Essay Instructions: This essay need to sketch the process of the Iranian Revolution as described in the text by James DeFronzo starting with the Shah and ending before the Gulf War of 1991. The text that you need to analyze starts with the section on the Pahlavi Dynasty on page 292 and ends with Iran and the 1991 Gulf War on page 325 (these pages will be sent to you). Impose order on the text to describe the background, origins, process and immediate impact of the Iranian Revolution. You need to extract or outline the author's argument and how it it supported. Start the essay with an introductionoutlining the significance of the Iranian Revolution and a thesis indicating what will follow in the essay.
The essay must have an introduction, a body in which you develop the argument and a conclusion. Make sure that it is broken down into secions each with a Roman Numeral. Throughout the essay you need to identify that you draw on DeFronzo's work. Use phrases such as : DeFronzo argues , claims, shows, illustrates, ect.
The essay needs to indicate at least 5 references or quotes to the book. The page numbers you are referring to should be between parentheses. Make sure to introduce the quotes- including their significance. The quotes need be spaced throughout the chapter.
There are faxes for this order.
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Essay Instructions: I am providing some notes at this page bellow . Please use them as much as you can and if you need to get any more information, which you definitly might have to do to make it a better essay, you may. Just let me know what sources you are using. But please dont quote anyone. A lot of this essay is common sense
The subtitle of Marjane Satrapi’s Persepolis, about the Iranian revolution or Islamic revolution of 1979, is subtitled “the story of a childhood.” How do you think readers, including yourself as a reader, are affected by a child’s view of this world changing event? What does Persepolis lead you to think about a child’s view of religious beliefs, about torture, about a family’s history of politics? Does telling of the 1979 events in Iran from a child’s viewpoint allow the writer to give a more or less objective view of them? Recently there has been political protest and unrest in Iran, following the presidential election of 2009. What role did mobile technology play in these events, sometimes referred to as the “twitter revolution?”
- Shah has replaced an emperor (not religious and not a marxist)
+ very political scene for a little child to understand
- Shah is eventually supported by the United States
- secularization and a change of mind
- Shah insisted that women were forced to not wear veils
- Shia are overcome by Shah with support of Britain and U.S.
- there is also oil in Iran and a lot of it
+ U.S. and Britain want an alliance with Iran for oil and for other reasons
- Shah makes deal with U.S. and the oil brings incredible wealth to Iran but it turns out only some people get rich
- persepolis is an ancient city where Iran was said to be founded
- the Shah celebrated the founding of Persia at persepolis
- begins after Shah is out
- p.3: children playing with veil, adults already fighting
- p. 5: her mom died her hair; afraid something would happen to her (living in fear)
+ picture of veiled women and secular women
+ mother is on the secular side and from a marxist family
- p.6: "I was born with God, with religion" - wants to be a saint
- p.8: God holds her in his arm- then is ashamed for feeling this way about God
- p.13: Marx & Descartes & God
- p.15: the Great Fire: big reason for the Shah exiled - turning point -
+ Shah thinks it is the leftist Marxist that is his worst enemy
- internal and external
- p. 39: housekeeper writing letter to man across the street
+ go to demonstration with housekeeper even though she was not allowed to (on black friday)
+ mom slaps both of them
+ "but in fact it was our own that attacked us"
- p. 40-41: inconsistencies; God is connected to the generals
+ celebration does not last
+ islamic revolution was supported by a lot of people but then it became something that "this family" could not support anymore
- p. 44-45: story about little boy who's father worked for the secret police for the shah
+ nationalism vs. religion
- p. 53: cut a body to pieces
+ "i've had it back to God"
+ mom is saying we should kill bad people but before she was saying we should forgive people so is confused
p. 58: meets the uncle "hero"
- get bombed by Iraq
p. 74-75: story is from a certain perspective
- arabs keep on attacking us (also about shiites and Sunnis)
- u.s. put a shiite gov't in iraq (iran is shiite)
p. 83: secularism has always been attached to a sort of nationalism
+ secularism came out of the west (Europe) and connected to u.s. nationalism
p.84: war comes to an end (they are celebrating)
p. 93: distinction that something is physically disgusting about them (comes again and again) - bodies not being as defined as we like to think or is demanded of us
+ women must be whores, dirty, eating all the food and not civilized
p. 95: beat our breasts = religious gesture
+ looked scared and dismayed
+ pain is on the outside; externalizes things
+ all are the same; like the military- meant to discipline the body and the group
p. 97: children bust out; not socialized yet, still being shaped
+ parents support her being thrown out of school for speaking up
p. 102: different viewpoints of religions in terms of killing
+ notion of suicide bomber; people sacrifice their lives in the name of a cause (complicated- something people do in the name of their religion and in what their religion requires)
+ young men willing to blow themselves up (top)
+ Pecola is a party (bottom)
- young people going through very different things
- secular = fun, enjoyment (what we recognize young people should be doing)- punk necklace, chains around your neck
- religion on the top (key necklace = paradise if they die)
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Essay Instructions: please answer the following questions in approx 2 paragraph form.
