Human Development Index Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Human Development Index College Essay Examples

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  • Total Pages: 4
  • Words: 1104
  • Works Cited:0
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: This paper is to build a development index. Choose one of the following pairs of countries:

India-China or Kenya-Uganda....

Go to the website of the Human Development Report (http://hdr.undp.org/eng) and click on Build Your Own Index.

The first part of the assignment is to build your own index for each country in your pair, explain what is included in your index and create a table with your index and ones for your countries from the Human Development Index (HDI)...

Explain why your indices differ from the HDI from each of your countries.

Evaluate your index versus the HDI for you countries ...

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References

Human Development Index. The Human development concept. Human Development Reports. 2010. Available at http://hdr.undp.org/en/humandev/

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Title: Do strategic partnerships with the EU and China benefit the political and economic development in Ghana

  • Total Pages: 15
  • Words: 4337
  • Bibliography:20
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Dear Author,

I kindly ask you to prepare the sample for two chapters of my MA thesis.

In order to provide you with as much information as possible, I will send you the last version of my MA thesis prospectus. I will also provide you with the Table of contents, so that you can see what is the general idea of the paper.

It would be great if you could find the following books and use some quotations from them to back up the point:

1. The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for our Time by Jeffrey D. Sachs
2. The White Man’s Burden: Why the West’s Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done so Much Ill and So Little Good by William Easterly
3. Why Foreign Aid is Not Working: THE TROUBLE WITH AFRICA by Robert Calderisi.

The two chapters that I expect you to research are:
(They have to be structured in the same order as they are placed in the table of contents.

Do strategic partnerships with the European Union and China benefit the political and economic development in Ghana?

• 1. Main agenda of the international development strategy for Ghana since the 1970’s.
1.1. Short history of the foreign aid programs launched by the economically developed donor countries;
1.2. Analysis of the effectiveness of the previously introduced developmental programs on the basis of the HDI data;
1.3. The explicit and implicit motives of the donor countries to launch the strategic partnership programs for Ghana in the last four decades.

(This chapter will be dealing with the strategic goals of donor countries from the 1970’s as well as analyze the impact of the implemented programs in the past. Some historic background will be given to the reader in order to demonstrate the way in which the impact of these initiatives reflected the fluctuations of the HDI*). It would be good if you could find some information on the development programs for Ghana, which failed to reach the goal of sustainable development (in political and economic spheres).

* HDI- human Development Index United Nations Development Programme's 2010 Human Development Index has to be used as a tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the development programs. The UN represents in this sense one of the most accredited and useful resource for research largely because in its status as an international organization and development agent, it has provided extensive knowledge and experience in development aid and assistance. For the purpose of the research the latest HDI has to be used extensively to offer a starting point for the analysis on the situation in Ghana. The Human Development Index is crucial because it represents a composite index taking into account several aspects of life, from infant mortality to the level of literacy among adults.

2. Analysis of the political situation in Ghana: political corruption and lack of economic transparency.
2.1. Short introduction into the political system of Ghana;
2.2. Corruption on the political level: lack of economic transparency; (in the end of this subchapter, please shortly write about the improper resource allocation, as the consequence of the lack of economic transparency (please measure the inequality of a distribution by Gini coefficient)*

2.3. The consequences of the improper resources allocation. (Explain the general trends as the further throughout analysis of the European and Chinese funds allocation figures will be given in the following chapters).

This chapter will explain why only a limited amount of finances from the foreign assistance programs reaches the people of Ghana, as well as analyze the problems in the political mechanism of resource allocation.

* The Gini coefficient is a measure of the inequality of a distribution, a value of 0 expressing total equality and a value of 1 maximal inequality. It has found application in the study of inequalities in disciplines as diverse as sociology, economics, health science, ecology, chemistry and engineering.

I hope that you will be able to find the following books to analyze the political situation in Ghana:

1. What Foreign Aid Can and Can’t do in Africa: Understanding the Context of Aid and Socio-Economic Development in Ghana by Nathan Andrews.

2. Population, Health and Development in Ghana: Attaining the Millennium Development Goals edited by Chuks J. Mba and Stephen O. Kwankye.


