Hostages Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Hostages College Essay Examples

Title: Scenario Analysis Bradley a 26 year male married high school sweetheart Susan Bradley served years Iraq Since returning Susan havent Bradley drinks verbally abuses Susan drunk He jealous protective Susan

  • Total Pages: 4
  • Words: 1332
  • Works Cited:2
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Scenario Analysis
Bradley is a 26 year old male who married his high school sweetheart, Susan. Bradley served two years in Iraq. Since returning he and Susan haven?t been getting along. Bradley drinks often and verbally abuses Susan when he is drunk. He is very jealous and over-protective of Susan. They are expecting their first child. Susan attends classes at a local college and has been spending more and more time at the college and away from home. Bradley has heard Susan talk frequently about her professor. He becomes violently jealous and suspects that Susan is having an affair with the professor. He then begins to wonder if the expected child is even his.
Bradley goes to the college to confront Susan and the professor. He is observed entering the classroom in army fatigues and carrying an Army duffle bag. Bradley is armed with an unknown number of weapons. He barricades the doors holding Susan, the professor, and nine other students against their will. The police are notified. They respond and contain the scene. You, the negotiator, are now on the scene.
Part 1
The Commanding Officer calls. He advises you that a tactical assault team is ready to storm the building if you don't make significant progress in the negotiation. You make numerous calls into the classroom. The phone is answered by some of the students being held. They are frightened and crying. Bradley is heard screaming in the background that no one is leaving the room alive unless he can work some things out with his cheating wife. He refuses to get on the phone and talk to you.
? Identify whether this is a hostage or non-hostage incident.
? Identify and explain what stage of crisis Bradley is in at this time.
? Is this incident negotiable? Explain why it is or isn?t negotiable.
Part 2
After some time and continuous calls into the classroom Bradley answers the phone and speaks with you. Initially he is very upset and hangs up on you often. He rants about his service in Iraq and his unappreciative wife cheating on him at home. As time progresses, he begins to calm down, stays on the phone for longer periods of time, and begins to ask questions of you regarding how much trouble he may be in, how long he will have to go to jail, etc. He tells you he isn?t looking to hurt anybody, but isn?t ready to let anyone go. He then tells you that he will consider letting five of the students go for some food, a bottle of whiskey, and a promise that he doesn?t have to do any jail time.
? Identify and explain Bradley?s instrumental and expressive demands. In this incident do you think one type of demand is more important to Bradley than the other? Why?
? Identify and explain what stage of a crisis Bradley is in now.
? How might you handle his demands?
? Would you provide Bradley the alcohol for the release of some hostages? Why or why not?
? What might you consider when deciding whether to provide the alcohol? How would you handle this demand?
Part 3
You have been negotiating now for about three hours. Nobody has been released, but no one has been injured. You are notified by command that the tactical team is going to assault the classroom in 30 minutes.
? Do you think making a tactical assault to resolve the situation under these circumstances is appropriate? Why or why not?
? What could you do or have done as a negotiator to assist the tactical team with their pending assault? Explain how that would help them.

Reference: McMains, M. J. & Mullins, W. C. (2010). Crisis negotiations (4th ed.). New Providence, NJ: LexisNexis/Anderson.

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McMains, M.J. & Mullins, W.C. (2010). Crisis negotiations (4th ed). New Providence, NJ:

LexisNexis/Anderson.

Texas Association of Police Explorers. (Unk). Hostage negotiation. Retrieved September 19,

2013 from Wise County, Texas website: http://www.co.wise.tx.us/constable/Downloads/Hostage%20Negotiation.pdf

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Title: Iran Hostage Crisis

  • Total Pages: 1
  • Words: 419
  • Bibliography:2
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Go to http://www.jimmycarterlibrary.org/documents/r_ode/ and read the first hand experiences of Robert Ode, one of the fifty-two American hostages that were held by Iranian students in 1979-1981. Find Robert Ode?s Diary and click on the dates available. Select several diary entries to read, paying special attention to the beginning and end dates of the captivity. What was this experience like for the hostages from Ode?s point of view? Why were they taken hostage? How did this event affect America politically and economically? Feel free to research and include other hostages? experiences as well

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Jimmy Carter Library and Museum. (2006). The hostage crisis in Iran. Retrieved February 22,

2010 from Jimmy Carter Library and Museum.

