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Health Economics Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Health Economics College Essay Examples

Title: Health Economics

Total Pages: 6 Words: 1681 Sources: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: Health Economics paper: This paper will focus on a type of prepayment system for healthcare and its effect on the cost and quality of healthcare. The topic: The effect of diagnostic-related groups (DRGs) on the cost and quality of health care. I will be emailing you a bibliography of articles I've read that are pertinent. I will fax you an article in 8 hours or so (it is now 2am EST.) No minimum number of quotations or footnotes, etc. required.

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Essay Instructions: Please include in-text citations. Please include references with actual email addresses...Thanks in advance!

Book: The Economics of Health and Health Care (6th edition) by: Sherman Folland, Allen C. Goodman, Miron Stano. Published by Prentice Hall, 2010
Health Economics
Dr. Chotkevys
HSA 510

Due Week 4 and worth 200 points

Write a 5-7 page paper in which you:

1.Assess your community?s access to health care technology and determine how that access (or lack thereof) impacts your community economically.
2.Assess your community?s demand for health capital and determine the factors contributing to the level of demand you find.
3.Assess your community?s demand for health insurance and determine the factors contributing to the level of demand you find.
4.Cite at least five (5) references, three (3) of which must be from peer-reviewed journals.
Your assignment must:

?Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
?Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student?s name, the professor?s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

?Identify factors which influence the production of health care services.
?Identify the factors that are influencing the demand and supply of health care services in the U.S.
?Use technology and information resources to research issues in health economics.
?Write clearly and concisely about health economics using proper writing mechanics.

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Title: Health Care Systems and Institutions

Total Pages: 4 Words: 1564 Works Cited: 0 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay

Essay Instructions: This is the paper for Health Economics lecture. I want you to write about Health Care Systems for each country(any country like US,Canada,UK,Germany) relate to economic. And after comparing, please write your opinion which health care system is better and why do you think It is better. I will send you lecture slides, so you can use it as supplementary materials. Thank you.

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Title: impact of hypertension on health care cost

Total Pages: 2 Words: 809 Bibliography: 2 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper

Essay Instructions: 2 pages with 2 references from peer review journals paraphase only no direct quotes cite references in the text Read the article on hypertension that I have uploaded and the do a crosspost to the article written below try to bring up new material must be able to go through turnit in need 250- 500 words please
crosspost to follig paper:
Hypertension, a significant health problem in the United States, has detrimental economic consequences on health care. Even with technological advances and cost-effective analysis, the treatment of hypertension continues to be a burden. This paper summarizes the key issues surrounding the economics of hypertension.

Hypertension affects nearly one-third of the American adult population and is responsible for nearly 50% of heart disease and 75% of strokes worldwide (Stason, 2009). In modernized and wealthy countries, hypertensive disorder is among the top three leading causes of death that are directly related to a particular cause (Alcocer & Cueto, 2008). In poverty stricken areas, hypertension is the most common cause of death.

Hypertension cost the U.S. over $69 billion in 2008 (American Heart Association, 2008). Most of these dollars were spent on resource utilization. When compared to non-hypertensive people, people who are hypertensive are more likely to use extra healthcare resources including emergency room visits, home health visits, and inpatient visits (Alcocer & Cueto, 2008).

Most studies only investigate the economic impact of hypertension as a primary disease or diagnosis. However, many disease states such as diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease are directly attributable to hypertension. Therefore, the costs related to hypertension as a secondary diagnosis should also be included to keep from underestimating the true economic burden of hypertension (Wang, Zhang, & Ayala, 2010). For example, many admissions have a primary diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease directly related to hypertension. In turn, approximately 13% of the total cost of hospitalization for a primary diagnosis related to hypertension goes to treating the hypertension itself (Wang, Zhang, & Ayala, 2010).

Various methods are used to evaluate the most cost effective method of treating hypertension. One study, the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) Study, compared the cost of various antihypertensive medications with progressively lower diastolic blood pressures (Hansson et al., 1998). As diastolic blood pressure goals decreased, the cost of the medicine regimen increased. However, the lower target blood pressures did not offset economic cost by reducing cardiovascular hospitalizations. The study concluded that the more aggressive method of hypertension treatment was not necessarily cost-effective in the long run.

Conversely, a second analysis of the cost-effectiveness of strict versus moderate control of hypertension in a patient with type 2 diabetes concluded differently. For people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, aggressive treatment of hypertension resulted in marked cost reduction and improved health outcomes when compared to those with moderately controlled hypertension (The CDC Diabetes Cost-effectiveness Group, 2002). Aggressive treatment of hypertension in these patients achieved a cost savings of approximately $2,000 per diabetic patient per year.

Even though the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension has made marked progress, economic challenges are still present. By analyzing the cost-effectiveness of various approaches to therapy and regimens for treatment, the health care provider can assist the patient in making the most economical treatment choice.


Alcocer, L. & Cueto, L. (2008). Hypertension, a health economics perspective. Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease, (2)3, 147-155. doi:10.1177/8090572

American Heart Association. (2008). Heart disease and stroke statistics ??" 2008 update. Circulation, 117, e25-e146. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.187998

Hansson, L., Zanchetti, A., Carruthers, S., Daholf, B., Elmfeldt, D., Julius, S., Menard, J., Rahn, K., Wedel, H., & Westerling, S. (1998). Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: Principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomized trial. The Lancet, 351, 1755-1762. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)04311-6

Stason, W. (2009). Hypertension: A policy perspective, 1976-2008. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension, 3(2), 113-118. doi:10.1016/j.jash.2008.12.001

The CDC Diabetes Cost-effectiveness Group. (2002). Cost-effectiveness of intensive glycemic control, intensified, hypertension control, and serum cholesterol level reduction for type 2 diabetes. Journal of the American Medical Association, 287, 2542-2551. Retrieved from
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