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Title: Eco fuels

Total Pages: 5 Words: 1586 References: 4 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Provide a clearly identifiable thesis
Discuss a minimum of three points which back-up that thesis (roman numerals II, III, and IV in your outline, the Unit 3 Project)
Refer to (using correct APA in-text citations as well as a references page) and draw information from at least one of the two assigned articles given for your topic in the Unit 2 Exercise
Not simply repeat what the articles said, but rather find a unique angle on the topic which uses the information contained in the articles; in other words, do not simply summarize the articles in your paper
Include a title page and references page which are in addition to its 3-5 pages of length (double-spaced, twelve-point font).

here is the outline

Lesson 3 Project: Eco fuels
Jason Mobley
CM102 - 01

I. Introduction
A. Eco fuels are “free energy” fuels that can be easily made and are environmentally safe. Some eco fuels can be made at home and some are bought from manufacturers that may or may not be local. The main identifier of eco fuels are that they do not come through a utility meter.
B. There are several fuels that are available and free to use, once the user knows how to make, store and use them.
II. Many of theses eco fuels will be used to power cars of the future.
A. Hydrogen may be used for heat, cooking and powering vehicles. It qualifies as an eco-fuel because it can be produced in a totally renewable was (energy, 2006).
B. Wood is a bio-mass burned to produce heat and power. Public transportations, such as ships and trains were wood driven, burning wood to create steam to drive the engines. Wood gas may use wood to power ‘modern’ internal combustion engines (Our, 2006).
III. Eco fuels can be made from so of the most common things around us.
A. Ethanol may be made from straw, agricultural waste, corn or sugar by using- enzymes (ljunggren, 2005).
B. Turds may be dried. Than you can burn them just as any other bio-mass secondly they may be turned into methane (also know as natural gas) is an eco-fuel made from bio-mass that can be used to power our ‘modern’ internal combustion engines (kay, 2006).
IV. There are some first aid stuff that might be able to be used as eco fuels
A. There are many types of alcohol, all being eco-fuels. Alcohol is derived from a bio-mass readily re-grown from the environment (energy, 2006)
B. Hydrogen peroxide is a promising fuel of the future, especially if combined with fuels that need oxidizing; such as alcohol (advancing, 2006).
V. Conclusion
A. These fuels already are available and free to use, but user needs to know how to make, store and use them.
B. Eco fuels are the fuels of the future. Fossil fuels will have been depleted within the next 25 year and those using them should prepare for the future as well as protect the earth’s atmosphere by finding out how to produce and use eco-fuels.

“Advancing Transportation Fuel Technology.” (2006). Eco Fuel Systems. Inc. Retrieved November 28, 2006 from
“BioFuel.” Associated Press. 01 Sep 1003.
“Energy Solutions since 1984.” (2006) Eagle Research. Retrieved November 28, 2006 from
Kay, Tonya. “Making Biodiesel.” Hawaii Indymedia. Retrieved November 28, 2006 from
Ljunggren, David. “G8 Leaders’ Cars to Use Eco-Fuel made from Straw.” Reuters News Service Canada. 29 June, 2005.
Our Bureau. “HPCL, GAIL form venture to sell eco-fuels in AP.” Business Line Financial Daily Hyderabad, Hindustan, India: The Hindu Group of Publications, Saturday, 30 Nov, 2002.

Excerpt From Essay:

Title: History of Boston

Total Pages: 5 Words: 1481 Works Cited: 4 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: IhIU
Of Revolutions and Red Sox: The Historic City of Boston

Boston is one of America’s oldest and most historic cities. It is the capital and the most populous city of Massachusetts, one of the thirteen first states of the United States of America. However, Boston’s history stretches back even farther than the existence of the American union. It was founded on November 17, 1630 by Puritans, and the city in its oldest cobblestone and brick quarters still retains much of its distinct Puritan look in its architecture and design (“Boston, Massachusetts: City History,” CityLights, 2008). Some wits might also say that it does so in some of its attitudes, such as the fact that Boston’s public transportation system the ‘T’ closes shortly after midnight, while New York City’s subways runs all night!

When the Puritans arrived, Native Americans still lived in the area, thus Boston's early European settlers first called the area Trimountaine like the Indians. The Puritans later renamed the town for Boston, England, an area in Lincolnshire, from which a number of the colonists had emigrated (“Boston, Massachusetts: City History,” CityLights, 2008). The Puritans came to Boston fleeing persecution from the Anglican Church, but they did not come to embrace religious toleration—citizenship in the Massachusetts Bay Colony was restricted to church members until 1664 and church dissidents like Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams were banished from the colony. There was also the famous hysteria spawned by the Salem Witch Trials of 1692 (Banner 2008).

