Carver, R. (2008). Cathedral. Retrieved 31 Jan. 2008 from the North Dakota State University Web site: http://www.ndsu.nodak.edu/instruct/cinichol/GovSchool/Cathedral2.htm.
Ginsberg, a. (2008). Howl. Retrieved 31 Jan. 2008 from a Personal Web site: http://members.tripod.com/~Sprayberry/poems/howl.txt.
O'Connor, F. (2008). Good country people. Retrieved 31 Jan. 2008 from the Louisiana Tech University Web site: http://www.barksdale.latech.edu/Engl%20308/GOOD%20COUNTRY%20PEOPLE.doc.
Hyde, Lewis, Ed. On the Poetry of Allen Ginsberg. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1984.
Merrill, Thomas F. Allen Ginsberg. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1978.
On Howl." Modern American Poetry. Internet. Accessed October 18, 2005. http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/poets/g_l/ginsberg/howl.htm.
Portuges, Paul. The Visionary Poetics of Allen Ginsberg. New York: Ross-Erickson, 1978.
Sanders, Edward. The Poetry and Life of Allen Ginsberg. UK: Scribner's, 1975.
Schumacher, M. Dharma Lion: A Critical Biography of Allen Ginsberg. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.
Tytell, John. Naked Angels: Kerouac, Ginsberg and Burroughs. New York: Grove Press, 1965.
Bibliography. 1st. New York: HarperPerennial, 1995.
Jung, C.G.. Psychology of the Unconscious: A Study of the Transformations and Symbolisms of the Libido. 1st. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.
Hume, Lynne. "Accessing the Eternal: Dreaming 'The Dreaming' and Ceremonial Performance." Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 39(2004): 237-258.
Johnston, Allan. "Consumption, Addiction, Vision, Energy: Political Economies and Utopian Visions in the Writings of the Beat Generation." College Literature 32(2005): 103-126.
Raskin, Jonah. American Scream: Allen Ginsberg's Howl and the Making of the Beat Generation. 1st. Berkely: University of California Press, 2004.
Jung, Carl G., M.-L. von Franz, Joseph L. Henderson, Jolande Jacobi, and Aniela Jaffe. Man and His Symbols. 5th Ed. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1971.
There are some Indians in South America who will assure you that they are Red Arara parrots, though they are well aware that they lack feathers, wings, and beaks.
For in the primitive's world things do not have the same sharp boundaries they do in our 'rational' societies.
What psychologists call psychic identity, or 'mystical participation' has been stripped off our world of things. But it is exactly this halo of unconscious associations that gives a colorful and fantastic aspect to the primitive's world."
People shocked by visions. "the terrors that stem from our elaborate civilization may be far more threatening than those that primitive people attribute to demons. The attitude of modern civilized man sometimes reminds me of a psychotic patient in my clinic who was himself a doctor. " p. 45
One cannot afford to be naive in dealing with dreams. They originate in a spirit that is not quite human, but is rather a breath of nature -- a spirit of the beautiful and generous as well as of the cruel goddess. If we want to characterize this spirit, we shall certainly get closer to it in the sphere of ancient mythologies, or the fables of the primeval forest, than in the consciousness of modern man."
In this civilizing process, we have increasingly divided our consciousness from the deeper instinctive strata of the human psyche." (52) p. 56 archetypes as 'primordial images' - archetypes are the manifestation of instinctual urges in the form of symbolic fantasy or imagination
The fact is that in former times men did not reflect upon their symbols; they lived them and were unconsciously animated by their meaning" (81)
These inner motives spring from a deep source that is not made by consciousness and is not under its control. In the mythology of earlier times, these forces were called mana, or spirits, demons, and gods....It is true, however, that in recent times civilized man has acquired a certain amount of will power, which he can apply where he pleases...He can carry out what he proposes to do, and he can apparently translate his ideas into action without a hitch, whereas the primitive seems to be hampered at each step by fears, superstitions, and other unseen obstacles to action. The motto 'Where there's a will, there's a way' is the superstition of modern man.
Yet in order to sustain his creed, contemporary man pays the price in a remarkable lack of introspection. He is blind to the fact that, with all his rationality and efficiency, he is possessed by 'powers' that are beyond his control. His gods and demons have not disappeared at all' they have merely got new names. They keep him on the run with restlessness, vague apprehensions, psychological complications, an insatiable need for pills, alcohol, tobacco, food -- and, above all, a large array of neuroses."
As scientific understanding has grown, so our world has become dehumanized. Man feels himself isolated in the cosmos, because he is no longer involved in nature and has lost his emotional 'unconscious identity' with natural phenomena. These have slowly lost their symbolic implications. Thunder is no longer the voice of an angry god, nor is lightning his avenging missle. No river contains a spirit, no tree is the life principle of a man, no snake the embodiment of wisdom, no mountain cave the home of a great demon. No voices now speak to man from stones, plants, and animals, nor does he speak to them believing they can hear. His contact with nature has gone, and with it has gone the profound emotional energy that his symbolic connection supplied
Our present lives are dominated by the goddess Reason, who is our greatest and most tragic illusion. By the aid of reason, so we assure ourselves, we have 'conquered nature.'"
Joseph L. Henderson on the 4 Hero Cycles of the Winnebago Indians - First cycle is Trickster "Trickster cycle corresponds to the earliest and least developed period of life. Trickster is a figure whose physical appetites dominate his behavior; he has the mentality of an infant. Lacking any purpose beyond the gratification of his primary needs, he is cruel, cynical, and unfeeling." (p.112) - Neil Cassady as Ginsberg's Trickster hero?
In the developing consciousness of the individual the hero figure is the symbolic means by which the emerging ego overcomes the inertia of the unconscious mind, and liberates the mature man from a regressive longing to return to the blissful state of infancy in a world dominated by his mother." (p. 120)
Berman, Morris. Coming to Our Senses: Body and Spirit in the Hidden History of the West. 1st Ed. New York: Bantam Books, 1990.
Chasseguet-Smirgel, Janine, and Bela Grunberger. Freud or Reich?: Psychoanalysis and Illusion. 1st Ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986.
Noble, David F.. America by Design: Science, Technology, and the Rise of Corporate Capitalism. 1st Ed. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, Inc., 1977.
Muers, Rachel. "Idolatry and Future Generations: the Persistence of Molech.." Modern Theology 19(2003): 547-602.
Carter, David. Allen Ginsberg: Spontaneous Mind. New York: HarperCollins, 2001.
Ginsberg, Allen. Howl . 1956.
McChesney, John. "After 50 Years, Ginsberg's 'Howl' Still Resonates. 10 November 2009. 28 January 2012