1. Describe the death of Gandhi and explain what this event illustrates about the theme "end of empire"? How did India achieve independence and what were some of the problems of independence?
2. How did Vietnam achieve independence and what problems were encountered in post-independence Vietnam?
3. How did the Arab countries achieve independence and what problems did they encounter?
4. How were the French displaced from N. Africa?
5. How did the cultural concept negritude help shape the African fight for independence?
6. What visions did Kwame Nkrumah have for independent Africa?
7. How was independence achieved in Ghana and Kenya, and what were the challenges of these post independence states?
8. What occurred in China during the Cultural Revolution, Deng's revolution and Tiananmen Square? What do they reflect about the challenges of independence?
9. Why has Arab unity not materialized? How does the Iranian Revolution and Iran-Iraq war reflect this?
10. What is apartheid, and how did it function and finally end in S. Africa?
11. What course did independence take in the Belgian Congo?
12. In your view, what have been the major positive and
negative outcomes of 20th century independence movements?
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Essay Instructions: Proposed title and question
September 11 and the new emerging International Order
America and Europe in the New World Order
Unipolar, Multipolar and Multilateral and visions of the world reality
?? Could you suggest me the question?.
Proposed structure (can be totally changed it is just a first idea), FEEL FREE TO DESIGN A NEW DISSERTATION. I need a strong structure and I think I did not achieved completely.
Anyway following topics were approved by the supervisor , with the next lines I am trying to resume some ideas extracted from an interview with my supervisor
Before 9/11 and after 9/11: The history and the future of International relations were disappeared by this temporal rift. Old rules of state craft diplomacy and warfare have been through out by terrorist.
This dissertation is about the new world order originated after the attacks of September 11 that change for ever the International Relations? panorama. This situation has divided the vision of the most important contemporary theorists in International Relations. Europe is divided internally and multilateralism looks over. This situation seems to show the reality of division about the challenge of tackle with the fail of State and terrorism.
It is time to stop pretending that Europeans and Americans share a common view of the world, or even that they occupy the same world. On the all-important question of power ? the efficacy of power, the morality of power, the desirability of power ? American and European perspectives are diverging. Europe is turning away from power, or to put it a little differently, it is moving beyond power into a self-contained world of laws and rules and transnational negotiation and cooperation. It is entering a post-historical paradise of peace and relative prosperity, the realization of Kant?s "Perpetual Peace." The United States, meanwhile, remains mired in history, exercising power in the anarchic Hobbesian world where international laws and rules are unreliable and where true security and the defence and promotion of a liberal order still depend on the possession and use of military might. That is why on major strategic and international questions today, Americans are from Mars and Europeans are from Venus: They agree on little and understand one another less and less. And this state of affairs is not transitory ? the product of one American election or one catastrophic event. The reasons for the transatlantic divide are deep, long in development, and likely to endure. When it comes to setting national priorities, determining threats, defining challenges, and fashioning and implementing foreign and defence policies, the United States and Europe have parted ways.
1 September 11
Antecedents of 9/11 background in modern Islamic society and terrorism
Give a short introduction of how terrorism has evolutionated from the Iranian Revolution which brought religion to power and called Islam against Western./Question of why so many different approaches in Muslim world/Political Islam (Muslim brotherhood)/ Wahabism and Islam/The fail of the state/The funding of terrorism/Al Qaeda
Islam, anti-terrorism and international order, of Olivier Roy is a very good reading to understand the consequences of 9/11.
Other book really important could be
2 Emerging of new International Order
Terrorism provoke a new context
States supporting terrorism
Unilateral- America as the police of the world
Multilateral- British (Trying to bring America to Europe)
Multipolar (1- Supranational????.2_)
3 The respond to the Iraqi case (Different approaches of theories)
Europe response ( 3 divisions) What is now the European Position?
POST LIBERAL KANTIAN POSITION.
Post liberal European Approach
(Not military response, humanitarian intervention (speech Chicago Tony Blair).
E.g. Crime against humanity
Civil Society response
4 US New conservatism (REALIST) and European response
I need more representative authors
Todd?s book (Apres L''Empire) , After the Empire , need a special comment. Its book is, possibly, the best European reply to the New conservatism dominant today in US. ?No country obtained, in the XX century to enlarge more its power by means of war?,.
5 How to deal with fail of the State
Challenge ? Fail State bring Terrorism
? American vision ? Use of the force, cut the roots of terrorism USA is changing the way of doing International Relations
? European More gradual ( Soft Power)
Paths to a very good result.
Handbook describes some paths to a very good result.
Independence is important to achieve high marks.