Website: http://www.jimmycarterlibrary.org/documents/hostages.phtml

Ode, R. (1981). Iran hostage's diary. Retrieved February 22, 2010 from Jimmy Carter Library & Museum.

Website: http://www.jimmycarterlibrary.org/documents/r_ode/Ode_pages1thru50.pdf

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Title: Iran Contra Affair

  • Total Pages: 20
  • Words: 8295
  • Sources:20
  • Citation Style: Chicago
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Overview of Assignment:
Please select a foreign policy decision from US history and construct a theory-driven analysis of that decision.
Your discussion should include the following elements:

1. A historical description of the events surrounding the decision
2. A literature review covering relevant peer-reviewed research (ONE-THIRD TO ONE-HALF OF THE PAPER)
3. A discussion of the appropriate theoretical framework or model for describing and explaining foreign policy decisions
4. A thorough analysis of the decision-making process that led to the decision
5. An analysis, again driven by theory, of what went right and what went wrong with the process to advise future policy makers

In other words, please select an historical foreign policy decision, explain how that policy came to be devised and implemented, and draw out the "lessons" of this policy for current and future policymakers.

Focus on the policy decision that was made when the US decided to sell arms to what were called ‘moderate’ Iranian groups. The supporting of the Contras in Nicaragua, using money from the arms deal, will be treated as a given outcome. My questions will be as follows: Why did the US decide to sell weapons to Iranian groups and what were the motivating factors in this foreign policy decision? A possible explanation for this decision stems from Regan’s distrust of the Iranian regime that was, and still is, in power. Additionally, the US during the mid 1980s had dealt with quite a few attacks by Islamic extremists and Hezbollah had taken 6 US hostages.

Please try to use the rational actor model of Foreign policy decision making. If that is not useful please try the domestic politics model of decision making. Only one model needs to be used.

Also, I need and annotated bibliography if possible.

Thank you so much for your help.
Customer is requesting that (pheelyks) completes this order.

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Beer, F.A. And Boynton, G.R. Realistic rhetoric but not realism: A senatorial conversation on Cambodia. In Francis A. Beer and Robert Hariman, Eds., Post-Realism: The Rhetorical Turn in International Relations. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1999, accessed http://sobek.colorado.edu/~beer/PAPERS/rhetoric.pdf

The authors present a theoretical framework for analyzing the conversations and written records of Senatorial conversation, contrasting the classic rhetoric of foreign relations policy with the more realistic orientation of Senators.

Bogen, David and Michael Lynch. "Taking Account of the Hostile Native: Plausible Deniability and the Production of Conventional History in the Iran-Contra Hearings," Social Problems 36 (3) (Jun., 1989): 197-224.

This article examines a segment of Oliver North's testimony before Joint Congressional committees investigating the Iran-Contra affair during the summer of 1987. It describes discursive methods used by the interrogator as he strives to assimilate the witness's narrative. He also discusses how North is able to resist the transformation of his stories from biography to history. North embeds his narrative into local entitlements that make it difficult to turn into a reconstructed general narrative.

Bok, Sissela. Lying: Moral Choice in Public and Private Life, Vintage, 1999.

Sisela Bok was educated in Switzerland and France and then studied at the George Washington University with an MA in clinical psychology in 1958. She later received a PhD in philosophy from Harvard University in 1970. Formerly a Professor of Philosophy at Brandeis University, Bok is currently a Senior Visiting Fellow at the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies. One of her great contributions has been a continued exploration of 'practical ethics' or applied moral philosophy. Her book, Lying, was written in the late 1970s, before the Iran-Contra scandal.

Boynton, G.R. "The Expertise of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee," Artificial Intelligence and International Politics,. Ed. Valarie Hudson. Westview Press, 1991.

Boynton presents here his theoretical framework of politics as conversation.

Cruz, "Identity and Persuasion," 278; For more on the strategic "use of culture" see Ann

Swidler, "Culture in Action: Symbols and Strategies," American Sociological Review 51 (April 1986): 273-286, accessed http://www.nps.edu/Academics/centers/ccc / publications/OnlineJournal/2005/Oct/lantisOct05.pdf

Lantis, Jeffrey. "Strategic Culture From Clausewitz to Constuctivism," Strategic Insights, Volume IV, Issue 10 (October 2005), accessed http://asrudiancenter.wordpress.com/2008/11/04/strategic-culture-from-clausewitz-to-constructivism/. Discussion of culture as it relates to national security.

