1) Dan Kulpinski, (2008), 'Honeybee Mystery Unsolved After Two Years', Available at, http://www.earthsky.org/radioshows/52676/honey-bee-mystery-unsolved-after-two-years
2) Gunther Hauk, (2007), 'Colony Collapse Disorder: Do we Harvest what we Sow?, ACRES, May 2007, Vol 37, No 5, available online at, http://www.biobees.com/downloads/Bees_HaukBees.pdf
3)Benjamin Oldroyd P, (2007), ' What's Killing American Honeybees', PLoS Biol. 2007
June; 5(6): e168., Available online at, http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1892840&tool=pmcentrez
4) Sebastian Gisder, Pia Aumeier, and Elke Genersch, (2009),' Deformed wing virus: replication and viral load in mites (Varroa destructor)', . Gen. Virol., Feb 2009; 90: 463 -- 467
5) Iqbal J & Mueller U, (2007), ' Virus infections cause specific learning deficits in Honeybee foragers', Proc Biol Sci. 2007 June 22; 274(1617): 1517 -- 1521
6) Myrna E. Watanabe, (2008), 'Colony Collapse Disorder: Many Suspects, No Smoking Gun', BioScience 58(5):384-388. 2008, Available Online at, http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1641/B580503
7) Pettis J.S, (2003), ' A scientific note on Varroa destructor resistance to Coumaphos in the United States', Apidologie. 2003 35:91-92.
8) Gatien P & Currie R.W, (2003) 'Timing of acaracide treatments for control of low-level populations of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and implications for colony performance of honey bees', Volume 135, Number 5, September/October 2003
9) Laurent FM, Rathahao E,(2003) 'Distribution of [(14)C] imidacloprid in sunflowers
(Helianthus annuus L.) following seed treatment', Journal of Agricultural and Food
Chemistry, 2003 Dec 31;51(27):8005-10
10) Axel Decourtye & Catherine Armengaud et.al (2003), 'Imidacloprid Impairs memory and Brain Metabolism in the Honeybee (Apis Mellifera)', Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, Vol 78, Issue 2, February 2004, Pages 83-92
11) Malone LA & Pham Delegue MH, ( 2001), ' Effects of Transgene products on Honeybees (Apis millifera) and bumblebees. (Bombus sp.). Apidologie, 2001 32, 287-304
12) Rinderer T. E, De Guzman, Lilia, Delatte Gary & Harper Charlie (2003), 'AN EVALUATION OF ARS RUSSIAN HONEY BEES IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER METHODS FOR THE CONTROL OF VARROA MITES', American Bee Journal 143(5):410-413.
13) SARE, 'Integrated Pest Management for Varroa Destructor in the Northeastern
United States using Drone Brood Removal and Formic Acid', Available at, http://www.sare.org/publications/factsheet/0205.htm
14) Susan Salisbury, (2008), 'Mystery of Lost bees Points to pesticides', Palm Beach Post, Oct 17, 2008, Available at, http://axisoflogic.com/artman/publish/Article_28525.shtml
Callan, S., & Thomas, J.M. (2010). Environmental economics & management: Theory, policy, and applications. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Corwin, J. (2009). 100 heartbeats: The race to save earth's most endangered species. New York, NY: Rodale.
FAO/IRRI Workshop on Judicious and Efficient Use of Insecticides on Rice, International
Rice Research Institute. & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
(1984). Proceedings of the FAO/IRRI Workshop on Judicious and Efficient Use of Insecticides on Rice. Laguna, Philippines: IRRI.
International Agency for Research on Cancer. (1997). IARC handbooks of cancer prevention.
Lyon: The Agency.
Miller, G.T., & Spoolman, S. (2012). Living in the environment. Pacific Grove, CA:
Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.
Randhawa, M.S. (1974). Green revolution: A case study of Punjab. Delhi: Vikas Publishing
Stanford Environmental Law Society. (2001). The Endangered Species Act. Stanford, CA:
Woodward, G. (2011). Advances in ecological research: Volume 44. Amsterdam:
Zeaman, J. (2001). Overpopulation. New York: Franklin Watts.
Any action taken by any federal agency, which includes actions taken on the federal lands include in the targeted region as they are part of the National Forest Service's dominion and thus require federal approval, is required to conduct Environmental Assessments and produce Environmental Impact Statements in accordance with EPA guidelines, as per 1969's National Environmental Policy Act (EPA 2011). The pest management control methods and treatment must be shown to have a minimal expected impact on other populations of both flora and fauna based on available evidence, and the benefits and necessity of these actions must also be demonstrated (EPA 2011). Coordination with other efforts to reforest specific areas of the region, correct other environmental damage, and promote the overall health of the ecosystem must also be a part of the treatment plan development, as well (National Forest Service n.d.). This is not only due to regulatory and legislative concerns but also because such coordination will represent the most efficient and effective use of resources available (National Forest Service n.d.; EPA 2011).
The control of the Gypsy Moth population in the Eastern United States has been a long-running issue since the introduction of the species. The threat the Gypsy Moth represents to the Diana fritillary butterfly is both direct and indirect, and moth population control methods can themselves be harmful to the Diana fritillary. Careful consideration of landscape issues and other concerns is necessary in the development of a treatment plan.