McMains, M.J. & Mullins, W.C. (2010). Crisis negotiations (4th ed). New Providence, NJ:
Texas Association of Police Explorers. (Unk). Hostage negotiation. Retrieved September 19,
2013 from Wise County, Texas website: http://www.co.wise.tx.us/constable/Downloads/Hostage%20Negotiation.pdf
Jimmy Carter Library and Museum. (2006). The hostage crisis in Iran. Retrieved February 22,
2010 from Jimmy Carter Library and Museum.
Ode, R. (1981). Iran hostage's diary. Retrieved February 22, 2010 from Jimmy Carter Library & Museum.
Beer, F.A. And Boynton, G.R. Realistic rhetoric but not realism: A senatorial conversation on Cambodia. In Francis A. Beer and Robert Hariman, Eds., Post-Realism: The Rhetorical Turn in International Relations. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1999, accessed http://sobek.colorado.edu/~beer/PAPERS/rhetoric.pdf
The authors present a theoretical framework for analyzing the conversations and written records of Senatorial conversation, contrasting the classic rhetoric of foreign relations policy with the more realistic orientation of Senators.
Bogen, David and Michael Lynch. "Taking Account of the Hostile Native: Plausible Deniability and the Production of Conventional History in the Iran-Contra Hearings," Social Problems 36 (3) (Jun., 1989): 197-224.
This article examines a segment of Oliver North's testimony before Joint Congressional committees investigating the Iran-Contra affair during the summer of 1987. It describes discursive methods used by the interrogator as he strives to assimilate the witness's narrative. He also discusses how North is able to resist the transformation of his stories from biography to history. North embeds his narrative into local entitlements that make it difficult to turn into a reconstructed general narrative.
Bok, Sissela. Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private Life, Vintage, 1999.
Sisela Bok was educated in Switzerland and France and then studied at the George Washington University with an MA in clinical psychology in 1958. She later received a PhD in philosophy from Harvard University in 1970. Formerly a Professor of Philosophy at Brandeis University, Bok is currently a Senior Visiting Fellow at the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies. One of her great contributions has been a continued exploration of 'practical ethics' or applied moral philosophy. Her book, Lying, was written in the late 1970s, before the Iran-Contra scandal.
Boynton, G.R. "The Expertise of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee," Artificial Intelligence and International Politics,. Ed. Valarie Hudson. Westview Press, 1991.
Boynton presents here his theoretical framework of politics as conversation.
Cruz, "Identity and Persuasion," 278; For more on the strategic "use of culture" see Ann
Swidler, "Culture in Action: Symbols and Strategies," American Sociological Review 51 (April 1986): 273-286, accessed http://www.nps.edu/Academics/centers/ccc / publications/OnlineJournal/2005/Oct/lantisOct05.pdf
Lantis, Jeffrey. "Strategic Culture From Clausewitz to Constuctivism," Strategic Insights, Volume IV, Issue 10 (October 2005), accessed http://asrudiancenter.wordpress.com/2008/11/04/strategic-culture-from-clausewitz-to-constructivism/. Discussion of culture as it relates to national security.
Ebel, Roland H., Taras, Raymond, and Cochrane, James D.: Political Culture and Foreign Policy in Latin America. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1992, assessed http://asrudiancenter.wordpress.com/2008/11/04/strategic-culture-from-clausewitz-to-constructivism/
"Ethical Problems in Public Careers: Lying," Kennedy School Case Study No. 548.0, Ten mini-cases involving deception in public affairs, accessed http://www.ksgcase.harvard.edu/casetitle.asp?caseNo=548.0
This case consists of ten minicases of hard ethical questions and issues. Some of the cases are actual and others are constructed, but they are all about instances of deception in public affairs. The cases are meant to cause students to examine their thinking as it relates to decision-making and judgments in order to build their own guidelines for ethical problems and decisions.
Fried, Charles. Right and Wrong (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978), p. 54.
George, Alexander L. "The 'Operational Code': A Neglected Approach to the Study of Political Leaders and Decision-making." International Studies Quarterly 13 (1969): 190 -- 222. Seminal article for those interested in cognitive approaches.
