Humanitarian Intervention Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Humanitarian Intervention College Essay Examples

Title: Humanitarian Intervention in Somalia

  • Total Pages: 15
  • Words: 5743
  • Sources:15
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Main purpose of the paper is to cover Genocide in Somalia that took place in the early 1990's
***Strong emphasis on intervention and not assistance***


- Beginning of paper must cover what is genocide and humanitarian intervention

--Other areas that need to be covered, but not necessarily in this order:

- Who were the victims of genocide and why you think they were victimized?
- what threat was imposed upon them?
- quantify the number of victims

- Who were the oppressors and why?

- Do you think it was genocide and why?

- What type of crime under the U.N. Charter if any was broken?

- Was there action taken by the U.N.?

- If there was intervention, was it with consent by a U.N. Security Council resolution or by other unilateral forces?

- Which forces intervened and how to stop the genocide?

- What was the application of or threat of force used to intervene?

- Your opinion of whether you feel it was right or wrong to support the action taken in Somalia and why?

**citations at the end of every page and bibliography is required**

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References

Africa Watch. (1992). 'Somalia: Beyond the warlords', News from Africa Watch, Vol. 5, No 2, p.6.

Alton, F. (2000). Humanitarian Intervention: Crafting a Workable Doctrine. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.

Andre, L.S. (2005). Stateless Justice in Somalia. Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue.

Arthur S.B., Muller, T.C., Overstreet, W. (2008). Political Handbook of the World 2008, CQ Press, p.1198.

China Daily. (2010). Kenya agrees to join AMISOM. Accessed March 3rd, 2012 from: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2011-12/07/content_14225808.htm

Chothia, F. (2011). Could Somali famine deal a fatal blow to al-Shabab? News Africa, BBC African Service

Cottey, A. (2008). Beyond Humanitarian Intervention: The New Politics of Peacekeeping and Intervention. Contemporary Politics: pp. 429-446.

Department of Public Information (DPI) and United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM) (1992). United Nations 100-day Action Programme for Accelerated Humanitarian Assistance for Somalia. Geneva: United Nations.

Frontieres, M.S. (1992). Populations en danger, Paris: Hachette, pp 58-65

Jobson, B. (2008). Islamists thrive as Somali leader quits. Reuters, The Financial Times.

Marjanovic, Marko. (2011). Is Humanitarian War the Exception?, Mises Institute.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (2012). Joint Communique - Operation Linda Nchi. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, accessed March 3rd, 2012 from: http://www.mfa.go.ke/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=399:joint-communique&catid=35:news

National Academy of Sciences (1988). Committee on Health and Human Rights, Scientists and human rights in Somalia: report of a delegation. U.S. Committee on Human Rights, Institute of Medicine. National Academies, p.9.

Ochami, D. (2011). Somalia government supports Kenyan forces' mission. The Standard, Standard Group.

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. (2008). Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, The Wayback Machine.

Physicians for Human Rights. (1992). No Mercy in Mogadishu. London: Physicians for Human Rights.

Prunier, G. (1993). 'La politique bafouee'. Le Monde des Debats.

Rutherford, K. (2008). Humanitarianism Under Fire: The U.S. And UN Intervention in Somalia. Kumarian Press.

Tharoor, S. And Daws, S. (2001). Humanitarian Intervention: Getting Past the Reefs. World Policy Journal 2001.

United Nations Special Emergency Program for the Horn of Africa (SEPHA). (1992). Updated Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal, Geneva: United Nations

United States Agency for International Development USAID. (1992). USAID/OFDA Situation Report, No 13.

Welsh, J.M. (2004). Humanitarian Intervention and International Relations. Ed. Jennifer M. Welsh. New York: Oxford University Press.

World of Information (Firm). (1987). Africa review, World of Information, p.213.

WRITENET. (1995). Somalia: Civil War, Intervention and Withdrawal 1990 -- 1995. Refworld - United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the UN Refugee Agency.

