Review the literature dealing with the theoretical background, development, and use of the product as well as its potential benefit. Based upon this review, a clearly defined statement of what the product of the study will be should be developed. For example one could say: The product of this study will be a guide for implementing a Tall Buddy program at an Elementary School that will service at-risk 6th graders due to emotional, social or behavioral problems and 1st grade struggling readers.
The final paper should contain concise statements about (a) the purpose of the project, (b) the population for which it is intended, (c) a description of the procedure showing how the project was developed, and (d) an evaluation of the product by 2-3 people with the background to provide feedback.
The Creative Project Paper Format 20 - 25 pages
Section 1: The Problem:
Purpose of the Study:
of the Study:
Information for writer:
Teachers are overwhelmed by the special challenges they face: escalating numbers of students, categorized as emotionally or behaviorally disordered and escalating demands on teachers to fill nonteaching roles in children’s lives. It is my belief that helping troubled 6th grade students feel capable, connected and contributing members of a school will help decrease behavioral problems and increase a students self esteem. I also believe that by training the 6th grade students how to tutor low achieving 1st graders will have a chance to make accelerated growth. With the Tall Buddy program three things are possible for the 6th graders: First, Behavior can improve second, student self-esteem increases, which must happen if we want students too behave more responsibly and achieve more academically and third an improvement in reading skills. Another outcome of Tall Buddy tutoring is to improve the reading skills of both the Tall Buddies and the Small Buddies to ensure that all students become proficient readers. First Graders who have difficulty in reading quickly fall behind their classmates. First-grade teachers can predict with some confidence, that those student in their class with considerable reading deficits by the end of the school year will likely have long-lasting challenges in reading in their school years. All teachers involved should select academic measures to use to track students’ reading levels both before Tall Buddies begins and during the tutoring program. Also it is important to note that when a Tall Buddy is chosen to participate in the program that the privilege is non revocable meaning that their position is not held over their head and threatened to be ended due to poor behavior, not turning in homework or completing assignments. It takes time to break habits that have been in process for years. I believe in progress toward the behavior wanted, not prefection.
Section 2: Review of Literature: The critical need for doing this (15 – 20 references)
Introduction (How much literature is available? Organization of the Literature review)
Information for writer:
I have included a Lit Review with 5 sources that can be use to support the part about Promoting Self-Esteem Through Mentoring. I will be sending you the articles that will support both the self-esteem and behavioral improvement for the 6th graders as well as articles discussing the improvement in reading the 1st graders will benefit in. Can I email them to you?
Section 3: Procedure;
Development/ Approval of Project
How was the project developed? (blueprint for others to follow)
Who did you involve in the developmental process and why?
What was the approval process, if necessary?
How was it or will it be implemented
Information for the writer
I am a Curriculum Support Teacher and my Job is to support teachers in raising student achievement. In 2005 I new we had a very difficult group of 5th graders coming into 6th. The fifth grade teachers continually complained about low-test scores due to misbehaving students. I had read a book called Cooperative Discipline by Linda Albert that discussed the importance
with students and that if students feel capable, connected and contributing members of a school very often problem behaviors disappear. So I tried to come up with a plan to help the 6 major behavior problem soon to be 6th graders feel capable, connected and contributing members of our school. Thus Tall Buddies was born. I knew I could maintain a group of 10 but needed some other students besides behavior problems so in talking with the teachers it was decided that students with low self-esteem could also benefit from such a program.
I went to the principal of the school, Marcie Nichols, to get permission to begin the program because it would take 30 – 40 min. of my time 4 days a week. I also meet with both the 6th and 1st grade teachers to work out the details, student selection, time and so forth. All agreed it would be a valuable use of my time.
I involved the first grade teachers in deciding the most valuable things a first grader could do under the guidance of a 6th grader. We had to make it easy for the 6th grader because they had to feel Capable of doing the task in order for the project to be a sucess.