Ebel, Roland H., Taras, Raymond, and Cochrane, James D.: Political Culture and Foreign Policy in Latin America. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1992, assessed http://asrudiancenter.wordpress.com/2008/11/04/strategic-culture-from-clausewitz-to-constructivism/

"Ethical Problems in Public Careers: Lying," Kennedy School Case Study No. 548.0, Ten mini-cases involving deception in public affairs, accessed http://www.ksgcase.harvard.edu/casetitle.asp?caseNo=548.0

This case consists of ten minicases of hard ethical questions and issues. Some of the cases are actual and others are constructed, but they are all about instances of deception in public affairs. The cases are meant to cause students to examine their thinking as it relates to decision-making and judgments in order to build their own guidelines for ethical problems and decisions.

Fried, Charles. Right and Wrong (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978), p. 54.

George, Alexander L. "The 'Operational Code': A Neglected Approach to the Study of Political Leaders and Decision-making." International Studies Quarterly 13 (1969): 190 -- 222. Seminal article for those interested in cognitive approaches.

Hamilton, Lee H. And Daniel K. Inouye. Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran/Contra Affair, DIANE Publishing, 1995

Hersh, Seymour. "The Redirection," New Yorker, March 5, 2007, accessed http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2007/03/05/070305fa_fact_hersh

Article about covert operations in the Middle East supported by third parties outside the Congressional appropriations process.

Hudson, V.M. (2005, March). Foreign policy analysis: Actor-specific theory and the ground of international relations. Foreign Policy Analysis, vol. 1 issue 1, pp. 1-30. DOI: 10.1111/j.1743-8594.2005.00001.x

Jeffrey Crouch, The Presidential Pardon Power. University Press of Kansas, 2009.

Kathleen Dean Moore, Pardons: Justice, Mercy, and the Public Interest. Oxford University Press, 1997.

Lane, Ruth: "Political Culture: Residual Category or General Theory?" Comparative Political Studies October 1992: 362-387.

Lawrence Walsh, Firewall: The Iran-Contra Conspiracy and Cover-Up. (W. W. Norton & Company, 1998): 952.

Paletz, David. Political communication research: Approaches, studies, assessments, Greenwood Publishers 1996,105, accessed http://books.google.com/books?id=kWt8G2P59bIC&dq=DAvid+Paletz+interpretive+triple&source=gbs_navlinks_s

Political communication research.

Paletz, David L. And K. Kendall Gutherie. "Three Faces of Ronald Reagan," Journal of Communication 37/Autumn 1987: 7-23.

Paletz, David L. And Daniel Lipinski. "Political Access and Political Culture,"

[Paper presented at a conference in Barcelona] 1992, accessed http://ics.leeds.ac.uk/papers/pmt/exhibits/724/PALETZ.pdf

Richard H. Cohn, "Always Salute, Never Resign," Foreign Affairs (2009). Arguing that Senior officers who resign over policy disagreements with civilian leaders undermine the principle of civilian control over the military and damage the professionalism of the U.S. armed forces.

Rosenbach, E. And Aki J. Peritz, A.J. "Covert Action, Confrontation or Collaboration? Congress and the Intelligence Community," Belfer Center for International Affairs. accessed

Understanding the Iran- Contra Affairs, Brown University Good Government Project, 2010, accessed http://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/about.php

U.S. v. William Calley, Jr. ., United States Court of Military Appeals 22 U.S.C.M.A. 534, 1973.

Calley was convicted of murder and sentenced to life in prison in connection with the My Lai Massacre in Vietnam. Calley has testified in his defense: "I was ordered to go in there and destroy the enemy. That was my job that day. That was the mission I was given. I did not sit down and think in terms of men, women and children." In upholding the convictions, the military court acknowledged Winthrop's Military Law and Precedents (2d ed., 1920) for the proposition that: "Except in such instances of palpable illegality, which must be of rare occurrence, the inferior should presume that the order was lawful and authorized and obey it accordingly, and in obeying it can scarcely fail to be held justified by a military court." None of Calley's subordinates were convicted and Calley was eventually granted clemency, ultimately serving 31/2 years.