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Title: 2 orders combined 5 pages and 3 sources each order

  • Total Pages: 10
  • Words: 2888
  • References:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: 2 essays order,each 5 pages, 3 references,Junior year /undergrad University/level

Topic no.1:Humanitarian interventions;over the last 15 years humanitarian interventions have been increased, however,so far the international community has not come up with good guidelines as to when and how to use military-led humanitarian interventions.Please discuss the advantages and disadvantages of HI and try to come with a better mechanism.
Topic of essay no. 2:Terrorism;terrorists are targeting individual states and their citizens, therefore the UN is not the best organization to deal with terrorism but NATO and other alliances should be used to counter terrorist attacks.Discuss.

I slightly changed my order,but topics are same and it;s on you which references will be quoted and used.Hope there is no more problem any more.

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Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104306353

Barnes, Sam. Humanitarian Aid Coordination during War and Peace in Mozambique, 1985-1995. Uppsala: Nordic African Institute, 1998. Questia. 6 Nov. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104306370.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000665586

Cohn, Marjorie. "Understanding, Responding to and Preventing Terrorism." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) (2002): 25+. Questia. 6 Nov. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000665586.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008295630

Cortright, David. "Can the UN Battle Terrorism Effectively? Security Council Resolutions Have "Mobilized States for a Campaign of Nonmilitary Cooperative Law Enforcement Measures to Combat Global Terrorism.." USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education) Jan. 2005: 62+. Questia. 6 Nov. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008295630.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000793986

Graham, Carol. "Can Foreign Aid Help Stop Terrorism? Not with Magic Bullets." Brookings Review Summer 2002: 28+. Questia. 6 Nov. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000793986.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109857872

Welsh, Jennifer M., ed. Humanitarian Intervention and International Relations. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2004. Questia. 6 Nov. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109857886.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102024212

Moens, Alexander, Lenard J. Cohen, and Allen G. Sens, eds. Nato and European Security: Alliance Politics from the End of the Cold War to the Age of Terrorism / . Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003. Questia. 6 Nov. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102024321.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103490735

Smith, M.L.R. Fighting for Ireland? The Military Strategy of the Irish Republican Movement. London: Routledge, 1997. Questia. 6 Nov. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103490777.

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Title: human rights

  • Total Pages: 5
  • Words: 1484
  • Works Cited:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Paper due is on march 13th and Please write about two topics:
The impending war with Iraq should(should not) be described as an example of " humanitarian intervention", and "In wartime situations should the presence of "human shields" alter military tactics? why? Why not? explain fully your reasoning.

Please write separate analytical essays TOTALING NOT MORE THAN SEVEN PAGES, double-spaced.
EACH question should include five or more specific references to materials readingsnor lectures; references can be indicated in parentheses at appropriate points in text or in footnotes or endnotes;other references can also be made, but do not substitute for obligatory five.

Glading will be based on clarity of alalysis, coherence and persuasiveness of arguments, originality, knowledge and informed judgment relating to issues discussed,

be sure to respond in terms of human rights considerations


You really need my references however I do not think
i can send all of them by fax ,because some are books,
so please let me know the address where i can send them
as soon as possible. and I will send you the rest if them
Sincerely
Masami yanagi
There are faxes for this order.

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Title: Write MA dissertation 12000 words discussing topic Interventionism Humanitarian States National Interest Case Study Libya Syria Discuss title a 12000 words dissertation covering introduction chapters a conclusion

  • Total Pages: 44
  • Words: 13409
  • Bibliography:40
  • Citation Style: Harvard
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Write an MA dissertation of 12000 words discussing the topic:

Interventionism; between Humanitarian and States? National Interest. Case Study Libya and Syria.

Discuss the title above in a 12000 words dissertation covering an introduction, three or four chapters, and a conclusion.

References and Bibliography from the suggested list below.
an introduction should ideally contain:
-The title or topic of your dissertation ? introduction to your puzzle ? justifying: why you are interested in this topic and why is this topic important/relevant?
-Concepts definitions etc. should be included early on.
-Your research question.
-Your central argument ? remember this is a value choice dependent on your standpoint.
-The structure of the dissertation (Chapter One will look at?In Chapter Two?)
-Choice of case studies and justification if appropriate (why these and not others?).
-Methodology
-Literature review.