Below, you will find the MA thesis proposal. As later I will convert it into the introduction chapter, the chapters that I expect you to research DON'T HAVE TO INCLUDE THE GENERAL INTRODUCTION (only the short introduction to the subchapters)

Introduction

Today, given the Millennium Development Goals and the overall general movement on development, there is a constant tendency of the developed countries to provide increased attention and assistance to the African continent. In this sense, the US launched its Africa Development Foundation, China, in its turn established its China-Africa Development Fund, whereas the European Commission established a large part of its strategic partnerships with African states (Mohan 2010). However, these initiatives are not without criticism. Thus, it is considered by analysts that the new development programs established by the developed countries sometimes seem to be more beneficial for the donors, rather than for the direct beneficiaries, the African continent (Boafo- Arthur & Essuman-Johnson 2004). The majority of African countries may benefit from oil and mineral resources that have the potential of transforming economies. But, the general opinion among scholars is that these resources represent more a curse than a blessing. The opponents of the foreign development programs in Africa believe that the world’s developed countries are more concerned with the potential economic benefit from African oil, copper and cobalt sources rather than with the sound end sustainable development of the African countries, in all of their economic, political, and most importantly social perspectives.
Given the nature of the debate raised by this constant discussion over foreign aid to Africa, its benefits and shortcomings, my thesis will analyse the way in which the development programs (strategic partnerships) underway in Africa benefited sustainable development. More precisely, the analysis will point out whether the new development programs encourage the transformation of the potential of natural resources into resources for human development, economic and political construction or, on the contrary, only foster the political and economic instability within some African states.
* As today the term ‘development program’ has acquired a somewhat negative shade, the majority of the donors try to replace it by the more donor-friendly term “ strategic partnership”. For that reason, the term ‘strategic partnership’ is more widely used in the development sphere nowadays than the term ‘development program’. The initial name of the topic was “ Do Even though the name was changed, the essence of the topic is the same and the hypothesis was left unchanged.
Given the wide variety of characteristics inside the African continent, the thesis will focus on the example of Ghana and its relation with two of its important donors, the EU and China. More precisely, the focus is on the strategic partnerships undergone by the two donors and there impact on the political and economic development of Ghana. Ghana is a peaceful and stable democracy, which makes good progress toward its goal of becoming a middle-income country by 2020. In 2008 it was revealed that Ghana has substantial oil reserves which will become available in 2010.Ghana's government anticipates that oil and gas will generate about $500 million in revenues in 2011. With economic growth rates even as high as 6 per cent over recent years, Ghana is “an emerging African economic success story” (CIDA 2010). However, even though this country is moving fast towards its economic development, Ghana ranks 130 out of 169 countries on the United Nations Development Programme's 2010 human development index (UNDP 2010). Therefore, there is no doubt that Ghana still needs some innovative development programs (strategic partnerships), which will let its Development indicators increase in the nearest future. Both the EU and China promise to do that with the help of their development aid programs.
Even though Ghana is known for its stability and democratic government, the country has a poor record of managing finances transparently. Therefore, there are not only doubts concerning the hidden motives of the economic powers which are conducting their strategic partnerships in Ghana, but there are also some doubts about who in Ghana will benefit from such programs (Hope 2000). In this sense, my thesis also aims to identify whether the funds from the Chinese and European strategic partnerships benefits the Ghanaian power holders, or the people of Ghana. Thus, both of the above mentioned issues, of Ghana’s ‘external’ and ‘internal’ benefit from the EU and Chinese strategic partnerships will be discussed.



