Infant Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Infant College Essay Examples

Title: Infant observation

  • Total Pages: 5
  • Words: 1950
  • References:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Infant Development observation

5-page MAX, typed, double-spaced paper, 1 in. margins.

The observation paper is based on at least one hour of thoughtful observation of an infant/toddler two years of age or younger.

1)Choose an infant to observe.

2)Once you are in the setting with the infant, just observe. Don't interact with the infant directly; but of course, smile pleasantly and say ?hi? if the baby approaches you, but do not try to intervene or "run an experiment" with the baby.

3)Make a detailed, record of the infant's behavior in two domains of development (e.g., language, social, emotional, motor, cognitive, perceptual). Be certain that you understand what is meant by the domains that you choose (e.g., know what constitutes cognition, language, etc.). As you watch, you will need to take notes on the behaviors relevant to your domains. Write down specific examples of what the baby is doing, saying, by him/herself and with others. Pay attention to what is going on around the baby and write down what others are doing to/with the baby and how the baby reacts. Do not interpret what you see while you are taking the notes; try to stay objective.

4)possible observable behaviors that are relevant to particular domains:

Emotional -- Which emotions do you see the baby express? Which behaviors and expressions inform your decision about the emotions being expressed? Are these emotions simple, complex, positive, or negative? Are there signs that the baby/toddler is regulating his/her emotions? (1) Stranger wariness: Observe baby?s reaction to the approach of a stranger (is the baby wary? interested?). Note contextual factors too (is the baby tired? With mother or a familiar person present? Did the stranger approach quickly?) (2) Temperament ? how does the baby react to various situations? Is the baby easy and adaptive, fussy and difficult, or slow to warm up to new or altered situations? How intense are the baby?s reactions? Is the baby in a pleasant or unpleasant mood? How do you know? How distractible is the baby? How high is the baby?s activity level?

Social ? How does the baby interact and respond to other people? Does the baby engage (initiate? respond?) in social games? (1) Attachment -- How does the baby react when mother/father leaves the home? When mother/father return? Does the baby smile? fuss? Reach out for contact? Note contextual factors (was baby left in a familiar room? How long was the baby separated from the parent? Were the others people in the room familiar to the baby?
(2) Peer relations ? How does the baby interact with other babies and young children? Does the baby look at, smile, touch other young children? Do they play interactive games? How do they interact over toys (turn-taking, fighting over, hitting with?)?

Language ? (1) Expressive language ? what sounds does the baby make? How many different utterances did you hear? Was the baby cooing? Babbling? How did the baby?s gestures and the context make the meaning clearer? Were sounds connected to the baby?s apparent feelings at the moment (happy sounds, angry sounds)? Were the baby?s vocalizations related to what adults were saying or doing? Did the baby utter words? How many? What were they? What parts of speech were they? Does the toddler speak in two or three word phrases? Sentences? (2) Receptive language ? Did the baby appear to understand more than he or she could say? How does the baby respond to verbal requests? Which behaviors and responses let you know that the baby apparently understood what was being said? Does the toddler follow simple directions?

Perceptual ? What does the baby look at? What sights (e.g., colors, patterns, people) and sounds (e.g., music, children?s voices) does the baby seem to prefer? What makes you think so?

Motor ? Young baby: can the baby lift own head without support? Roll over? Hold small object in hand? Sit with support? Lift cup by handle? Older baby: can the baby sit alone without support? Crawl? Raise self to sitting position? Stand up by pulling self up on furniture? Bang two objects together? Sit down unaided? Stand alone? Walk alone? Walk up stairs? Jump off floor with both feet?

Cognitive ? How does the baby explore objects (mouthing, grasping, shaking, banging, inspecting)? How does the baby respond if an object goes out of sight? If the object is out of reach? How does the baby explore effects of its own body movements? Does the baby imitate the behavior of others? Does the baby look at pictures in a book? Turn the pages? Does the older baby engage in goal-directed actions on objects? Does the toddler show understanding of categories (e.g., animals, vehicles)? Of concepts? How do you know?


5)Include:

*Introductory paragraph (where you observed the infant, how you selected the infant, age of infant, use initials or first name only of infant, domains that you observed, how long you observed).
*Brief description of setting (physical environment and social environment).
*Discuss the infant's range of behaviors and level of functioning in each of the two domains that you selected. Try to characterize the infant?s current functioning in each domain. Use textbook, lecture, handouts to help gauge the infant's level of development.
*Link the two domains of development?.how do the infant's abilities in one domain affect functioning in the other domain?
*How did the social and physical environment affect the infant's behavior when you were observing?
*Conclusion. What did you learn about infant development from observing this infant?

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Title: Infant observation

  • Total Pages: 5
  • Words: 1691
  • Works Cited:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Infant Development

Guidelines: Observation of an Infant

- NEED TO OBSERVE TODDLER WHEN HE/SHE IS AWAKE THE WHOLE TIME OF THE OBSERVATION.

- a 5-page paper MAXIMUM, typed, double-spaced paper,1 inch margins

- The observation paper is based on a LEAST ONE(1) HR. of thoughtful (natural) observation of a toddler of 1 yr. old.

- The SETTING where you are going to need to observe the 1 yr. todddler needs to in a HOUSE. Ask a relative or friend if you could observe the toddler.

- Once you are in the setting with the toddler, just observe. Don't interact with the infant directly or intervene.

- Make a detailed, written record of the infant's behavior in two domains of development:cognition and social development

- Be certain that you understand what is meant by the domains that you choose (e.g., know what constitutes cognition and social development). As you watch the 1 yr. old toddler, you will need to take notes on the behaviors relevant to your domains. Write down specific examples of what the baby is doing, saying, by him/herself and with others. Pay attention to what is going on around the baby and write down what others are doing to/with the baby and how the baby reacts. Do not interpret what you see while you are taking the notes; try to stay objective.