? Independent generation of significant research questions
? Independent construction of a method for answering your question
? Independent and resourceful practical search for material to answer your question
? An overall conclusion that really flows from the rest of the dissertation and is strong and cogent.
The issue of independence mentioned is particular crucial to achieve high marks, some general examples that can demonstrate this independence:
Asking a question which is not new in type but is new in subject matter for empirical investigation and analysis.
You may challenge or test a given theory about the way given actors in IR behave or interact by doing a couple of case studies which are chosen with methodological care so that the comparison of the case study can generate significant concussions
about the theory.
You may feel able to tackle a question directly about a theoretical school or "paradigm" in International Relations theory and explore theoretical literatures in and against this school or paradigm in order to generate a fresh perspective or insight on some aspect of the theory. In this case you may be using only "secondary" materials in your answer.
Other qualities that will produce high marks.
Ability to show independence awareness and rigour in your research methods and your ability to show independence and resourcefulness in you search for arguments and evidence in tackling your question.
As far as research methods are concerned, we are interested in the way you produce to the question you have asked.
When you have completed a draft of your dissertation you should also read it through from the angle of two things.
1. The logic of your explanatory argument. Could it be tightened up, could damaging counter-arguments be used to defeat the arguments you have used?
2. The quality of you evidence for buttressing your argument: are there key points in your argument that rest on nothing more than assertions, unsupported by evidence?
3. Your resourcefulness in seeking relevant materials.
4. The indispensable Quality thoughtfulness.
1. HARVARD SYSTEM OF REFERENCING
2. MOST OF THE SOURCES SHOULD COME FROM BOOKS AND JOURNALS; please I would prefer not much Internet sources.
3. PLEASE DON?T, COPY-AND-PASTE ANY MATERIALS FROM THE INTERNET
4. RECOMMENDED READINGS :
Compulsory Bibliography this must be cited
1. "Paradise and Power" (Washington Post)
by Keagan, Robert
2. The Paradox of American Power: Why the World''s Only Superpower Can''t Go It Alone by Joseph S. Nye Jr.
3. Apres L''Empire: Essai Sur La Decomposition Du Systeme Americain
by Emmanuel Todd
4. The End of History and the Last Man
by Francis Fukuyama
5. The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order
by Samuel Huntington
6. The Tragedy of Great Power Politics by John J Mearsheimer
7. Neo-Gramscian" Theories (Robert Cox)
8. Works from Kissinger and Samuel Huntington should be mentioned
Other Recommended Books
Worlds in Collision Terror and the Future of Global Order. Edited by; Ken Booth and Tim Dunne.
The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? . 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. By Esposito, John L.
For bibliography about the Irak war causes ( More important authors are in bold)
The threatening storm: the case for invading Iraq, by Kenneth Pollack; The war over Iraq: Saddam''s Tyranny and America''s Mission, by William Kristol; The future of freedom: illiberal democracy at home and abroad, by Fareed Zakaria, y, from a general historical perspective, What went wrong: western impact and middle eastern response, by Bernard Lewis; and The shield of Achilles: war, peace, and the course of history, written by Philip Bobbitt y Michael Howard.
Against war in Irak are author like , Chomsky , Said Alami, Galeano, Vazquez Montalban
Compulsory Articles that must be cited
** The Washington Post and Los Angeles Time are two examples of conservatism and liberal approaches, articles from these newspapers are useful.
Last 5 past articles in prospects magazine are useful as well.
New Imperialism by Robert Cooper ( see articles)
Le Monde Diplomatique is a good example for ( to discover the ideas of antiglobalization andpeople like Noam Chosky , Norman Mailer, Gore Vidal)
The next empire October 2001 Empire may not be such a dirty word. A co-operative form of it may be the end point of the European idea http://www.prospect-magazine.co.uk/Start.asp
An unnecessary war, John J Mearsheimer and Stephen M Walt
New Left Review 16, July-August 2002 by Peter Gowan
John Mearsheimer?s Tragedy of Great Power Politics disdains liberal-imperial rhetoric for a tough-minded theory of ?offensive realism?. Peter Gowan argues that, whatever its merits, the behaviour of states in the international system cannot be dissociated from the internal dynamics of the political orders they protect. http://www.newleftreview.net/NLR25003.shtml
The day of reckoning has arrived. The UN must act Monday March 10, 2003 The Guardian. By Peter Mandelson. http://politics.guardian.co.uk/foreignaffairs/comment/0,11538,911087,00.html
Humanitarian Intervention: The Case for Legitimacy by Charles B. Shotwell and Kimberley Thachuk. http://www.ndu.edu/inss/strforum/forum166.html
Post liberal European Approach
(Not military response, humanitarian intervention (speech Chicago Tony Blair).
Re-ordering the world Mar 21st 2003 From The Economist Global Agenda
Power and Weakness by Robert Kagan:
A good web
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