Methodology
As the thesis aims to demonstrate the real-life data on the current development of the country, the United Nations Development Programme's 2010 human development index will be used as a tool to evaluate the effectiveness of one or another development program. The UN represents in this sense one of the most accredited and useful resource for research largely because in its status as an international organization and development agent, it has provided extensive knowledge and experience in development aid and assistance. For the purpose of the research the latest HDR is used extensively to offer a starting point for the analysis on the situation in Ghana. Currently, according to the 2010 HDR, Ghana is on the 130th position, in the category of low human development index (UNDP 2010). More precisely, it is considered that Ghana is still an underdeveloped country. Even so, the UN Report on Least Developed Countries does not make reference to Ghana, a fact that is encouraging for the African state (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 2010).
The Human Development Index is crucial because it represents a composite index taking into account several aspects of life, from infant mortality to the level of literacy among adults. The shortcomings of the HDR consist mainly, as presented in the preface of the document, in the complete reliance on national statistics. In this sense, the facts and classifications are established according to national information sources that may be out-dated or may lack credibility.
HDR statistics will be used to process information from previous years and decades, which in turn enables a comparative analysis for economic and political development. In this sense for instance, given the fact that the international development strategy for Africa is known since the late 1970s, it is important to assess the way in which the impact of this initiative is reflected in the fluctuation of the HDI (Human Development Index). As an example, the index has slowly improved since the 80s, from 0.363 to 0.431 in 2000 to 0.467 in 2010. This improvement, by applying the cause-effect analysis method, can be viewed as a direct effect of international aid, including aid from China and the EU, or, on the other hand, as a natural development of the economic cycle. By providing input from research, scholars, and primary sources (development reports), this development will be (or will be not) demonstrated to have been a natural consequence of international assistance for development.
The Gini Coefficient (Wikipedia 2010) will be used to assess the sustainability of the development process and its inequality( 2nd chapter). In this sense, by comparison, the research points out that there is indeed a gap between the economic growth that is statistically visible and the social impact it has on the population. Better said, “despite favorable economic conditions job creation has not matched economic growth, particularly in rural areas” (UNDP Ghana 2010). Similar analysis will be made for other areas of the social and economic development with precise attention provided to sectors where Ghana has benefited from Chinese and European assistance such as constructions in industrial areas.



FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS

• Introduction
• 1. Main agenda of the international development strategy for Ghana since the 1970’s.
1.1. Short history of the foreign aid programs launched by the economiclly developed donor countries;
1.2. Analysis of the effectiveness of the previously introduced developmental programs on the basis of the HDI data;
1.3. The explicit and implicit motives of the donor countries to launch the strategic partnership programs for Ghana in the last four decades.

( This chapter will be dealing with the strategic goals of donor countries from the 1970’s as well as analyze the impact of the implemented programs in the past. Some historic background will be given to the reader in order to demonstrate the way in which the impact of these initiatives reflected the fluctuations of the HDI). It would be great if you could find the examples of the development programs that were not sustainable and ??' harmed, but not benefited the economic and political development in Ghana in the past.

2. Analysis of the political situation in Ghana: political corruption and lack of economic transparency.
2.1. Short introduction into the political system of Ghana;
2.2. Corruption on the political level: lack of economic transparency;( measured by Gini coefficient)*
2.3. The consequences of the improper resources allocation. (Explain the general trends and state that the further throughout analysis of the European and Chinese funds allocation figures will be given in the following chapters).

This chapter will explain why only a limited amount of finances from the foreign assistance programs reaches the people of Ghana, as well as analyze the problems in the political mechanism of resource allocation .
• 3. Analysis of the EU-Ghana strategic partnership.
3.1. An overview of the EU-Ghana strategic Partnership;
3.2. The EU strategic benefit from the implementation of the program;
3.3. The allocation of the EU funds in Ghana;
3.4. The impact of the allocated funds on the political and economic development of Ghana, in terms of HDI.

In this chapter, a brief overview of the EU-Ghana relations will be given. More to this, it will be explained, why the EU decided to establish the partnership between the parties, but not to position itself as a donor for Ghana. The impact of the strategic partnership on the economic and political development of Ghana will be measured. The results will be compared to those of China, in order to analyze, which foreign aid model (a donor or a partner) is more effective in terms of positive impact on the political and economic development in Ghana. (HDI)

4. Analysis of the Chinese strategic partnership, launched by the China-Africa Development Fund.
3.1. An overview of the Chinese program for Ghana development, launched by the China-Africa Development Fund;
3.2. Chinese potential benefit from the introduction of the program in Ghana;
3.3. The allocation of the Chinese funds in Ghana;
3.4. The impact of the allocated funds on the political and economic development of the state.

In this chapter I will describe current relations between Ghana and one of its major donors, China. In this chapter, it will be explained what are the potential political and economic motives that drive China to become a donor for Ghana. The results will be measured.(HDI)

Each subchapter should contribute to answering the research question in one, or another way. MAIN RESEARCH QUESTION is the name of the topic. Second, less important research question is Who benefits more from the strategic partnerships: the EU/China, or Ghana?


