I can send the documents (the class writing prompt and my own documents) separately if it's easier to read that way. But, here's what I need my paper to go by and the guidelines I've put.
Research paper prompt:
The GOAL is to learn about natural social groups. The paper requires you to study a social group in its natural state and natural setting; ethnography seeks to describe the culture in its own terms. Report should consist of a detailed description of the group’s culture, values, beliefs, norms etc., based primarily on observations and interviews. You should be able to write interesting accounts of what was learned in the field. Provide some analysis using themes and sub-themes. Be sure to include a conclusion that wraps everything up.
Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion Sections
Structure of the research document (Page length requirement 15 pages or 4000 words)
• Cover Page (does not count as part of the 15 pages)
• Abstract (should be its own page or can be included with introduction in italics)
€ Literature Review
• References (does not count as part of the 15 pages)
• Appendix (does not count as part of the 15 pages)
Abstract (250 words or less) – summary of the paper’s contents
The abstract should describe all of the following:
• The problem under investigation;
• State your thesis
• The participants or subjects, specifying important characteristics, such as number, type, age and sex
• The method (data-gathering procedures and interview/questionnaire)
• The findings
• The conclusions and the implications
Introduction (1-2 pages) – establish the problem
The purpose of constructing the introduction is to explain the design of your study.
• Present the point of the study. Why did you choose this particular group? What will it help you find out? Why do you think this group is important?
• State your thesis and how it relates to the problem (your primary question). A thesis is an assertion about the topic that advances a conclusion about a topic. Your goal is to try and prove and defend your thesis in the paper. The field research/observation you’ve gathered will allow you to prove/disprove the validity of your thesis.
• Indicate social science paradigm that frames your study
• Provide the theoretical implications of the study
• Explain the manner in which this study relates to previously published work (refer back to what I requested in assignment #4 – See Build a logical framework for your research). Make connections and describe differences between previous research and your work.
• Must have five (5) scholarly sources in literature review
• Describe research strategy very briefly
Method (3-5 pages)
In the methods section describe what you did and how the study was conducted:
• Describe the group/subjects who participated.
• Describe the research instrument used and how you used it.
• Summarize the process from start to finish.
Results – present the evidence
Report your finding in the results section:
• Summarize the data you collected (by themes and/or by research question)
• Summarize the observations collected
• Expect to see at least one table and/or figure (should not take up more than one page if using two or more tables or figures). All other visuals should be placed in the Appendix.
• Report all findings, including those that support and/or conflict with your thesis.
Discussion/Conclusion – arrive at answers, judgments, proposals, and closure
This section explains the implication of your research: (What is indicated and/or suggested without being explicitly stated in the data)
• Open with clear statement of support or nonsupport. Restate your Thesis.
• Examine, interpret and quality the results. Evaluate the data and its relevance to the hypothesis.
• Expect you to categorize/classify your data, compare, and analyze.
• Emphasize theoretical consequences of the results and the validity of your conclusion(s).
• Discuss similarities and differences between your results and others work.
• Reach a decision or judgment. Answer your primary question and secondary questions.
• Interpret the findings. Make inferences from the results.
• Address alternative explanations of the results
• Discuss the implications of the findings. What do you propose for the future?
• Discuss/acknowledge any limitations.
• Bring the paper to a close with a commentary. Must address 1) Problem Choice AND either 2) Level of Analysis or 3) Application and Synthesis (See page 26/27 in APA manual under discussion)
1. Specific Topic
- Guiding question:
What are the social mechanism between patients and therapists at the AAA Acupuncture Clinic and how that may help to explain the phenomenon of acupuncture's (and perhaps other alternative medicine
) popularity in Southern California?
1.Why do people come in to the clinic in the first place? How did they get here? (Doctor recommendation, ads, etc.) Why are they interested in acupuncture to treat their ailments? What attracted them to acupuncture?
2. Do the patients normally visit "regular" doctors? Or, do they usually get acupuncture treatments? – Or, in what situations do they visit "regular" doctors as opposed to acupuncture doctors? What are the medical differences in treatments? Are there social differences in treatment? (i.e. How much face interaction time is spent? How much time they get to talk to the doctor about their problem?)
3. What are the backgrounds of the patients? (Socio-economic, age, ethnicity, etc.)
4. What is the difference between the different groups of patients? (Categorized by frequency)
5. How much do the acupuncture doctor and the massage therapist know about the patient? (Occupation, family, personal life, feelings about certain things, etc.)
6. What do the long-term patients know about the doctor's personal and family life?
7. Ask both therapists and patients: "Why do you think acupuncture is gaining popularity in Southern California?"
2. Paper's purpose
- My paper will describe what acupuncture is but more importantly, the main purpose will be to analyze the social interaction/ structure between acupuncture doctors and their patients. Perhaps, that will explain, or make some contribution to the explanation of, the rising popularity of acupuncture in Southern California.