- Possible observable behaviors that are relevant these 2 particular domains:

1) Social
How does the toddleer interact and respond to other people? Does the toddler engage (initiate? respond?) in social games? (1) Attachment -- How does the toddler react when mother/father leaves the home? When mother/father return? Does the toddler smile? fuss? Reach out for contact? Note contextual factors (was toddler left in a familiar room? How long was the toddler separated from the parent? Were the others people in the room familiar to the infant?
(2) Peer relations ? How does the toddler interact with other toddlers and young children? Does the toddler look at, smile, touch other young children? Do they play interactive games? How do they interact over toys (turn-taking, fighting over, hitting with?)?

2) Cognitive
How does the toddler explore objects (mouthing, grasping, shaking, banging, inspecting)? How does the toddler respond if an object goes out of sight? If the object is out of reach? How does the toddler explore effects of its own body movements? Does the toddler imitate the behavior of others? Does the toddler look at pictures in a book? Turn the pages? Does the older toddler engage in goal-directed actions on objects? Does the toddler show understanding of categories (e.g., animals, vehicles)? Of concepts? How do you know?


Outline of structure for paper:

Use textbook information for backup of observation for 1 yr. old todder.

IN TEXTBOOK FOCUS ON CHAPTER 9:ONLY ON COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT.

Textbook: Fogel, A. (2001). Infancy: Infant, Family, and Society. (Fourth Edition) St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.

*Introductory paragraph (where you observed the toddler(HOUSE SETTING), how you selected the toddler (FROM A RELATIVE OR FRIENDS CHILD, age of infant (1 YR OLD, use initials or first name only of infant, 2 domains you observed (COGNITION AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT), how long you observed(AT LEAST AN HR).

*Brief description of setting (physical environment and social environment).

*Discuss the toddlers range of behaviors and level of functioning in each of the two domains of cognition and social development. Try to characterize the toddler's current functioning in each domain. Use textbook informatin to help gauge the infant's level of development.

*Link the two domains of development?.how do the toddler's abilities in one domain affect functioning in the other domain?
- explain how these 2 domains interplay.
- evaluate the child (include text information
(was the child advanced, delayed and reasons you think this.

*How did the social and physical environment affect the toddler's behavior when you were observing?

*Conclusion. What did you learn about infant development from observing this infant? (LINK OBSERVATION WITH TEXT IFORMATION)

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By all accounts, N.S. seemed to be developing at a normal to average pace; however his ability to sign so well at only 12 months seems to put him on a scale slightly above his peers from a cognitive perspective. His natural interest in the infant and in gaining the attention of his guests suggest normal or average social development for a twelve-month-old toddler based on information provided in the readings.

REFERENCE

Fogel, A. (2001). Infancy: Infant, Family, and Society. (Fourth Edition) St. Paul, MN: West Publishing.

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Title: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

  • Total Pages: 4
  • Words: 1172
  • Bibliography:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Infant Development
Guidelines for Paper # 1: Review of Two Journal Articles

- Find two relevant and current (1995-2004) empirical articles on your topic.
- Suitable journals include, but are not limited to, Child Development, Developmental Psychology, Infant and Child Development, Infant Behavior and Development, Infant Mental Health Journal.
- You may find the PsychInfo or PubMed data bases to be helpful as you search for empirical articles.
- Look for key points in each section of the article (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion).

Your paper should have the following sections:

a) Introduction ? what is your topic(Sudden Infant Death Syndrome)Explain why you choose to do this topic. (key pts. of interest and importance to you)

b) Description of each study (article) -- Objective of each study,, participants (e.g., age, ethnicity), design (e.g., cross-sectional, longitudinal), methods (e.g., parent report, observation), measures, results (i.e., what was significant, what was not ? what are the major findings), and strength and limitations of the study. Refer to each study by the author?s last name and date of publication. Do not put the whole citation in body of the paper

c) Your evaluation of each study ? Were the design, method, and measures appropriate for the study objectives? Were the results important and why or why not? Did the study advance our knowledge about infants? What did you learn that was new or interesting? What future research is suggested by this study?what do we still need to know about infant development in this area?

d) Comparison of the two studies (articles) ? What was a strength of one study but not the other? What strengths or weaknesses did they both have? Are their findings compatible or at odds?

e) Conclusion ? summarize paper and add any thought you have about further research in this area.

f) Reference list ? use APA style to list the two references that you selected. These two references must be placed on a seperate page aside from 5-page report.

Please attach the 2 journal articles along with the 5-page research paper.(A MUST) I need these for my final revisions on my paper. Thanks.

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REFERENCES

Temperament ratings do not predict arousability in normal infants and infants at increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome. (Original Articles).

Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics; 10/1/2002; Adamson, T. Michael

Cosleeping in young Korean children.

Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics; 6/1/2002; Hahn, Hong-Moo

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Title: Human Bahavior Child Development

  • Total Pages: 1
  • Words: 411
  • Sources:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Infant Paper

Please answer the following questions:

What role do you think caregivers play in influencing a child? What do you think are the essential elements of a caregiving relationship? What is your view of infancy? What, if anything do babies bring into the world?

Can you please put in a hispanic culture perspective on raising an infant in America

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Gonzalez-Mena, Janet. 1997. "The cultural context of infant caregiving. Childhood Education, Sept. 22.

Klaus, Marshall. 1998. "Mother and Infant: Early Emotional Ties." Pediatrics 102:5, November.

Mogilner, Celly. 1995. "Maternal social and physical contact: links to early infant attachment behaviors." Journal of Genetic Psychology, December.

Small, Meredith F. 1997. "Making connections (adult-infant connections) (1997). American Scientist, November.

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