U.S. v. I. Lewis Libby. 2007.

The successful prosecution of Scooter Libby, Vice-President Cheney's Chief of Staff, was accomplished by Special Counsel, Patrick J. Fitzgerald. Some consider the Libby case evidence that Special Counsel Arrangements can work without an Independent Counsel system. Others considered the Libby prosecution as evidence of the same problems that existed with the Independent Counsel system. To wit, Fitzgerald was appointed to investigate leaks and he ended up prosecuting Libby for perjury, even though nobody was prosecuted for leaking. President Bush commuted Libby's sentence, but declined to pardon him. The commutation was criticized by Rep. Wexler as an abuse of power. On the other hand, Vice President Cheney strongly disagreed with President Bush's refusal to pardon Libby.

Walsh, Lawrence E. The Walsh Report, Volume I: Investigations and Prosecutions, Final Report of the Independent Counsel for Iran Contra Matters, United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, 1993, accessed http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/walsh/.

Wildavsky, Aaron. "Choosing Preferences by Constructing Institutions: A Cultural Theory of Preference Formation," American Political Science Review 81: 1987, 3-21.

Appendix I

Chronology of Key Developments Related to the Contra War

This chronology is taken in its entirety from the historic document Background: The California Story -- Origin and Development of the Contra Conflict [CIA Website] Retrieved https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/general-reports-1/cocaine/report/background.html

1979

Broad Opposition Front formed. Backed by Cuba, Venezuela, Costa Rica.

February -- U.S. Government suspends all new economic and military aid to Nicaragua.

July -- Somoza flees. Provisional Government of National Reconstruction (GRN) formed. Sandinistas turn government leftward.

1980

September -- Sandinistas suspend elections, take control of media.

1981

March -- DCI Casey establishes Central America Task Force.

August -- Opposition groups form on northern and southern borders of Nicaragua.

December

Presidential Finding authorizes CIA to support and conduct political and paramilitary operations in Nicaragua, elsewhere in Central America.

Congress votes $19 million Contra military assistance.

1982

September -- Contra combat action begins.

December -- Boland Amendment, enacted as part of the Defense Appropriations Act of 1983, prohibits CIA and Department of Defense (DoD) from spending money to support activities designed to overthrow the Sandinista Government.

1983

July -- Boland-Zablocki legislation bars aid to Contras, but allows arms interdiction.

September -- Presidential Finding authorized CIA to support, equip, train paramilitary resistance groups.

December -- Defense Appropriations Act includes $24 million Contra assistance program, but sets cut off for September 30, 1984.

1984

February -- Mining of Nicaraguan harbors begins.

April -- Mining operations become public knowledge.

May -- La Penca Bombing. Pastora injured, several killed prior to press conference where Pastora planned to denounce CIA pressure for him to align with the FDN.

September -- Authorized appropriations for DoD and CIA support to the Contra program end. Prohibition in effect until December 1985.

Late 1984 -- NSC fund-raising efforts channel cash, goods to Contras until May 1986.

1985

April -- President Reagan declares economic embargo on Nicaragua.

June -- Pastora's military forces driven out of Nicaragua Contra coalition, United Nicaraguan Opposition (UNO) formed.

August -- Humanitarian assistance bill leads to creation of Nicaraguan Humanitarian Assistance Office (NHAO) at Department of State.

December -- Intelligence Authorization Act authorizes CIA to provide communications equipment, intelligence to the Contras.

1986

January -- Presidential Finding discontinues lethal assistance to Contras.

April -- Senate Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations (Kerry Committee) opens an investigation into alleged illegal gun running and narcotics trafficking associated with the Contra War.

June -- Miami Herald reports NSC violation of Boland restrictions.

October

Legislation provides $100 million in FY87 for renewed military and nonmilitary assistance to the Contras; contains provision barring aid to any group whose members are found to have engaged in drug trafficking; clears way for restoration of CIA involvement in Contra War.

C-123 cargo plane shot down over Nicaragua. Eugene Hasenfus captured.