3. Intended Audience
- This research is aim towards the general public.
4. Writer's Voice
- My stance will be will be at first an informer, to tell people what acupuncture is- the history, cultural influences in California, the "science" behind acupuncture (literature review), Then my stance will shift to that of an analyst as I observe the social interactions between people during my field study in the actual environment. Perhaps (I'm not planning on it yet), my voice may conclude as that of an advocate when I discover further the interaction and support in the structure of acupuncture therapy ( however, I plan on keeping my voice more neutral).
5. A Preliminary Thesis
- The social mechanism between the therapists and patients builds a social support group that could be observed as the major difference between the alternative medicine
route and the tradition one, giving rise to the popularity of alternative medicine
such as acupuncture.
-Naturalistic Observation: I plan to be in the natural setting for at least 2 times a week. I plan to observe in 2 different settings: a weekday and Saturday. There are fewer patients on weekdays (usually, half the amount of patients that come in on Saturday); and due to more free time, I will most likely see more interactions between the therapists and perhaps prolong interaction with the patients. Saturday is always the busiest day, and I hope to observe the difference in multiple interactions in a more varied patient pool.
- Interviews: I am going to ask questions from as many people as I can related to my topic to get a deeper understanding. Of course, I will be interviewing the therapists at the clinic along with any patients who are willing to answer my questions.
DRAFT LITERATURE REVIEW:
First, I want to explore the history and practice of acupuncture; second, I wish to find sources that explain why is acupuncture, along with the other alternative medicine
practices, a growing trend? I want the literature review to lay the foundation of building blocks to my paradigms: 1. macrotherory and microtheory and 2. symbolic interactionism.
Paul J. Rosch and Helen M. Kearney presented a comprehensive overview of the growing trend of holistic medicine
in relation to the state of conventional medical technology. Their analysis focused on the field of American medicine
, which seemed to be the most appropriate site for observing the development and use of medical technology in conjunction with the growing interest in natural, holistic
approaches to health enhancement. Rosch and Kearney describe this interaction between technology and holistic
health as a "modern dialect" that has generated important qualitative discussions concerning the nature of health care. Rosch and Kearney's examination of this issue also touches on what they call a "search for a new paradigm" where both the holistic
movement and the movement for medical technology could come to a point of "workable equilibrium."
Rosch and Kearney begin their analysis with an overview of how people think about conventional medicine
and alternative care, respectively. The authors assert that American physicians are witnessing rapid changes in the delivery of conventional medicine
. Some of these rapid changes are ultimately resulting in the depersonalization of the patient by means of decreased time for patient care, computerization of medicine
, etc. At the opposite end of the playing field we see the state of the holistic
health movement, where the patient population is becoming increasingly well-informed about their own bodies and are enthusiastically latching on to the idea of health-care as opposed to sick-care. Throughout their comprehensive overview, Rosch and Kearney underline the fact that the doctor-patient relationship is going through wholesale changes and emerging as something closer to an equal partnership.
Other studies have shown the difficulties of analyzing alternative healthcare in quantitative terms. Raphael J. Leo and Jesus Salvador A. Ligot Jr. produced a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that tried to test the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of depression. Leo and Salvador Jr. examined nine RCTs, five of which were deemed to of low quality. The purpose of this review was to analyze and further understand the relationship between acupuncture's ability to treat physical pain and its ability to effect emotional states. Ligot Jr. and Leo's review concluded with mixed results, demonstrating the difficulty of analyzing alternative care in terms of standardized categories.
However, a problem that I have is the inability to find reliable sources to give evidence and reason to the popularity of acupuncture in Southern California- which is still something I would like to focus on (since I want to be able to generalize my qualitative research, especially more as a regionally trend). Thus, I hope that my own qualitative will be able to fill in those blanks, as the qualitative research of, Mary P. Guerrera (or rather- experience of being an acupuncturist) has given her the answer to the questioning of alternative medicine
’s healing power. She says that the healing comes mostly lies in the interaction of patient and the doctor… which is what I am trying to fit in my paradigm of symbolic interactionism.
Guerrera, Mary P. (2008). Healing With the Needles. Annals of Family Medicine
Kaptchuk , T.J. (2002). Acupuncture: Theory, Efficacy, and Practice. Annals of Interal Medicine
, 374 – 383.
Konvicka, James J., Meyer, Tricia A., McDavid, Andrew J., Roberson, Charles R. (2008). Complementary/Alternative Medicine
Use Among Chronic Pain Clinic Patients. Journal of PeriAnesthesia Nursing, Volume 23, Issue 1, February 2008, Pages 17-23.
Rosch, Paul J., Kearney, Helen M. (1985). Holistic medicine
and technology: A modern dialectic. Social Science & Medicine
, Volume 21, Issue 12, 1985, Pages 1405-1409.
