Essay Instructions: Historical Criticism
Historical Criticisms focus on the context in which a literary work was created and how that context affected the work. The critique may examine the author?s social, political and intellectual surroundings or may concentrate on the author?s own biography; his or her life experiences or psychological makeup.
What is it in Andre Malraux?s history that led them to write Man?s Fate. Dig into the Chinese Revolution of 1927; give background on the time and the players, or search out the history of Catholic repression in early 20th Century Mexico. Find examples, if they are there, of real martyrs that the authors may have used in developing their characters.
Make sure that you use the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for your guide. Your paper must be approximately 2000 words
(8-10 double-spaced pages) with a Works Cited Page at the end that lists all of the sources you use in writing the paper. See your MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for the proper format and style.
I want a minimum of 10 outside sources, half from the internet and half from library sources (books, journals, newspapers, magazines, videos, etc. Do not list encyclopedias, i.e., Encarta, Comptons, Britannica, etc. as sources. They can be used as initial background information only. You cannot cite encyclopedias in your paper.
Use in-text citations to give credit to your sources, i.e.,
?Steinbeck almost reversed his early extreme liberal views
while covering Vietnam. He became highly conservative?
(White 224). You can cite a source three ways:
(1) Summarize a book, chapter, long passage, etc. in a sentence or two; (2) Paraphrase a long passage, i.e., put it in your own words, or (3) Quote the sources. At any rate, you must give credit in your paper to the source of ideas not your own!
Folks, the Historical Criticism constitutes the largest part of your final grade (40%), so be sure to make sure you do enough research and that you present the paper in the proper MLA format. Be sure to write at least 2000 words and make sure that you give proper credit to all of the outside sources you use. Be focused; papers of more than 2500 words will not be accepted!!! Each of the sources that you list on the Works Cited page must be cited within the paper. You have a month to gather your material and write the paper, so read the both novels before making your decision. Be sure that it is original; we have ways of tracking plagiarism, and it is a serious offense.
MOST COMMON RESEACH PAPER ERRORS!!!
The following is a list of the most common mistakes that I found in your Modern Language Association (MLA) format research papers. Take some time to review them so that your future presentations will be that much better. It?s discouraging to receive a well-written paper only to reduce your grade because of rule errors and proofreading mistakes that cost you a grade or two. If you master these rules, your presentation will always be more professional!
1. Format Errors ? Make sure that you follow The MLA Handbook for
Writers of Research Papers. There is no cover page on your papers; see Page 320. Also, check Page 321 for the correct format on the Works Cited Page.
2. Numbering Pages ? Each page must be numbered in the top right hand
corner with your last name followed by the page number, i.e., Jones 1,
Jones 2, etc. all the way through the Works Cited Page.
3. Double Space ? The entire paper is double spaced throughout! Do not
space more between name and title or title and body of paper. From top to bottom, the paper is to be double spaced!!!!
4. Title ? Always have a title on your paper!! Use something catchy, i.e,
Malraux?s Fate or The Glory Prevails, etc. Also, titles of books, magazines, newspapers, movies, plays, etc. are underlined or in italics.
Ex: Man?s Fate or Man?s Fate
5. Quotes ? Avoid stringing long quotes!!! Too many papers had long quote after long quote. Use a quote only to give your words credibility.
This is your paper, not your source?s paper.
6. Using Sources ? There are three ways to use your sources: (1) quote
directly from the source; this is used to provide an example of a point
you are making; (2) paraphrase ? put your source?s words into your
own for clarity; this can be as long as the original information, and
(3) summarize ? shorten the source?s information into a sentence or two.
This could be an entire chapter when you want to give the essence of
what is said. In all three cases, you must give the source credit by citing at the end of the quote, paraphrase or summary. If your source?s information comes from a book, give the source?s last name followed by the page number(s), i.e. (Meyer 234). If your source is from the internet and you don?t have page numbers, put the sources last name (D?Souza)
7. Citing ? Remember that all sources listed on your Works Cited Page
must be cited within your paper.
8. Verb Tenses ? Remember, when referring to the author?s work, write in
the present tense, i.e. ?The Whiskey Priest realizes that he is flawed, but
he is true to his religious beliefs to the end.?
9. Flow ? Make sure that your paragraphs flow naturally from one topic
to another. Too often, paragraphs are abrupt and go from one subject to another without a smooth transition. Remember, only one topic in
10. Wordiness ? When I mark you for wordiness, you have used too many
words to say something, i.e., don?t say, ?In the book Man?s Fate??; just
say, ?In Man?s Fate,? or ?At the age of 16??; Just say, ?At 16??
Be ?lean? and direct in your writing!!! This is best done on your final
proofreading before you send your paper!!