This Tall Buddy Program is intended to help guide a Peer-Tutoring Program in an elementary school. Schools can exercise creative freedom as they put together a Tall Buddy tutoring program in reading that meets the needs of their students. It includes instructions to prepare for and begin a school-based tutoring program in reading, how to select tutors and first grade students as well as lessons and materials to teach the 6th graders how to tutor 1st graders.
In putting the guide together I felt it of utmost importance
to include thorough training to 6th grade tutors in the elements of the tutoring process. Tutors need to be carefully trained before hand and monitored frequently. The Tall Buddy tutors will meet with their Small Buddy 3 days a week. One day a week the Tall Buddy Trainer will meet with only the Tall Buddies for debriefing, celebrations and further training. (This meeting also helps to build the relationship
between the Tutors and Tall Buddy Coach which is a critical component of the program) Any teacher organizing a Tall Buddies training should assume that tutors require lessons in appropriate behavior like how to pick up kids politely and respectfully to and from the tutoring sessions, use of praise and simple but effective intervention strategies. One of the important facets of the program is the continually monitoring of the program.
In order to make sure Tall Buddy tutors have learned the fundamentals of tutoring before letting them to meet with their Small Buddies they need to be given time to practice, and to show their mastery of the various skills taught. The teacher can come up with their own fun ways to get Tall Buddies to practice under their watchful eye. Whole group response, pairing off students to work on cooperative learning activities, and the use of role-playing are only some of the ideas that students can use to show what they know.
The program was implemented and actually begun before the target 5th grade group left for school that year. I went into each 5th grade classroom and gave them the details of the program and passed around a sign in sheet for those students who were interested. Almost the whole 5th grade signed up. (the reason why I did this, when we already knew who the students would be is because I wanted to make them feel specifically chosen for a very special task...helping a first grader who needed help in reading.
After summer and the students were 6th graders I had a 2-week training program that is outlined in detail in the project portion. The importance
here was twofold, building repor and trust which helped us form a relationship
and also teaching them the important components of a reading tutoring program.
Once trained the Small Buddies were carefully selected based on assessments the teachers had and they were introduced. The program ran for 8 weeks at which time the first grade teachers revisited current data. Many students “graduated the program” some stayed for round 2.
At the end of the year at 6th grade graduation the 6th grade teachers passed our many certificates for many different reasons; attendance, presidents honor roll, academic achievement, Gifted and Talented and then I proudly presented all of the Tall Buddies with certificates for making a difference in a first graders life.
Section IV Evaluation
I have asked the first and 6th grade teachers for feedback so I will do this section once I recieve the feedback.
References; APA Style Please include the cooperative discipline book by Linda Albert ph.D. AGS (american Guidance Service, Inc. Circle Pines, Minnesota)
Articles for Lit Review
This is the Lit Review that you can also get information from.
Promoting Self Esteem Through Mentoring
This paper presents a detailed examination of what the outcome might be in using children with self-esteem issues to work with younger children at school.
I am going to be writing a grant to fund a tall buddy program at my school and want the literature selected for this review to support the program. I believe that such a program will promote self esteem and reduce behavior issues with the mentors as they begin to feel connected and capable as contributing members of the school.
Self esteem issues are the root of many problems in the world. Those who have a low self esteem work at a reduced capacity, tend to not perform at their peak and often cause problems in the world around them(Emler, 2002). The importance
of healthy self esteem should not be minimized as it is one of the components that drive people to succeed as children and adults. A low self esteem can prevent one from completing goals, succeeding at tasks or having healthy personal relationships
. If one has a healthy self esteem one is not afraid to reach for the moon, content in the knowledge that even if he or she fails she will still fall among the stars. In the field of education teachers and administrators are charged with imparting information as well as helping the students build strong social and interpersonal skills along the way. If a child has damaged self esteem in the younger grades that will carry into middle and high school, possibly having a negative impact on that student’s educational path. While it is important to read, write and do math, it is equally important to build a healthy self esteem and self concept so as the student advances, and the work becomes more self directed and difficult the student has the tools in self confidence to move into that level. Research has shown that people who have a low self esteem often do not feel they are contributing to the world in any way. They feel useless, hopeless and that their abilities are not needed in the large scheme of things. This often translates into behavior issues as the student tries to carve a place for himself or herself in the world and be noticed. A program in which students with low self esteem are partnered with younger students to help them with their work and their general school existence will help the older student realize they are a vital and positive contributor to the school. Helping the student feel connected with the school will help that student develop a more healthy self esteem thereby giving him the tools to succeed as he reaches the upper grades. This paper provides a literature review to support the idea of a Tall Buddy Program for at risk sixth grade students. The Tall Buddy Program is designed around the premise that students working with younger students will have their behavior and self concept improve for several reasons.