Stange, Kurt C. (2008). What Patients Value and How to Provide It. Annals of Family Medicine
and acupuncture, historically practiced in China, have become popular in America. The purpose of my study is to analyze the acupuncture treatment in a qualitative approach… to understand the underlying social interaction/ structure between acupuncture doctors and their patients. Perhaps, that will explain, or make some contribution to the explanation of, the rising popularity of acupuncture in Southern California.
All in all, I hope to answer, "What are the social mechanism between patients and therapists at the AAA Acupuncture Clinic and how that may help to explain the phenomenon of acupuncture's (and perhaps other alternative medicine
) popularity in Southern California?"
Everyone who works at AAA Acupuncture Clinic will be participating in the study; this included the acupuncture doctor, two massage therapists, and secretary. Also, participants include any patients who come in while I was there at the clinic to make observations for this study. I also took the role of participant-as-observer by participating in getting acupuncture treatments, moxibustion, cupping, and massage.
AAA Acupuncture Clinic in West Hollywood, California. This clinic has been in business for more than 10 years in this particular location. I made observations at the waiting room, front desk, doctor's office, and inside the treatment room.
A voice recorder was used to tape the interviews for personal use, which was deleted after the concluding the study. During the observation, notes were recorded on paper and typed up on the computer to document personal feelings and observations. A question list was used to guide the interview.
I went to the clinic whenever I had time to make observations. I asked each patient there whether they were willing and had the time to answer some questions for my study about acupuncture. I interviewed all the patients who were willing. In addition, I asked the participants whether they were willing to let me record them on tape… some people felt uncomfortable with the recording but I was able to get most interviews recorded.
A. Introduce the problem.
- what causes acupuncture to be so popular
-especially when it’s hard to scientific prove that it works
B. Develop the background.
-history of acupuncture
-uses for acupuncture
-how it differs from traditional, western medicine
-how it comes to be popular in America and Southern California
-the number of acupuncture licenses/ businesses in SoCal
-the trend of alternative medicine
C. State the purpose and rationale
The main purpose will be to analyze the social interaction/ structure between acupuncture doctors and their patients. Perhaps, that will help to explain the rising popularity of acupuncture and alternative medicine
in Southern California.
I think that acupuncture's role as a therapy for the physcial may be supported by its role in socialization between the therapists and the patients seeking a different kind of lifestyle and treatment for their conditions.
The field of acupuncture... its uses and effectiveness is still debated in the scientific community.
I will not debate this although I do offer my stance in that it doesn't just work in Asia, where it has a long history and belief standing... its effectiveness is equally present in America, where people are seeking alternative treatment to the new-found, technological treatments just founded by our society... where the effects are not yet documented.
People are afraid of taking pills... of being held captive by the pills... of having side effects and then having to take more pills for their side effects.
People want to be independent. They don't want to rely on pills or forces outside of themselves for health.
However, they didn't realize that they do rely on outside forces, on others for health- for sucess- for socialization.
FOCUS: social interaction between patients that allows for a realtionship that is built on the foundation of therapy and healing. One of the main concepts in acupuncture is not just the power of the points... it's the points that open up chi channels... it's self-healing... the needs are there to help the energy within you heal yourself.
Right off the bat, the therapists and the patient form a different kind of relationship than the normal, traditional Western medicine
doctor. In a normal doctor-patient relationship, the doctor is seen as the informer-the authority figure with information and directions that the patient may have to follow. The patient plays the submissive role, usually having to follow doctors' orders. Although the relationship is seen as beneficial, the patients need to rely and trust the technology and knowledge of modern medicine
... and sometimes take medicine
with side effects. These are risks that a lot of patients prefer not to take.
Vs. acupuncture: The patient is not at the mercy of the doctor and just those orders... those treatments. Various treatments are offered to fit the comfort level of the patient.
Limilations of the study:
Bias: I will admit my bias, as I have grown up with my mother who has often given me acupuncture treatments, and this study is cronociling her relationships with her patients- many with whom I am familiar with- as I have worked in the clinic over the years.
Scientific data regarding the effectiveness of acupuncture.
-geographically, this is where the film industry is located so a big percentage of the patients come from there- the insurance is considered better and covers acupuncture treatment, unlike other insurance companies. however, this may be true for southern california in general- just cannot apply to the rest of the country.
What gaps my research could help fill:
-relationships between medical practionner and their patients
-what kind of social treatment may benefit the patients
-as doctors office fill with patients... as there are fewer doctors and more patients- more people with conditions that needs treatment, each one is rushed through the office like a number.
acupuncture treatments- preventive care, more physical touch- like care, some questions to help distract patients while needles are going in so in a way, it actually help build more of a relationship as more information is exchange ( other than focusing on the pain, or the bad condition)
usually, when people go to see the doctor, it's because they are already in pain... but acupuncture offers more of a preventive treatment.
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