OTHER COMMON ERRORS
1. Spacing ? Always skip two spaces between each sentence! Also, indent
five spaces or tab for each new paragraph! When you quote more than
four lines, indent 10 spaces from the left margin or tab twice; there are
no quotation marks before or after quotes of more than four lines.
2. Using Names ? Once you fully introduce someone, use only the last
name in subsequent references; do not use the first name, i.e., ?Andre
Malraux,? the first time, but only ?Malraux? from then on. Do not use
3. Capitalizing - Capitalize ideologies, i.e., Communism, Capitalism, etc.
Capitalize the first word of each quotation.
4. Commas - Although content is the most highly weighted aspect of
your papers, punctuation errors usually costs a student a grade or two.
The most common errors, of course, are comma errors. If a student has
a few, I?m not concerned. When it becomes apparent that the student
doesn?t know any comma rules, it greatly affects the grade. I?ve
attached a list of the comma rules; review them and learn them; it can
make a difference in a good and excellent paper; we want to hand in the
most professional paper possible.
5. Sentence Fragments ? Only write in sentences!!! There are too many
fragments showing up!! To be a sentence it must have a subject, verb
and complete thought!!! Catch this in your final proofreading!!!
6. Use of ?who? ?that? and ?which? ? Always use ?who? when you are
referring to people, ?He is the one who was arrested?? NOT ?He is the
one that was arrested?? or ?He is the one which was arrested.?
8. Awkward Sentences - In your proofreading check to see if your
sentences are too long and awkward. Break up lengthy thoughts and
sentences when the meaning becomes garbled.
8. Combining Like Clauses ? On the other hand, if you have two clearly
related thoughts, use a coordinating conjunction (and, or, nor, but, yet,
for or so) to combine them into one sentence, i.e., ?Greene was
converted into Catholicism. He was not an avid believer in many of its
rituals.? Put in the coordinating conjunction ?but,? and it flows much
better, i.e., ?Greene was converted in Catholicism, but he was not avid
believer in many of its rituals.?? Always make sure that you have a
comma before the coordinating conjunction!!
9. Avoid Certain Words ? Don?t use the impersonal ?you,? i.e., ?You know
that if you look closely, you will see that the Whiskey Priest is basically a
good man.? Only use ?you? when you are talking to a specific person,
as I am to you. Also avoid, ?very? when possible! It?s wordy and
doesn?t add anything, i.e., ?The Lieutenant was very intent on capturing
the Whiskey Priest.? Just say ?intent?; that is sufficient!
10. Proofreading ? I held this until last because it is the last thing you
should be doing before you send in or print out your paper!!! Set your
paper aside for a day or so, and go through it carefully to check your
MLA format/style, the sentence structure and all of the possible
errors I have listed above, particularly the punctuation. Use this paper
as a checklist if you wish!
I hope this helps you in your next paper as well as any subsequent papers you have to write in the MLA format. Remember, all good writing is in the re-writing, so spend a lot of time shaping your paper into the most professional presentation you can make it. After all, your name is on it, and that means something!
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Total Pages: 3 Words: 1178 Sources: 3 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Historical Events Paper
Conduct a search (Internet or University Library) identifying three major events that have influenced the development of higher education. Prepare a 700 ? 1,050-word paper in APA format that includes a historical overview of the three major events and compare how these three events shaped higher education.
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Essay Instructions: Historical Case Study Analysis: Critical Evaluation
Industrial and Organization Psychology has its emphasis in the areas of scientific discipline and professional practice. As a science, the goal is to discover the phenomena that influence behavior on the job and throughout the organization. In identifying observable phenomena, predictions about behavior and the resulting consequences can be inferred. As a practice, information obtained from empirical research can be used in decision making to solve practical problems in organizations. Given the uses of each side of the discipline, it is easy to see how I and O go hand in hand. In the history of I/O, the process of identifying organizational behaviors, the context in which they occurred, and resulting consequences, usually took form of case studies or experiments. The information obtained from historical case studies has major implications for the way we conduct ourselves today.
Conduct a search for a case study in the field of I/O.
In finding a case study, please use the textbook or any of the assigned articles as the basis of origin to conduct the search.
Write a 4 page paper (not including title and reference pages) that demonstrates critical thinking and evaluation of the study as it relates to contemporary standards.
Use the online library to provide references that back up and support your analysis.
Important: All of the I/O psychologists assigned did far more work in their lifetime than could be described in such a brief paper, thus a focus on some small aspect of the person?s work is critical to success on this assignment.
The paper should be structured as follows:
1. Focus on some aspect of the person?s study or contribution to the field of Industry and Organizational Psychology (4 pages).