Ø Connection with other teachers on campus
Ø Feeling like they make a difference in a younger student’s life.
Ø Feeling capable of helping other
Ø Feeling like they can contribute to the school as a larger setting.
Before one can measure the possible benefits of such a program it is important to understand the impact a low self esteem has on individuals and therefore society. There is a long standing belief that self esteem issues contribute to delinquency, giving concern to having such students work with younger students, however, research has consistently proven that students with low self esteem are not more at risk to become delinquents, however the injury to their own psyche and their own lives is very real(Emler, 2002).
Over the years, many problems have been blamed on low self esteem. Some of the facts that the literature already bears
· “relatively low self-esteem is not a risk factor for delinquency, violence towards others (including child and partner abuse), drug use, alcohol abuse, educational under-attainment or racism;
· relatively low self-esteem is a risk factor for suicide, suicide attempts and depression, for teenage pregnancy, and for victimization by others. In each case, however, this risk factor is one of several and probably interacts with others;
· there are indications that childhood self-esteem is associated with adolescent eating disorders and with economic outcomes--earnings, continuity of employment--in early adulthood, but the causal mechanisms involved remain unclear(Emler, 2002).”
Research has indicated that one’s self esteem is a key factor in what that person accomplishes in life.
A high self esteem indicates a person has a positive attitude about themselves and that they feel they have a worth to the world and to society.
of self-esteem can be considered from several perspectives. First, it is important to normal, psychological development. To adequately cope with the challenges of growing and developing, persons need to believe that they have the capacity to achieve what they need and want to and that they are deserving of happiness and joy in life(Walz, 1991).”
One study measured the importance
of school climate on the development of a child’s self esteem and it proved to be a valuable element in the total package.
“School climate plays an important role in the development of the self-esteem of students. Schools that target self-esteem as a major school goal appear to be "more successful academically as well as in developing healthy self-esteem among their students" (California Task Force to Promote Self-Esteem, 1990, p. 5) (Walz, 1991). “
Studies have also concluded that students with high self esteems are less likely to become pregnant, use drugs or display behavior problems.
“Exclusive attention to just self-esteem or personal achievement may well result in less favorable outcomes in either or both areas than when an approach is used which attends to both self-esteem and achievement. Walz and Bleuer (in press) in postulating the presence of an "esteem-achievement connection" emphasize the importance
of presenting students with challenging experiences that enable the student to "earn" high esteem by successfully coping with difficult tasks(Walz, 1991). “
A program in which the students are expected to perform academically as well as by a Tall Buddy to a younger student will illicit the above needs.
A recent study of American Asian students compared to other students showed that the attitude and belief that it is in their control is what causes American Asian students to perform better in school. Asian American parents believe that it is effort, not luck or ability that causes a student to succeed at school. Research found that this attitude of effort and connectedness to the school and the academics drove American Asian students to perform more highly than their Anglo American counterparts even given cultural and language barriers that were presented(Hwang, 1995).
Studies also found that “too often, self-esteem programs send completely counterproductive messages to children by directing youngsters' attention toward their own basest inner gratification-no matter what they do, it's fine, because they are always wonderful and special.”
For students to develop true high self esteem that will assist them in accomplishing their later life goals it is important that they believe they connected and contributed to the society. A program that pairs them with younger students and allows them to succeed thereby build self confidence will help them develop high self esteem.
“To possess self-esteem, one must possess self-worth. To be worthy, one must be good at something or at least try to be (Hwang, 1995).”
