ranged in age from 4 to 11) found first of all that overall the children in her study who were spanked or slapped by their parents did in fact became more antisocial.
However, she also found a statistically significant association between spanking and increased aggression (which she operationalized in terms of the number of fights that the boys got into at school) only among one group ? white boys aged 8 to 11 years old living in single-parent households.
Even more surprising than this, Gunnoe found that there was a statistically significant association between spanking and less aggression among all black children (boys and girls of all ages and in a variety of household structures) as well as among all of the four- to seven-year-olds ? regardless of gender, race, or family structure.
She argues that these statistically significant findings can be best explained in terms of the differential ways in which groups of children understand the meaning of being spanked or slapped.
Her theory is that children under 8 tend to regard spanking as a parent's rightful exercise of authority, while older children are more likely to see it as aggressive because they are less willing to accept parental authority.
In addition, Dr. Gunnoe proposes that black children are more inclined than white children to think spanking is acceptable because it is favored in the black community. "In therapy, some black mothers say, 'Timeouts are for white people,' " Dr. Gunnoe said, referring to a method advocated in many child-care books of isolating a child briefly as punishment for misbehavior.

When parents use corporal punishment to reduce ASB, the long-term effect tends to be the opposite. The findings suggest that if parents replace corporal punishment by nonviolent modes of discipline, it could reduce the risk of ASB among children and reduce the level of violence in American society.

This study, by Mary Spurgeon, did find effects of corporal punishment to be differentiated by group of children, but found an overall increase in aggression in all children who were hit.

It should be noted in concluding this paper that the issue of aggression and anti-social behavior is a highly complex one, in no small part because the range of aggressive behavior that exists in humans cannot be entirely explained by references to any single aspect of their lives, and certainly not to the use of corporal punishment alone. Certainly it has often been confirmed that those who are violent as teens or adults are more likely to have been hit when they were children.
However ? and this is one of the reasons that corporal punishment remains such a difficult issue for so many people ? this fact does not mean that it was the corporal punishment that caused them to be violent when they grew up. It is entirely possible that children who are more aggressive when young are spanked more precisely because they were already more aggressive. There is also the real possibility that that parents who spank or hit their children may be more aggressive on average than other parents ? perhaps because of their own genetic make-up, which they will have passed on to their children.
Lessin, R. (1979). Spanking: Why, when, how. Dallas: Bethany House.
Surratt, C. (1999). Netaholics? : The creation of a pathology. Boston: Nova.

Excerpt From Essay:

Request A Custom Essay On This Topic


I really do appreciate I'm not a good writer and the service really gets me going in the right direction. The staff gets back to me quickly with any concerns that I might have and they are always on time.

Tiffany R

I have had all positive experiences with I will recommend your service to everyone I know. Thank you!

Charlotte H

I am finished with school thanks to They really did help me graduate college..

Bill K