If you will have any further questions, please, don't hesitate to contact me
Regards
Julia

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Bibliography

UN Habitat. (2003). The challenge of slums - global report on human settlements 2003. United Nations Human Settlements Program.

United Nations Development Program. (2010). Human Development Report. Washington: Palgrave Macmillan.

Andrews, N. (2010).; Understanding the context of Aid and socio economic development in Ghana. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.

Andrews, N. (2010). Foreign Official Development Assistance (ODA) and Ghana'S Development: The Case for "Bringing Culture Back in "to the Analysis . International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 2 (5), 95-104.

Calvocoressi, P. (2008). World Politics since 1945. London: Longman.

Canada International Agency for Development. (2011). Fact sheet: Canada and Ghana. Retrieved March 21, 2011, from http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/acdi-cida/ACDI-CIDA.nsf/eng/RAC-1117104827-LJU

Easterly, W. (2006). The White Man's burden. Penguin Books.

Gafaru, a.A. (2009). Political context study - Ghana. Human rights, Power and Civic Action research project, Universities of Oslo, Leeds and Ghana .

Mohan, G. (2010). China in Ghana: Easing the Shift from Aid Dependency to Oil Economy? (ARI) . Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Real Instituto Elcano: http://www.realinstitutoelcano.org/wps/portal/rielcano_eng/Content-WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/elcano/elcano_in/zonas_in/ari149-2010

Sam Mensah et al. . (2003). Corporate governance and corruption in Ghana. Empirical findings and policy implications. African Capital Market Forum .

Sowa, N.K. (n.d.). Reflections on Aid and Debt Management in Ghana. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from Centre for Policy Analysis (CEPA): http://www.cepa.org.gh/researchpapers/Reflections%20on%20Aid%20and%20Debt%20Management%20in%20Ghana58.pdf

Recorded in 2006.

The period considered to be the most important for development strategies throughout the world

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Title: Mexico

  • Total Pages: 3
  • Words: 747
  • Sources:2
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: A company is planning to expand foreign sales. You expect to enter a foreign market and establish a distribution center. You are trying to decide which country to enter first. Several other groups in your hypothetical company are researching potential partners, cultural and management norms, legal environment issues, distribution channels, local competitors and transportation infrastructure. gather macroeconomic data for Mexico.

Outline:
Executive Summary
A. Strengths:
- Low inflation & Low unemployment
- Stable currency
- Free Trade Agreements
- Low Debt to GDP ratio
B. Macroeconomic summary

Economic Indicators 2013 Data Trend
GDP Growth Rate 1.1% Slowing/Stagnant
Trade Balance -1.01 USDB Balanced
Debt to GDP 10.3% Slight Increase
Inflation 4% Stable
Business Confidence 53.3% Stable
Currency Stability $13.08 USDMXN Stable
Unemployment 5.7% Low/Stable
Corruption Index 106th/177 Persistent Corruption
Global Competitiveness Index 52/144th Somewhat Competitive
Human Development Index 57/188th High
Happy Planet Index 22nd Mid-Range
Open Budget Index 52/100 Some Info Available


C. Risks

- Slow GDP growth
- Corruption/Public Safety
- Labor Shortage (projected)
- Income Inequality

2. Macroeconomic Variables
A. GDP
?-? Mexico GDP Constant Prices
?-? Mexico GDP per capita PPP
?-? Mexico GDP Annual Growth Rate
?-? Mexico GDP Growth Rate
?-? Mexico GDP
B. Trade Balance
?-? Trade deficit ??" imports/exports
?-? Free Trade Agreements
?-? Remittances from USA
C. Business Confidence Index
?-? Trend 2004 ??" 2014
D. Monetary and Fiscal Policies
?-? Budget Deficit
?-? Government Policies
?-? Economic Aid
E. Lending and Currency Exchange
?-? Floating Exchange Rate
F. Employment and Wages
?-? Unemployment rate
?-? Quality of good jobs
?-? Income per capita

The Long View - Question of Sustainable Prosperity
Rivlin and Jordan articles - view of Mexico (See Global Competitiveness Index)
?-? Infrastructure
?-? Institutions
?-? Legal Structure
?-? Banking and Financial Systems
?-? Political Stability
?-? Government Regulation
?-? Projections for Future Economic Growth

5. Conclusion
A. Strengths:
- Consistent growth in GDP
- Low inflation
- Stable currency
B. Challenges and Risks
- Corruption
- Labor Shortage (projected)
- Income Inequality


Appendix
Macroeconomic indicators, charts and graphs.