Yet in addition to these exhibitions of religious intolerance, Boston encouraged tremendous intellectual ferment and scholarship. It encouraged higher learning, with the founding of Boston Latin School and Harvard University (Banner 2008). Later, Boston's elite liked to think of their city as the ‘Athens of America,’ with Harvard College as its Parthenon (“Boston Brahmins,” Murder at Harvard, 2008). Although such elitism has been fought from within and without the many educational institutions of the city, Boston still houses some of the finest schools in the world within its confines or nearby, including Harvard University, MIT, Boston University, and Boston College, to name just a few.

Boston led the way in technological innovation during the 17th century. The first printing press in the colonies was built in Cambridge by Stephen Daye in 1639. Colonial Boston was one of the world leaders in shipbuilding and quickly became the primary port of North America. Boston was one of world’s wealthiest international trading ports because it was the closest major American port to Europe. Its New World exports included rum, fish, salt, and tobacco (“Boston, Massachusetts: City History,” CityLights, 2008).

And of course tea. The independence of mind exhibited by the Puritans during this era carried over into the early 1770s, when Boston gave birth to some of the most vehement demonstrations and to wrest the colonial governments away from British control. The Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, and several early battles occurred in or near the city, including the Battle of Lexington and Concord, Battle of Bunker Hill, and the Siege of Boston (“Boston, Massachusetts: City History,” CityLights, 2008). The revolution itself is largely credited with beginning in Boston, after the British army sent “troops to the towns of Lexington and Concord to arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock, and to seize arms which the colonists were storing. Paul Revere and William Dawes rode through the night to warn the colonists of the approaching soldiers. The next morning, on Lexington Green, ‘the shot heard round the world’ was fired, and the American Revolution began. Two months later after the Battle of Bunker Hill, George Washington was summoned to Boston to take command of the rebel army” (“Boston, Massachusetts: City History,” CityLights, 2008).

After independence was won, Massachusetts became one of the industrial powerhouses of the new nation. As one the first states, it was linked by roads, canals, and later railways to almost all of the major supply and transport hubs. Textiles in nearby Lowell, Massachusetts contributed to the city’s rapid growth during the 1840’s and Boston’s status as a port made immigration a plentiful source of immigrant labor, particularly the Irish. “The 1840s and 1850s brought more Irish to America than any other decades. The arrival of thousands created a need for housing that resulted in the evolution of slums. Unskilled laborers were most likely to find work near the waterfront. Ostracized and homesick, the Irish settled near the wharves where they found inexpensive rent and friends from their homeland” (Frisch 2005).

Unlike Chicago and New York, the structure of Boston made it easy for residents of wealthier enclaves to remain isolated from the new workers. “The unique geography of Boston, a peninsula city, made expansion possible only by landfill. All of Boston's new neighborhoods in the mid-nineteenth century were created by leveling off hills and using the dirt to fill areas of water to create new land. These new landfill areas were generally small and largely bordered by water, so it was easy to keep them exclusive. When immigrants did move in to the newly fashionable Old South End, the Brahmins moved out” (“Boston Brahmins,” Murder at Harvard, 2008).

Many of the new Irish immigrants found employment as domestics, and at one time 2/3 of all unskilled laborers in Boston were of Irish ancestry. The Irish faced great prejudice in the eyes of the established Boston elites: “None need apply but Americans” meant ‘no Irish’ need apply in 1845 (Frisch 2005). Thus as well as being a city of industrialization and immigration, Boston could be a city of elitism and class tensions. “Visiting Boston for the first time in the 1830s, Harriet Martineau noted that it was ‘perhaps as aristocratic, vain, and vulgar a city, as described by its own ‘first people,’ as any in the world.’ What particularly distressed Martineau was the evidence of an aristocracy of wealth amid a new republic, a group whose cultural pretensions and social exclusivity she saw a particularly at odds with the democratic ideals of egalitarianism and inclusive citizenship” (“Boston Brahmins,” Murder at Harvard, 2008).