The Thesis of the dissertation should argue and support the realistic point of view and belief towards Great Powers national interest in other states for intervention.

Syria Case: Why states didn?t intervene until now although there have been a strong case for humanitarian intervention: mass killing, immigration, slaughtering?.
What are the political reasons behind inaction in Syria ?
Reasons vary from political, geopolitical, economical to strategic interest for great powers in the region.
Libya Case: Why states intervene in Libya ?
Reasons behind intervention: humanitarian intervention : yes, but favored with economic interest.
Talk about Western countries that support humanitarian interventionism and they have not yet intervened in Syria. What are the states? national interests that dictate against humanitarian intervention.

-Political Interest.
-Israel Position in the region and the US concern to secure its borders.
-Economical Interest.
-Instability in the region.
Responsibility to Protect doctrine: Is it only meant to protect civilians or it goes beyond this ?
Case of Libya ?


Suggested Readings:


Alexidze, Levan (1981), ?Legal Nature of Jus Cogens in Contemporary International Law?, in Recueil des cours, Vol. 172, p. 219-270.

Amn?us, Diana (2012), ?Has Humanitarian Intervention Become Part of International Law under the Responsibility to Protect Doctrine??, in Julia Hoffmann and Andr? Nollkaemper, eds., Responsibility to Protect. From Principle toPractice, Amsterdam, Pallas Publications and Amsterdam University Press, p. 157-171.

Bellamy, Alex J. (2011), ?Libya and the Responsibility to Protect: The Exception and the Norm?, Ethics & International Affairs, Vol. 25, No. 3 (September), p. 263-269.

Boisson de Chazournes, Louise, and Condorelli, Luigi (2006), ?De la ?responsabilit? de prot?ger?, ou d?une nouvelle parure pour une notion d?j? bien ?tablie?, R?vue g?n?rale de droit international public, Vol. 110, No. 1, p. 11-18, http://archive-ouverte.unige.ch/unige:6162.

Bokova, Irina (2012), ?Culture in the Cross Hairs?, International Herald Tribune, 3 December, p. 12, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/03/opinion/global/cultural-sites-must-be-protected.html.

Brownlie, Ian (1974),?Humanitarian Intervention?, in John Norton Moore, ed., Law and Civil War in the ModernWorld, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, p. 217-228.

Cassese, Antonio (1999), ?Ex iniuria ius oritur: Are we Moving towards International Legitimation of Forcible Humanitarian Countermeasures in the World Community??, European Journal of International Law, Vol. 10, No. 1,p. 23-30, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejil/10.1.23.

Chesterman, Simon (2011), ??Leading from Behind?: The Responsibility to Protect, the Obama Doctrine, and Humanitarian Intervention after Libya?, Ethics & International Affairs, Vol. 25, No. 3 (September), p. 279-285.

Francioni, Francesco (2000),?Of War, Humanity and Justice: International Law after Kosovo?, Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, Vol. 4, p. 107-126, http://www.mpil.de/shared/data/pdf/pdfmpunyb/francioni_4.pdf.

Francioni, Francesco (2005), ?Balancing the Prohibition of Force with the Need to Protect Human Rights: A Methodological Approach?, in Enzo Cannizzaro and Paolo Pacchetti, eds., Customary International Law on the Use of Force. A Methodological Approach, Leiden and Boston, Nijhoff, p. 269-292.

Hannikainen, Lauri (1988), Peremptory Norms (Jus Cogens) in International Law. Historical Development, Criteria,Present Status, Helsinki, Finnish Lawyers? Publishing Company.

Hehir, Aidan (2008), Humanitarian Intervention after Kosovo. Iraq, Darfur and the Record of Global Civil Society,Basingstoke and New York, Palgrave Macmillan.
16 WORKING PAPER 15
Hehir, Aidan (2012), The Responsibility to Protect. Rhetoric, Reality and the Future of Humanitarian Intervention, Basingstoke and New York, Palgrave Macmillan.

Hilpold, Peter (2012), ?Intervening in the Name of Humanity: R2P and the Power of Ideas?, Journal of Conflict and Security Law, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Spring), p. 49-79.

