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World Health Organization (2010) key component checklist for a well functioning health system
Leadership and governance
1. A national monitoring and evaluation plan that specifies core indicators (with targets), data collection and management, analyses and communication and use ƒ
2. Arrangements to make information accessible to all involved, including communities, civil society, health professionals and politicians
Health information systems
1. Progress in meeting health challenges and social objectives (particularly equity), including but not limited to household surveys, civil registration systems and epidemiological surveillance
2. Health financing, including through national health accounts and an analysis of financial catastrophes and of financial and other barriers to health services for the poor and vulnerable
3. Trends and needs for human resources for health; on consumption of and access to pharmaceuticals; on appropriateness and cost of technology; on distribution and adequacy of infrastructure
4. Access to care and on the quality of services provided.
1. A system to raise sufficient funds for health fairly
2. A system to pool financial resources across population groups to share financial risks
3. A financing governance system supported by relevant legislation, financial audit and public expenditure reviews, and clear operational rules to ensure efficient use of funds
Human resources for health
1. Arrangements for achieving sufficient numbers of the right mix (numbers, diversity and competencies)
2. Payment systems that produce the right kind of incentives
3. Regulatory mechanisms to ensure system wide deployment and 4. distribution in accordance with needs
5. Establishment of job related norms, deployment of support systems and enabling work environments
6. Mechanisms to ensure cooperation of all stakeholders ( such as health worker advisory groups, donor coordination groups, private sector, professional associations, communities, client/consumer groups).
7. Effective regulation through a combination of guidelines, mandates, and incentives, backed up by legal measures and enforcement mechanisms;
8. Effective policy dialogue with other sectors.
9. Mechanisms and institutional arrangements to channel donor funding and align it to priorities.
Essential medical products and technologies
1. A medical products regulatory system for marketing authorization and safety monitoring, supported by relevant legislation, enforcement mechanisms, an inspectorate and access to a medical products quality control laboratory
2. National lists of essential medical products, national diagnostic and treatment protocols, and standardized equipment per levels of care, to guide procurement, reimbursement and training
3. A supply and distribution system to ensure universal access to essential medical products and health technologies through public and private channels, with focus on the poor and disadvantaged
4. A national medical products availability and price monitoring system
5. A national program to promote rational prescribing.
1. Networks of close-to-client primary care, organized as health districts or local area networks with the back-up of specialized and hospital services, responsible for defined populations
2. Provision of a package of benefits with a comprehensive and integrated range of clinical and public health interventions, that respond to the full range of health problems of their populations, including those targeted by the Millennium Development Goals
3. Standards, norms and guidance to ensure access and essential dimensions of quality: safety, effectiveness, integration, continuity, and people -centeredness
4. Mechanisms to hold providers accountable for access and quality and to ensure consumer voice.