Many of these Boston Protestants were abolitionists, regardless of their personal prejudices. “The Civil War was a profitable time for Boston manufacturers, with the production of weapons, shoes, blankets, and other materials for the troops” (Banner 2008) However, “while industrialization and advances in transportation brought a great array of products within reach of the typical household, life for those who worked in the factories was hard,” according to some, almost as hard as slavery (Browne, 2003, p.4). “The workweek averaged 55 to 60 hours. Work was monotonous and highly regimented. Accidents were common. Periodic economic downturns resulted in unemployment and loss of income. Whereas the farm households of prior generations might have been able to get by in hard times, raising their own food and making their own clothes and implements, factory workers depended on employment to support themselves and suffered greatly during business slowdowns” (Browne, 2003, p. 4).

In the 20th century, the importance of manufacturing in Boston’s economy began to decline. “New England auto makers are thought to have lost their early lead in automobiles partly because their manufacturing experience with electric and steam engines led them to experiment more with these power sources, while their mid-west competitors focused on the internal combustion engine. In addition, mid-western entrepreneurs who had made fortunes in lumber and mining provided capital for local auto companies” (Browne 2003, p.3). Some also believe Boston’s refusal to allow more immigrants within its circles of power, which would have brought new ideas and new capital, played a role in its limited growth at this time (Domosh 1990, p.264).

But Boston still remained a place of great intellectual capital. It was one of the first states to pioneer the innovation of a structured public school system. The name of Horace Mann is still known today, the first Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, as he tried to make a practical education available to all, including recent immigrants, which he argued would be an important part of their socialization into the national culture (Browne, 2003, p.3).

Boston suffered a great deal during the Great Depression. “With the outbreak of War II, factories were retooled for the war effort, and people went back to work on the production lines. Again Boston was a major arms manufacturer during wartime” (Banner 2008). And because of the new importance of science and technology, its considerable intellectual capital proved a great source of profit, and continues to, to this day. Today, Boston has become a leader in the computer and other technology-dominated industries. Financial and service industries are also strong. Fenway Park, the Museum of Fine Arts, and the Freedom Trail draw tourists from around the world. Although controversies still exist about what Boston will look like in the future, such as the debate surrounding the creation of the Freedom Tunnel and the Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Bridge, as part of the Big Dig Project, it seems the city will continue to play an important role as an educational and cultural powerhouse (Banner 2008).

Course Overview:
In this course we address the physical transformation of the cityscape. Our purpose is to explore the complex and tangible evolution of urban form, to understand visual meanings lodged in the urban domain, to comprehend the dynamics of order within dissonance. We engage our investigation thematically, and by probing change in modes of representation. Our case study approach considers several European and American cities from 1800 to 2000. Requirements for the course are substantial: readings, dialogs, graphic analysis, written papers, and examinations; the course is a good choice for those who love cities, and who recognize that the city is too important to be casually considered.

Excerpt From Essay:

Essay Instructions: Literacy in context
Assessment Task
NOTE: This assignment has two parts.

Part 1: Student work sample analysis

1. Analyse ONE text (work sample) written (or read) by a student studying in your subject area.

2. Identify the student?s literacy learning needs using evidence from the work sample.

3. Design two strategies to support the student?s literacy development in this subject area.

Task description (Part 1)
i) Provide a very brief profile of the student who wrote the work sample (e.g. age, year, gender, background, school history etc).

ii) Analyse the work sample in terms of:

the degree to which the text displays the student?s knowledge of the field
the choice of text type
Has the student chosen the type of text demanded by the context?
the stages of the text
Has the student structured the text so it achieves the social purpose effectively?
the language features of the text (cohesion and grammar)
Has the student used the key language features of the text effectively?
the surface features of the text (spelling, punctuation, layout, presentation)
Has the student proofread and presented the text effectively?
iii) Identify the student?s literacy learning needs as demonstrated by this work sample, including needs related to:

field knowledge e.g. use of technical/specialist terms, symbols and categories
knowledge of the types of texts used to display knowledge in your subject area e.g. knowledge of stages typically used to ensure these texts achieve their social purpose effectively
knowledge of the language features of relevant text types e.g. features related to text cohesion, paragraph structure, grammar (sentence and clause structure, verb groups, noun groups and phrases), spelling and punctuation
iv) Identify two literacy teaching strategies that could be used to contribute to this student's literacy development in the context of your subject area.