2. What you select as the focus is up to you and should reflect your own interests. A list of possible areas of focus can be found below.
3. The focus is obviously the key part of this paper. It should include a treatment of some aspect of the person?s work as well as YOUR evaluation of that work.
4. You should be able to answer such questions as:
a. Which direction was the emphasis of the author?s case study or experiment inclined ? more I or O?
b. How was the work received by other I/O psychologists at the time?
c. What influence did the work appear to have on the field?
d. How is that work regarded today? Beware of hagiography: There is a tendency in writing these papers to present the individual in a largely positive light. In
some cases such an assessment may be entirely merited. But your job as ?historian? in this assignment is to interpret the data as objectively as you can, and
that means being critical when such criticism is called for.
e. This means you should express your ideas as to (a) elements that were left out or were not considered (b) population and/or diversity issues (c) how results
were possibly misinterpreted (d) how the results differ from a contemporary perspective.
Possible areas of focus:
Consider the level at which the author focused the case study or experiment. The levels of focus in I/O would include: individual, team, departmental, organizational, and environmental.
Determine whether the inclination of the author? experiment leans toward Industrial or Organizational measures. Industrial subjects would include topics concerning measurement such as: Job analysis, selection and placement, training, performance appraisal, and measurement scales. Organizational subjects would lean more toward topics such as: motivation and work attitudes, influence and leadership, culture and climate and organizational learning, development and change.
Consider the historical context in which the study took place: World War I (1917 - 1918), Between Wars (1919-1940), World War II (1941-1945), (1950s and 1960s). Consider the philosophical era in which the study took place: pre-modernism (up until 1650s), modernism (1650s to 1950s), postmodernism (1950 to current times).
User:: lynneboisrond (at) yahoo.com
Koppes, L. (2007). Historical perspectives in industrial and organizational psychology. (Ed.) Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Chapter 1: Industrial and Organizational Psychology: An Evolving Science and Practice
Chapter 2: Early Contributors to the Science and Practice of Industrial Psychology
Landy, F. (1993). Early influences on the development of industrial/organizational psychology. Exploring Applied Psychology: Origins and Critical Analyses, 79-118.
(EBSCOhost Accession Number: AN 2006-08238-003).
American Psychological Association: www.apa.org
The American Psychological Association (APA) is a scientific and professional organization that represents psychology in the United States. With 150,000 members,
APA is the largest association of psychologists worldwide. Visit this website to explore issues relating psychological topics, publications, the psychology help center,
news and events, research, education, careers and membership.
Organization Development Network: www.odnetwork.org
The Organization Development Network is an international professional association of organization development practitioners. Our members come from all 50 states of
the USA, Canada, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and around the world. Some are external consultants; others work within their organizations to promote healthy change. They
may specialize in such areas as human resources, training, leadership or talent development, change management, strategic planning, and a broad range of initiatives
designed to make organizations more effective.
Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology: www.SIOP.org.
Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), a division of APA, is a membership organization that provides invaluable and reliable resources for
professionals, students and educators. Visit this website for information about membership, meetings and conferences, services, publications, jobs, and learning
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Essay Instructions: Historical Development of Professional Associations ? DOMESTIC ABUSE
Over the years, human services organizations have evolved to respond to the challenges in their communities. This evolution may have created dramatic changes in the organizations over time. For example, the American Society of Criminology went through various changes since its inception in 1941. It began as The National Association of College Police Training Officials with eight male members who wanted to improve police training curricula. Today, it is called the American Society of Criminology (ASC). Over time, it has gone though changes in its scope, membership, and policies. In the 1960s, the first females joined this association. This prompted the need to expand resources to serve all of its members. Looking at the history of an organization can inform you of its historical development and future direction (Adler, 1997).
To prepare for this Application, choose a professional association in your area of interest ? DOMESTIC ABUSE. Review this association?s website, and research its historical development. This information is typically found in the ?About? section of the association?s website. In addition, search the Internet for additional information.
The assignment: (3?4 pages)
? Analyze the historical development of one professional association in your area of interest. Include in your analysis:
o Why the association was formed
o How the association has evolved
o How ethics have influenced the association
? Describe the key issues you see the association facing now, and explain how you think the association will evolve based on these issues. Be specific and provide examples.
Support your Assignment with specific references to all resources used in its preparation
? The Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences (ACJS)
? American Counseling Association (ACA)
? American Mental Health Counselors Association (AMHCA)
? American Public Human Services Association (APHSA)
? American Public Health Association (APHA)
? The American Society of Criminology (ASC)
? International Association of Emergency Managers (IAEM)
? National Association of Social Workers (NASW)
? The National Organization for Human Services (NOHS)
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