Hamilton, Lee H. And Daniel K. Inouye. Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran/Contra Affair, DIANE Publishing, 1995
Hersh, Seymour. "The Redirection," New Yorker, March 5, 2007, accessed http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/03/05/070305fa_fact_hersh
Article about covert operations in the Middle East supported by third parties outside the Congressional appropriations process.
Hudson, V.M. (2005, March). Foreign policy analysis: Actor-specific theory and the ground of international relations. Foreign Policy Analysis, vol. 1 issue 1, pp. 1-30. DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-8594.2005.00001.x
Jeffrey Crouch, The Presidential Pardon Power. University Press of Kansas, 2009.
Kathleen Dean Moore, Pardons: Justice, Mercy, and the Public Interest. Oxford University Press, 1997.
Lane, Ruth: "Political Culture: Residual Category or General Theory?" Comparative Political Studies October 1992: 362-387.
Lawrence Walsh, Firewall: The Iran-Contra Conspiracy and Cover-Up. (W. W. Norton & Company, 1998): 952.
Paletz, David. Political communication research: Approaches, studies, assessments, Greenwood Publishers 1996,105, accessed http://books.google.com/books?id=kWt8G2P59bIC&dq=DAvid+Paletz+interpretive+triple&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Political communication research.
Paletz, David L. And K. Kendall Gutherie. "Three Faces of Ronald Reagan," Journal of Communication 37/Autumn 1987: 7-23.
Paletz, David L. And Daniel Lipinski. "Political Access and Political Culture,"
[Paper presented at a conference in Barcelona] 1992, accessed http://ics.leeds.ac.uk/papers/pmt/exhibits/724/PALETZ.pdf
Richard H. Cohn, "Always Salute, Never Resign," Foreign Affairs (2009). Arguing that Senior officers who resign over policy disagreements with civilian leaders undermine the principle of civilian control over the military and damage the professionalism of the U.S. armed forces.
Rosenbach, E. And Aki J. Peritz, A.J. "Covert Action, Confrontation or Collaboration? Congress and the Intelligence Community," Belfer Center for International Affairs. accessed
Understanding the Iran- Contra Affairs, Brown University Good Government Project, 2010, accessed http://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/about.php
U.S. v. William Calley, Jr. ., United States Court of Military Appeals 22 U.S.C.M.A. 534, 1973.
Calley was convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison in connection with the My Lai Massacre in Vietnam. Calley has testified in his defense: "I was ordered to go in there and destroy the enemy. That was my job that day. That was the mission I was given. I did not sit down and think in terms of men, women and children." In upholding the convictions, the military court acknowledged Winthrop's Military Law and Precedents (2d ed., 1920) for the proposition that: "Except in such instances of palpable illegality, which must be of rare occurrence, the inferior should presume that the order was lawful and authorized and obey it accordingly, and in obeying it can scarcely fail to be held justified by a military court." None of Calley's subordinates were convicted and Calley was eventually granted clemency, ultimately serving 31/2 years.
U.S. v. I. Lewis Libby. 2007.
The successful prosecution of Scooter Libby, Vice-President Cheney's Chief of Staff, was accomplished by Special Counsel, Patrick J. Fitzgerald. Some consider the Libby case evidence that Special Counsel Arrangements can work without an Independent Counsel system. Others considered the Libby prosecution as evidence of the same problems that existed with the Independent Counsel system. To wit, Fitzgerald was appointed to investigate leaks and he ended up prosecuting Libby for perjury, even though nobody was prosecuted for leaking. President Bush commuted Libby's sentence, but declined to pardon him. The commutation was criticized by Rep. Wexler as an abuse of power. On the other hand, Vice President Cheney strongly disagreed with President Bush's refusal to pardon Libby.
Walsh, Lawrence E. The Walsh Report, Volume I: Investigations and Prosecutions, Final Report of the Independent Counsel for Iran Contra Matters, United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, 1993, accessed http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/walsh/.
Wildavsky, Aaron. "Choosing Preferences by Constructing Institutions: A Cultural Theory of Preference Formation," American Political Science Review 81: 1987, 3-21.