Hoffmann, Julia, and Nollkaemper, Andr?, eds.(2012), Responsibility to Protect. From Principle to Practice, Amsterdam, Pallas Publications and Amsterdam University Press.

Hurd, Ian (2011), ?Is Humanitarian Intervention Legal? The Rule of Law in an Incoherent World?, Ethics & International Affairs, Vol. 25, No. 3 (September), p. 293-313, http://faculty.wcas.northwestern.edu/~ihu355/Home_files/is%20hi%20legal.pdf.

Joffe, George (1994), ?Sovereignty and Intervention: The Perspective from the Developing World?, in Marianne Heiberg, ed., Subduing Sovereignty. Sovereignty and the Right to Intervene, London, Pinter, p. 62-95.

Krause, Joachim, and Ronzitti, Natalino, eds. (2012), The EU, the UN and Collective Security, London and New York, Routledge.

Lillich, Richard (1974), ?Humanitarian Intervention: A Reply to Ian Brownlie and a Plea for Constructive Alternatives?,in John Norton Moore, ed., Law and Civil War in the Modern World, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, p.229-251.

Mohamed, Saria (2012), ?Taking Stock of the Responsibility to Protect?, Stanford Journal of International Law, Vol.48, No. 2 (Summer), p. 319-339, http://ssrn.com/abstract=2065520.

Ortega, Martin, ed. (2005), ?The European Union and the United Nations. Partners in Effective Multilateralism?, Chaillot Papers, No. 78 (June), http://www.iss.europa.eu/publications/detail/article/the-european-union-andthe-united-nations-partners-in-effective-multilateralism.

Pattison, James (2010), Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect. Who Should Intervene?, Oxford and New York, Oxford University Press.

Picone, Paolo (1995), ?Interventi delle Nazioni Unite e obblighi erga omnes?, in Paolo Picone, ed., Interventi delle Nazioni Unite e diritto internazionale, Padova, Cedam, p. 517-578
.
Powell, Catherine (2012), ?Libya: A Multilateral Constitutional Moment??, American Journal of International Law, Vol. 106, No. 2 (April), p. 298-316, http://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/facpub/983.

Ronzitti, Natalino (1986), ?Use of Force, Jus Cogens and State Consent?, in Antonio Cassese, ed., The Current Legal Regulation of the Use of Force, Dordrecht, Nijhoff, p. 147-166.

Ronzitti, Natalino (2012), ?NATO Intervention in Libya: A Genuine Action to Protect a Civilian Population in Mortal Danger or an Intervention Aimed at Regime Change??, The Italian Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 21: 2011, p. 3-21.
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Simma, Bruno (1999), ?NATO, the UN and the Use of Force: Legal Aspects?, European Journal of International Law, Vol. 10, No.1, p. 1-22, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejil/10.1.1.

Simms, Brendan, and Trim, David J.B., eds. (2011), Humanitarian Intervention. A History, Cambridge and New York, Cambridge University Press. Task Force on the EU Prevention of Mass Atrocities (2013), The EU and the Prevention of Mass Atrocities. AnAssessment of Strengths and Weaknesses, Budapest, Foundation for the International Prevention of Mass Atrocities, 6 March, http://www.massatrocitiestaskforce.eu/Report.html.

Tes?n, Fernando (2003), ?The Liberal Case for Humanitarian Intervention?, in J.L. Holzgrefe and Robert O. Keohane, eds. Humanitarian Intervention. Ethical, Legal and Political Dilemmas, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 93-129.

Tes?n, Fernando R. (2005), Humanitarian Intervention. An Inquiry into Law and Morality, 3. edn, New York, Transnational Publishers.

Vierucci, Luisa (2012), ?The No-Fly Zone over Libya: Enforcement Issues?, The Italian Yearbook of International Law, Vol. 21: 2011, p. 21-44.

Welsh, Jennifer (2011), ?Civilian Protection in Libya: Putting Coercion and Controversy Back into RtoP?, Ethics & International Affairs, Vol. 25, No. 3 (September), p. 255-262.

