Essay Instructions: 2. Throughout the semester, we will discuss the extent to which indigenous peoples ofthe Americas were "conquered" and "colonized." European sources of history traditionally treat these terms as uncomplicated and clear, thus giving an impression of a passive indigenous population that was overwhelmed by Spanish and Portuguese rule. These terms also lead one to believe that indigenous cultures of Meso- and South America were completely displaced by European practices in the realms of religion, economics, politics, and social relations. In our readings, we will see that issues of conquest and colonization were in fact much more complicated. In an essay, discuss the extent to which you believe indigenous peoples were conquered and colonized. It might be useful to define what you mean by these terms, and be sure to pick specific readings that support your argument. You might want to limit your discussion to one particular aspect of colonization religion, bureaucracy, or economic or social interactions, for example - or you might include a variety of factors. In the same way, you might limit yourself to one particular group - the Mexica, the Maya, or the Inca - or you could discuss various peoples. You may even want to include a discussion of the mixed-blood populations, or castas, that developed in the seventeenth century. Be sure to take a stand -- you might argue that
some indigenous peoples were not conquered at all, or you might argue that Spanish colonization wiped out much of Mexica and Incan culture - but remember that there is no right or wrong answer to this question. As long as you can support your argument with evidence, it is a valid one.
However, if you feel that further research involving materials not read for class would enhance the paper, you are encouraged to include them in the paper. This is due tues dec 2. ( i have emailed the teacher asking for an extention on the due date)
Book info you can use for reference:
victors and vanquiched
by stuart b schwartz
history of latin america
by peter bakewell
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Please create a response essay to the question below for a non-western comparative political course. I will send the necessary readings. Please respond with some special examples that reference understanding to the texts.
Jared Diamond and Maralit and Buruma offer sharply diverging explanations for the differences between the “west” and the “non-west”. Briefly summarize their respective arguments. Which one do you find more persuasive, and why? A good answer will demonstrate clear understanding of the two readings and will try to support your preference with logic and/or solid evidence. Do the best you can and make sure you are clear about why you believe what you do. You may draw on the readings, or other information such as the news, other course work, life experience, etc.
Before beginning I have included my responses to some discussions that were given before this essay to give a better understanding of my stance.
What is the west? My view of the term west refers to the freedom of individuals. More specifically the freedom from complete government involvement, in which decisions are balanced by the people and the government. The definition of the west encompasses many different things such as independence, culture, capital wealth, political operation and social ways; which I believe are dependent on the some, but not necessarily all of these things. I sometimes think of the definition of the west to mean its association of individual freedom to prosper in such a society in which values of personal choice have a strong influence in actions. An example of the west can be of the US in which the several states allow gay marriages. Based on my definition of the west, countries that come to mind that are not part of the west include the Middle East, and India. The reason as to why these countries come to mind when thinking of non-western countries is the lack of individual freedom. In the Middle East, men are still viewed upon as superior to women. Women do not have the equal rights as their male counterparts. In western countries there may be some discrimination against women, but it is by no means on the same level as they way women are treated in such non-western countries.
If you do think there are real differences (West vs. non-West), why do you think these differences exist? The piece by Jared Diamond seems to suggest that it's an accident of geography. What do you think about that? If you don't think there are real differences, then what explains in your view some peoples' efforts to differentiate between the two? From my personal definitions of the west and the non-west, there lies a difference between the two. Both of these terms are related in the political sphere, but differ gravely in the amount of personal freedom allowed. There are certainly differences because if there are no real differences between the west vs. non-west then, they would ultimately be the same related things. For this reason, differences amongst the two exist because of how traditions and the function of life operate. Geography plays a small role into the equations of making the west and the non-west with other variables like environmental causes- adaptation, evolution of life. As the meanings of the term west and non-west vary for each other, culture and sociology affect the differences between why these differences exist. As times change the role of geography shifts in importance, but in today’s modern view it seems that geography’s impact on the west and non-west play such small roles, that they affect the differences, but not in such a significant way. Although Diamond suggests that the differences were an “accident of geography”, I don’t think that geography is the primary or the only reason as to why there are differences between the west and the non-west. In the article the Spaniards are depicted as better equipped with everything compared to the Incans who didn’t have all of the “advantages” claimed by the Spaniards, which is proposed as an accident of geography. In the Diamond article he states, "compared with hunter-gatherers, citizens of modern industrialized states enjoy better medical care, lower risk of death by homicide, and a longer life span, but receive much less social support from friendships and extended families”. as evidence compared with hunter-gatherers, citizens of modern industrialized states enjoy better medical care, lower risk of death by homicide, and a longer life span, but receive much less social support from friendships and extended families’, Diamond puts the reader in perspective about these “geographical advantages” that Spaniards had over the Incans. When comparing the two races it is hard to say whether the advantages were due to geography. Reasons like education, technology, religion and cultural values all affect the progression of advancement giving reason to question why Diamond did not agree with other issues like these listed. I understand in a way how Diamond could arrive at this point, but I believe that geography was not the main issue. Both the Incan and the Spaniards had their own uniqueness to each race, both having advantages and disadvantages, but these factors don’t necessarily mean that their differences were because of geography. The combination of factors is ultimately what has made the west different from the non-west.