December -- Independent Counsel (Walsh) named to investigate Iran-Contra affair.

1987

May -- Nicaraguan Resistance (RN) unites Contra groups. Start of joint Congressional hearings on Iran-Contra.

November -- Sandinistas announce readiness for indirect talks with Contras. Joint Congressional investigation report released on Iran-Contra.

December -- $100 million appropriated funds expended, CIA support reduced to intelligence sharing.

1988

January -- Sandinista President Daniel Ortega agrees to direct talks with Contras.

February -- House of Representatives rejects Contra funding request.

March -- Tentative cease-fire signed.

December -- Senate Subcommittee on Terrorism, Narcotics and International Operations (Kerry Committee) report published.

1989

February -- Tesoro Beach Agreement calls for supervised elections and Contra disarmament.

August -- Tela agreement sets timetable for Contra disarmament, elections.

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Title: Crisis Negotiation

  • Total Pages: 3
  • Words: 1029
  • References:3
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Scenario Analysis

Bradley is a 26 year old male who married his high school sweetheart, Susan. Bradley served two years in Iraq. Since returning he and Susan haven’t been getting along. Bradley drinks often and verbally abuses Susan when he is drunk. He is very jealous and over-protective of Susan. They are expecting their first child. Susan attends classes at a local college and has been spending more and more time at the college and away from home and. Bradley has heard Susan talk frequently about her professor. He becomes violently jealous and suspects that Susan is having an affair with the professor. He then begins to wonder if the expected child is even his.

Bradley goes to the college to confront Susan and the professor. He is observed entering the classroom in army fatigues and carrying an Army duffle bag. Bradley is armed with an unknown number of weapons. He barricades the doors holding Susan, the professor, and nine other students against their will. The police are notified. They respond and contain the scene. You, the negotiator, are now on the scene.

Part 1

The Commanding Officer calls. He advises you that a tactical assault team is ready to storm the building if you make significant progress in the negotiation. You make numerous calls into the classroom. The phone is answered by some of the students being held. They are frightened and crying. Bradley is heard screaming in the background that no one is leaving the room alive unless he can work some things out with his cheating wife. He refuses to get on the phone and talk to you.

Identify whether this is a hostage or non-hostage incident.
Identify and explain what stage of crisis Bradley is in at this time.
Is this incident negotiable? Explain why it is or isn’t negotiable.

Part 2

After some time and continuous calls into the classroom Bradley answers the phone and speaks with you. Initially he is very upset and hangs up on you often. He rants about his service in Iraq and his unappreciative wife cheating on him at home. As time progresses, he begins to calm down, stays on the phone for longer periods of time, and begins to ask questions of you regarding how much trouble he may be in, how long he will have to go to jail, etc. He tells you he isn’t looking to hurt anybody, but isn’t ready to let anyone go. He then tells you that he will consider letting five of the students go for some food, a bottle of whiskey, and a promise that he doesn’t have to do any jail time.

Identify and explain Bradley’s instrumental and expressive demands. In this incident do you think one type of demand is more important to Bradley than the other? Why?
Identify and explain what stage of a crisis Bradley is in now.
How might you handle his demands?
Would you provide Bradley the alcohol for the release of some hostages? Why or why not?
What might you consider when deciding whether to provide the alcohol? How would you handle this demand?

Part 3

You have been negotiating now for about three hours. Nobody has been released, but no one has been injured. You are notified by command that the tactical team is going to assault the classroom in 30 minutes.

Do you think making a tactical assault to resolve the situation under these circumstances is appropriate? Why or why not?

What could you do or have done as a negotiator to assist the tactical team with their pending assault? Explain how that would help them.

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References

ZAITSU, W. (2009). Bomb Threats and Offender Characteristics in Japan. Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profi ling, 1(7). Retrieved November 17, 2010, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jip.106/pdf

James, R.K., & Gilliland, B.E. (2001). Crisis intervention strategies (4th ed.). Belmont, CA, USA: Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning.

Noesner, G. (1999, January 1). Negotiation concepts for commanders | FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, the | Find Articles at BNET. Find Articles at BNET | News Articles, Magazine Back Issues & Reference Articles on All Topics. Retrieved November 18, 2010, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2194/is_1_68/ai_54036504/

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