Wouters, Jan, De Man, Philip, and Vincent, Marie (2012), ?The Responsibility to Protect and Regional Organisations: Where Does the European Union Stand?,? in Julia Hoffmann and Andr? Nollkaemper, eds., Responsibility to Protect. From Principle to Practice, Amsterdam, Pallas Publications and Amsterdam University Press, p. 247-270.

2. Documents and Judicial Decisions

EP (2009a), Resolution on a political solution with regard to the piracy off the Somali coast (P7_TA(2009)0099), 26 November, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&reference=P7-TA-2009-0099&language=EN&ring=B7-2009-0158.

EP (2009b), Resolution on violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (P7_TA(2009)0118), 17 December, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&reference=P7-TA-2009-0118&language=EN.

EP (2011), Resolution on the Southern Neighborhood, and Libya in particular (P7_TA(2011)0095), 10 March, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=TA&reference=P7-TA-2011-0095&language=EN.

EU Council (2005), Council Conclusions on UN World Summit, 2687th External Relations Council meeting, Brussels,
7 November, http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/gena/86844.pdf.
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EU Council (2008a), Council Joint Action on the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo, EULEX Kosovo(2008/124/CFSP), 4 February, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:042:0092:0098:E
N:PDF.

EU Council (2008b), Report on the Implementation of the European Security Strategy. Providing Security in a Changing World (S/407/08), 11 December, http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/EN/
reports/104630.pdf.
EU Council (2010), EU Priorities for the 65th United Nations General Assembly (10170/10), 25 May, http://register.consilium.europa.eu/pdf/en/10/st10/st10170.en10.pdf.

ICISS (2001), The Responsibility to Protect. Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, Ottawa, International Development Research Centre, http://responsibilitytoprotect.org/ICISS%20Report.pdf.

ICJ (1949), Judgment on the Corfu Channel case (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland v.Albania), 9 April, http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?case=1.

ICJ (1970), Judgment on the Barcelona Traction case (Belgium v. Spain), 5 February, http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?case=50.

ICJ (1986), Judgment on the case concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua(Nicaragua v. United States of America), 27 June, http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?case=70.

ICJ (2003), Judgment on the case concerning Oil Platforms (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America),6 November, http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?case=90.

ICJ (2004), Judgment on the Avena and Other Mexican Nationals case (Mexico v. United States of America), 31 March, http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?case=128.

ICJ (2007), Judgment on the case concerning the Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro), 26 February, http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?case=91.

ICJ (2012), Judgment on the Ahmadou Sadio Diallo case (Republic of Guinea v. Democratic Republic of Congo), 19 June, http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/index.php?case=103.

ILC (2001), Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, http://untreaty.un.org/ilc/texts/9_6.htm.

UN (2005a), In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security and Human Rights for All (A/59/2005), 21 March,http://undocs.org/A/59/2005.

UN (2005b), Resolution on the 2005 World Summit Outcome (A/RES/60/1), 24 October, http://undocs.org/A/
RES/60/1.
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UN (2006), Resolution on the Protection of civilians in armed conflict (S/RES/1674), 28 April, http://www.un.org/en/sc/documents/resolutions/2006.shtml.

UN (2009a), Implementing the Responsibility to Protect (A/63/677), 12 January, http://undocs.org/A/63/677.

UN (2009b), Resolution on The responsibility to protect (A/RES/63/308), 7 October, http://undocs.org/A/RES/63/308.

UN (2011a), Report of the Working Group on the Universal Periodic Review. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (A/HRC/16/15), 4 January, http://undocs.org/A/HRC/16/15.

UN (2011b), Resolution on Libya (S/RES/1973),17 March, http://www.un.org/en/sc/documents/resolutions/2011.shtml.

UN (2011c), Resolution on Peace and security in Africa (S/RES/1970), 26 February, http://www.un.org/en/sc/documents/resolutions/2011.shtml.

UN (2011d), Statement the Secretary-General on Libya, 17 March, http://www.un.org/sg/statements/?nid=5145.

US (2005), Letter from Ambassador Bolton on the Responsibility to Protect, 30 August, available at http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/files/US_Boltonletter_R2P_30Aug05%5B1%5D.pdf.

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'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.

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