“High levels of self-esteem and positive school, peer, and family connections represent protective factors against youth involvement in risky behavior(McClellan, 2002).”
Another study examined the impact that high self esteem has on a student’s performance and behavior.
High self esteem was shown in this research to contribute to high academic behavior by having the student feel a connectedness with the school he or she attends. When a person feels connected that person is more likely to perform and put for their best effort in the tasks that they undertake.
The study examined a mentoring program in which the students were mentored by adults and was successful(McClellan, 2002). This program illustrates the ability of a mentor program to help students increase self esteem, however, it was something they were given. Research also shows that increases in self esteem can be attributed to accomplishments and the feeling of being able. A program which has the students with low self esteem become the mentors will serve to strengthen the self esteem of those students even more than being mentored to.
In addition to the self esteem they will gain by being mentors, they will gain self esteem because of the adults who work with them as mentors. It will allow the students to be part of an important process in which they partner with adults in the quest to assist younger students. This will further enhance their sense of being connected and able to contribute positively to the school that they attend.
“The use and benefits of mentors have been investigated and documented for a variety of professions and populations, including numerous peer-based mentoring programs for elementary-age students(Massey, 2000).”
The conclusion is overwhelmingly in favor of mentoring because it creates a feeling of belonging and ability to succeed. A program that places the students with low self esteem in the role of leader and mentor can only serve to boost self esteem. In addition it will provide the student mentors with the knowledge that they can build goals and solve problems by attaining those goals, which is a valuable concept to understand in life.
“In addition to the benefits that mentees gain, mentors gain by (a) improved self-esteem by modeling appropriate skills and knowledge to another peer, (b) increased opportunities to interact with peers different than themselves (e.g., students with disabilities), and (c) mastered social competence(Massey, 2000).”
Students with high self esteem have a documented advantage over students with low self esteem. A Tall Buddy Program will allow students with low self esteem to increase their self esteem by mentoring to students who are younger. The younger students will also benefit form the program ass they have a buddy to turn to while they learn to navigate the path of education in elementary school.
Students who have high self esteem go on to become adults with high self esteem and it is those adults who cure disease, invent things, and provide positively to the society that they live in. It is important to help students with low self esteem get it turned around as they enter the upper school grades so that they will be equipped with the “can do” attitude that will allow them to succeed and go on to pursue their adult desires and goals with confidence. Students with low self esteem become adults with low self esteem which can translate to higher welfare roles at a cost to taxpayers. It is to society’s advantage to help students who have low self esteem change their perceptions and given them confidence in their ability to contribute to the world.
Emler, Nicholas (2002) The costs and causes of low self-esteem. Youth Studies Australia
Hwang, Yong G (1995) Student apathy, lack of self-responsibility and false self-esteem are failing American schools. Journal of Education
Massey, Gayle (2000) Mentoring with Elementary-Age Students.
Intervention in School & Clinic
McClellan, Warren (1995) Increasing self-esteem and school connectedness through a multidimensional mentoring program. Journal of School Health
Walz, Garry R (1991) ERIC Identifier: ED328827 http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9219/self.htm ERIC Clearinghouse
Emler, Nicholas (2002) The costs and causes of low self-esteem. Youth Studies
Australia, 21(3) 45. Retrieved June 21, 2006, from the ULV Academic Search
Hwang, Yong G (1995) Student apathy, lack of self-responsibility and false self-esteem
are failing American schools. Journal of Education, 115(4)484. Retrieved June 21, 2006, from the ULV Academic Search Premier database.
Massey, Gayle (2000) Mentoring with Elementary-Age Students.
Intervention in School & Clinic, 36(1)36. Retrieved June 24, 2006 from the ULV
Academic Search database.
McClellan, Warren (1995) Increasing self-esteem and school connectedness through a
multidimensional mentoring program. Journal of School Health, 72(7)6. Retrieved
June 24, 2006 from the ULV Academic Search database.
Walz, Garry R (1991) Counseling to Enhance Self-Esteem. Eric Digest. ED328827
Retrieved on June 24, 2006 from the ERIC Clearinghouse.
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