Part 2: Literacy teaching sequence

1. Provide an outline of a unit of work in your teaching area.

2. Prepare a literacy teaching sequence relevant to the unit of work.

Task description (Part 2)
Provide a very brief outline, or overview, of a unit of work in your teaching area.
Design a literacy teaching sequence you could incorporate into this unit of work in order to support students of a profile the same as, or similar to, the student whose text (work sample) you analysed in Part 1.
Your teaching sequence should:

support students as they learn to read and/or write a specified text type relevant to your subject area
demonstrate your knowledge of the literacy development cycle presented in this unit
incorporate well-designed literacy teaching activities, including activities that put into action the two literacy teaching strategies identified in Part 1.

Assignment 2 - Locating a work sample
In order to complete Assignment 2 you will need to collect a student work sample.
Begin this task now by looking for:
? texts students are expected to read and understand in your subject area (i.e.
examples of the reading demands of your subject area)
? texts written by students in response to learning or assessment tasks in your
subject area (i.e. examples of the writing demands of your subject area)
Share with other students working in your subject area how you plan to collect these
texts. There are several ways to collect work samples, including:
? from a teaching context where you are working or doing a practicum
? by making contact with a school or TAFE in your area, perhaps a school where
you might work or do your practicum in the future, or a school your children
? asking around among school and TAFE teachers and/or students in your circle of
family and friends
? using work samples posted on websites by departments of education or
curriculum authorities such as the NSW Board of Studies.
You may find other sources as well. There are some links highlighted in the Study
If you choose a sample text students are expected to read and understand in your
subject area, ensure the text is no more than one page in length. Also ensure that
the text achieves one, or at the most, two social purposes. Here are some examples:
? describes a phenomenon (e.g. an artwork, sporting equipment, a geological
formation, a geometry shape, a setting or character in a novel or play)
? instructs students on the steps they should follow to achieve a goal (e.g. the
steps needed to complete science experiment, play a sport, prepare a surface for
an artwork, tune a musical instrument, complete a maths problem)
? retells or chronicles events (e.g. an excursion diary, a biography, an historical
account, solution to a maths problem, what happened during a science
experiment, a synopsis of a novel or play)
? explains a process (e.g. water cycle, lifecycle of an animal, consequences of the
? Vietnam war, how a cake rises, inflation)EDEE#400#Literacies#in#Context#2#Assignment#1&2#?#Important#Information
? organises information (e.g. types of mammals, types of quadrilaterals, parts of
an internal combustion engine)
If you choose a sample text a student has written in your subject area, again ensure
the text is no more than one page in length. Also ensure that the text achieves one,
or at the most, two social purposes (see above).
If you choose a text from the Assessment Resource centre, make sure that choose a
sample which will show some literacy areas of need. Choose those samples which
are in the bottom range.
Before you use student work, please follow all the appropriate protocols to do with
privacy and permission. For example, you might need to:
? clarify that you have the student's and the school's permission
? remove any identifying information (names, name of school etc)
? ensure a website you take a sample from is open to the public
? reference the source accurately (see the relevant ASO fact sheets for how to
The best work sample to choose is one where a student has read or written a piece
of extended text - at least a paragraph in length, but no more than one page long for
practical reasons. This gives you an opportunity to assess all levels of the students'
literacy skill - text level, sentence level, word level and surface level (spelling,
punctuation, handwriting/typing, presentation). If you use work samples that only
include isolated words, sentence fragments or single sentences (e.g. filling in
missing words on worksheets), then it will be much harder for you to display what
you know and to achieve the Assignment 2 marking criteria.
You will need to include a copy of the work sample with your assignment so the
marker is able to assess your analysis. For this reason, choose a work sample that is
not more than about a page long because you must incorporate a scanned copy of
the work sample text into your assignment pdf.
If you have not yet completed a practicum, in order to locate a work sample, you may
need to contact students who are studying your subject area and/or with teachers
teaching this subject.
There are many ways of doing this. Here are just three examples:
? working as a volunteer in a school, a home work centre, after school program
? providing individual tuition e.g. private tuition, tuition with organisations such as
the Smith Family or Bernardo's
? talking with young people in your circle of family and friends about their studies
? joining a relevant professional association (as a student member) and attending
? training and information sessions given by that association e.g. ALEA, PETAA,
? History/English/Mathematics (etc) Teachers Association
The task of finding a work sample is part of the assignment. The task of locating a
work sample is a research task that contributes to your achievement of the unit
If you are not able to make the time to build your own contacts in your local
community, there are literally dozens of work samples in the NSW Board of Studies
ARC website: Work samples can also be
found on the Australian Curriculum website:
There may also be work samples on the web sites of other curriculum and
assessment authorities in Australia. For example, there are student work samples on
the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority website.

Excerpt From Essay:

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