Chronology of Key Developments Related to the Contra War
This chronology is taken in its entirety from the historic document Background: The California Story -- Origin and Development of the Contra Conflict [CIA Website] Retrieved https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/cocaine/report/background.html
Broad Opposition Front formed. Backed by Cuba, Venezuela, Costa Rica.
February -- U.S. Government suspends all new economic and military aid to Nicaragua.
July -- Somoza flees. Provisional Government of National Reconstruction (GRN) formed. Sandinistas turn government leftward.
September -- Sandinistas suspend elections, take control of media.
March -- DCI Casey establishes Central America Task Force.
August -- Opposition groups form on northern and southern borders of Nicaragua.
Presidential Finding authorizes CIA to support and conduct political and paramilitary operations in Nicaragua, elsewhere in Central America.
Congress votes $19 million Contra military assistance.
September -- Contra combat action begins.
December -- Boland Amendment, enacted as part of the Defense Appropriations Act of 1983, prohibits CIA and Department of Defense (DoD) from spending money to support activities designed to overthrow the Sandinista Government.
July -- Boland-Zablocki legislation bars aid to Contras, but allows arms interdiction.
September -- Presidential Finding authorized CIA to support, equip, train paramilitary resistance groups.
December -- Defense Appropriations Act includes $24 million Contra assistance program, but sets cut off for September 30, 1984.
February -- Mining of Nicaraguan harbors begins.
April -- Mining operations become public knowledge.
May -- La Penca Bombing. Pastora injured, several killed prior to press conference where Pastora planned to denounce CIA pressure for him to align with the FDN.
September -- Authorized appropriations for DoD and CIA support to the Contra program end. Prohibition in effect until December 1985.
Late 1984 -- NSC fund-raising efforts channel cash, goods to Contras until May 1986.
April -- President Reagan declares economic embargo on Nicaragua.
June -- Pastora's military forces driven out of Nicaragua Contra coalition, United Nicaraguan Opposition (UNO) formed.
August -- Humanitarian assistance bill leads to creation of Nicaraguan Humanitarian Assistance Office (NHAO) at Department of State.
December -- Intelligence Authorization Act authorizes CIA to provide communications equipment, intelligence to the Contras.
January -- Presidential Finding discontinues lethal assistance to Contras.
April -- Senate Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations (Kerry Committee) opens an investigation into alleged illegal gun running and narcotics trafficking associated with the Contra War.
June -- Miami Herald reports NSC violation of Boland restrictions.
Legislation provides $100 million in FY87 for renewed military and nonmilitary assistance to the Contras; contains provision barring aid to any group whose members are found to have engaged in drug trafficking; clears way for restoration of CIA involvement in Contra War.
C-123 cargo plane shot down over Nicaragua. Eugene Hasenfus captured.
December -- Independent Counsel (Walsh) named to investigate Iran-Contra affair.
May -- Nicaraguan Resistance (RN) unites Contra groups. Start of joint Congressional hearings on Iran-Contra.
November -- Sandinistas announce readiness for indirect talks with Contras. Joint Congressional investigation report released on Iran-Contra.
December -- $100 million appropriated funds expended, CIA support reduced to intelligence sharing.
January -- Sandinista President Daniel Ortega agrees to direct talks with Contras.
February -- House of Representatives rejects Contra funding request.
March -- Tentative cease-fire signed.
December -- Senate Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations (Kerry Committee) report published.
February -- Tesoro Beach Agreement calls for supervised elections and Contra disarmament.
August -- Tela agreement sets timetable for Contra disarmament, elections.
ZAITSU, W. (2009). Bomb Threats and Offender Characteristics in Japan. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profi ling, 1(7). Retrieved November 17, 2010, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jip.106/pdf
James, R.K., & Gilliland, B.E. (2001). Crisis intervention strategies (4th ed.). Belmont, CA, USA: Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning.
Noesner, G. (1999, January 1). Negotiation concepts for commanders | FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, the | Find Articles at BNET. Find Articles at BNET | News Articles, Magazine Back Issues & Reference Articles on All Topics. Retrieved November 18, 2010, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2194/is_1_68/ai_54036504/