There are faxes for this order.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: After you have read the section on South America, Mesoamerica, and North America in your text, select one of the questions below to answer in a five-page essay. In either of these papers, you might find additional sources to supplement your textbook examples.
Discuss Inca religious beliefs and how they shaped the layout of Machu Picchu in Inca culture. Compare this to Maya religious beliefs as seen in the architecture of Tikal, OR to the Aztec religion imprinted in the city plan of Teotihuacan.
What is the relationship between native North American art and the art of Mesoamerica? Can we see an exchange of artistic influences between these two neighboring regions? You may focus on one region of North America, or one medium, such as textiles or ceramics, for your answer, and give four examples, two from each culture.
In this unit, students will be introduced to the Americas, including artifacts and architecture from the Precolumbian Olmec, the Maya, Inca and Aztec cultures in Mesoamerica and South America, as well as a geographical overview of North American cultures. The term “Pre-Columbian” refers to the time periods and cultures in the Americas before the arrival of Columbus, as well as the beginnings of the Spanish conquest of Latin America in the early sixteenth century. Native American arts continue to be produced today, distinct from mainstream European cultural influences.
In the Gardner’s text read Chapters 8 and 9.
In this unit, students will be able to:
Discuss Inca religious beliefs and how they shaped the layout of Machu Picchu in Inca culture;
Compare the religious beliefs of the South American Inca to those of the Mesoamerican Maya;
Discuss the relationship between native North American art and the art of Mesoamerica;
Identify any exchanges of artistic influences between North America and Mesoamerica; and
Describe some of the materials used by Incans and Maya in the making of art objects.
Chavin De Huantar
Moche and Chanchan
Lord of Sipan
Pre-Classic Art: The Olmecs
All written assignments should be double-spaced, with a 1" margin on all sides, and a 12 pt. font. Any images and/or bibliographies are not included in the five page length requirement. Note: five pages of text is roughly 1,250 words. In each essay, you will be discussing works of art. In all examples that you discuss, your images should be fully identified by title, artist (if known), date, and location of object. Then, give a brief formal description and analysis of the work, and explain in a very specific and detailed way a response to the essay question. Your paper should be written entirely in your own words, although you may use a limited number of quotations from your textbook, with page references given in parenthesis at the end of the sentence. This essay format will be the same for all essays you write in all units of this class.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Research Paper Questions:
This is an assignment for my humanities class. The assignment was to go to a museum and analyze 2 pieces of sculpture. I have two pictures of ancient Peruvian scultpure and I need it analyzed.
I will include two website links with the two pictures of the Incan sculpture I need analyzed, they have a small description about them on their page as well to provide some help. Here are the instructions from my teacher verbatim:
**(1) Select two pieces of sculpture that depict human figures that drew strong participation from you, and describe and analyze them. Use Descriptive Criticism and use the language of the art form and then discuss details that reveal the emotions portrayed or embodied in the works. Conclude with Interpretive Criticism. (2 paragraph minimum)***
**(2) Your reaction or emotional response to the performance or exhibit- how it touches you personally or how it relates to some aspect of your life. Also include what you learned about your community from this event. (1 paragraph minimum - you can just BS that part, we were supposed to go to a museum)***
**(3) A thoughtful connection of how the event relates to a specific aspect of the humanities, especially how it relates to a humanities perception or experience that you have had during the semester. (1 paragraph minimum)***
**(4) How the event has altered your view of this particular art form. What were the strengths and weaknesses? How has the work informed your values? Tell whether or not you were moved enough to attend another event like this in the future, and why or why not. (1 paragraph minimum)
---Those are the 4 main questions I need answered. Some parts can easily be BS'd. I will need this by 8 am tommorow morning or earlier and I hope you can help.
Here are the links for the two pictures of the ancient Peruvian sculptures. They have a short description on each piece of art which should serve to assist you.
Thank you very much for your assistance on this. This has saved me a great deal of trouble.
Excerpt From Essay:
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