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Works Cited

Jordan, J. (2000). How to Keep Growing "New Economies." Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, 1-4.

Rivlin, A. (2000, September 11). The Challenges of Affluence. (T. N. Economists, Interviewer)

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Title: International Planning

  • Total Pages: 9
  • Words: 2930
  • References:9
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Main thesis:
There is no one specific formula for development of every country, but there are general development principles which could apply to different countries. Every country needs to find their own way to develop under those general principles.

List three sources you will use to support your argument and what evidence each source will provide:
Source 1:
This source will provide evidence that: China is developing rapidly under its own formula
http://www.globalsherpa.org/china-world-economic-development-bric-countries
Source 2:
This source will provide evidence that: European union countries develop under similar formula
http://www.europesworld.org/NewEnglish/Home_old/CommunityPosts/tabid/809/PostID/3238/WhatisthemagicformulaforEuropeangrowth.aspx
Source 3:
This source will provide evidence that: China is developing rapidly under its own formula
http://forumonpublicpolicy.com/archive07/thomas.pdf

Insert below a draft of the first 100 words of your essay:
Development is a general concept that includes many different aspects. The definition of development is improvement in human welfare, quality of life, social well-being, and satisfying the population’s needs and wants. There are many different measurement for development, such as GDP, GNI, Human Development Index, Gender Inequality Index, Gini coefficient, and etc… Since each nation has its own culture, history, tradition, religion, and ect, the measurement of a successful development varies for different countries. As a result, although the general development concepts apply to all countries, each country needs to find their own specific way to develop.

Comment from Instructor:
This essay still needs a bit more clarity. It seems from your sources, you are going to focus on China but your thesis and your first 100 words don't mention China. You need to tie this together. Also, you need to choose your own definition of development and what measures you use to assess that type of development. If you define development as economic growth, you will use GNI or GDP, if you define development as meeting the basic needs of the people, you would use HDI ,etc. You need to be more clear on connecting your definition of development to the measures you use.
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Works Cited

Davies, M. "HOW CHINA IS INFLUENCING AFRICA'S DEVELOPMENT." April 2010. OECD Development Centre. Web. 5 December 2012.

Jason, B. "China's Development Plans Lead World, BRICs." 10 January 2011. Global Sherpa. Web. 4 December 2012.

Kanter, J. "European Finance Ministers Deadlock on Plan to Oversee Banks." 4 December 2012. The New York Times. Web. 5 December 2012.

Orlik, T. "China's Inequality Gini Out of the Bottle." 17 September 2012. The Wall Street Jounal China. Web. 6 December 2012.

Perkowski, J. "China Leads The World In Renewable Energy Investment." 27 July 2012. Forbes. Web. 5 December 2012.

Scissors, D. "Climate Change Is Still About Chinese Coal." 28 November 2010. The Foundry. Web. 6 December 2012.

Sedlacek, T. "What is the magic formula for European growth?" 10 May 2012. Europe's World. Web. 5 December 2012.

The Economist Online. "An international report card." 7 December 2010. The Economist Online. Web. 5 December 2012.

-- . "World GDP." 26 June 2012. The Economist. Web. 4 December 2012.

Thomas, S. "China's Economic Development from 1860 to the Present: The Roles of Sovereignty and the Global Economy." 2006. Forum on Public Policy. Web. 4 December 2012.

United Nations Development Project. "China." 2012. International Human Development Indicators. Web. 5 December 2012.

United Nations in China. "Gender inequality persists in China." 9 March 2010. United Nations in China. Web. 7 December 2012.

Wei, L. "China ranked 101st in human development." 4 November 2011. China People's Daily. Web. 5 December 2012.

Yu, J. And D. Shailcross. "China's Human Development: Achievements and Challenges." N.d. Center for Human and Economic Development Studies . Web. 5 December 2012.

Zakaria, F. "The Real Challenge from China: Its People, Not Its Currency." 7 October 2010. Time Magazine. Web. 5 December 2012.

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