Essay Instructions: PHL/458 Creative Minds and Critical Thinking
Refining Solutions Paper
Societal Issues: (Hate Crimes)
Most great solutions to problems begin with some initial flaws. Quality solutions arise by refining ideas. Refine your solution to the problem defined in your Week Two Individual Assignment.
Write a 900 word paper. Include the following:
? Original issue
? Initial solutions
? Critical examination of best solution
? Evaluation of the argument
? Revised argument
? Refined solution with implementation plan
? Final solution
Evaluating and Refining Solutions:
Hate crimes can be described as criminal activities that are perceived to be fueled by prejudice against and hostility towards the victim based on an individual characteristic. In most cases, hate crimes are motivated by gender, disability, sexual orientation, race, identity, and religion or faith. The increase in hate crimes in the recent past has not only made it a major issue that needs to be addressed in the modern society but has also attracted several legislative measures to deal with it. However, dealing with this major societal issue not only requires these legislative measures but also necessitate creative and critical thinking to enhance the effectiveness of initiatives taken to address it. The development of suitable initiatives through creative and critical thinking requires evaluating and refining resolutions.
Explanation of Hate Crimes:
Based on their definition, hate crimes can be understood as criminal activities fueled either in whole or partly by negative attitudes and opinions toward a group of individuals. This is primarily because the offenses incorporate a particular aspect of the identity of the victim such as race and religion. Notably, these criminal activities are not simply biases but they incorporate dangerous actions like physical assault fueled by the biases (?The Psychology of Hate Crimes?, 2010). Generally, hate crimes differ from other violent offenses because of their impact on the immediate target and communities that the victim belongs to. Therefore, hate crimes are not only conducted to harm the victim but also affect the community that the victim is a member of.
Despite being one of the violent crimes, hate crimes differ from other offenses because of their effect on the victim and his/her community. Perpetrators of these offenses usually perform them to cause psychological distress on the immediate target and send specific messages to the group the victim belongs to. This implies that the goal of hate crimes is two-fold i.e. to cause harm on the targeted individual and the group he/she represents. Therefore, these crimes are prevalent in the society because no community or society is immune to the impacts of intolerance and prejudice. Moreover, hate crimes contain seeds of probable conflicts that require concerted efforts to deal with. Resolving hate crimes requires various initiatives from different stakeholders in the community in order to thwart the potential cycle of violence. Some of the major stakeholders who can deal with hate crimes include legislators, police and prosecutors, local authorities, and non-governmental organizations. However, dealing with this societal issue not only requires proving that an act is an offense but also demonstrating that it was committed with a bias motivation.
Investigating the Issue:
One of the major ways to understand the issue of hate crimes is through conducting necessary investigations on it by answer to various questions. Some of the major questions to address during the investigations include; what is a hate crime? How do hate crimes differ from other violent crimes? What are the effects of hate crimes on victims and the society? Who are the perpetrators of hate crimes? Who are at risk of these crimes? The source of information to answer each question is the University Counseling &Testing Center at University of Oregon.
A hate crime is described as a felony or violent crime that is manifested through prejudice based on nationality, race, religion or color. These offenses are usually motivated by negative attitudes or opinions towards a group of individuals in the community (Baker & Green, 2013). Since hate crimes do not necessarily require the perpetrator to feel hates towards his/her target, it is only carried out based on bias motivation. This type of offense differs from other violent offenses on two major ways i.e. the potential impact on victims and the society and the motivation behind such actions. The other reasons differences between hate crimes and other violent crimes include the fact that they tend to increase, escalate, and spiral. These offenses increase because perpetrators feel their actions are morally justified while they escalate as these individuals shift from minor offenses to more violent acts. They tend to be spiral because victims of these offenses retaliate against community members blamed for the attacks (?Understanding Hate Crimes?, 2010).
From victims, hate crimes primarily contributes to psychological distress while to the community, the offenses send a message to a specific group that they are unsafe and unwanted in a particular neighborhood. The most common target of these crimes is minority group members even though every individual can become a victim. Minority groups are usually targeted because of their religion, disability, race or ethnicity, sexual orientation, and gender. In most cases, the perpetrators of hate crimes vary from members of hate groups to other kinds of offenders.
Resolving the Issue:
In light of the increase in the incidents of hate crimes and their impacts on victims and the community, there is need to develop effective measures for addressing or resolving the issue of hate crimes. Some ideas that could potentially resolve the issue include mobilize community resources to address it, enact strict regulations, conduct extensive research factors that contribute to them and how to resolve them, develop necessary mental health interventions, conduct awareness and educational initiatives to dispel stereotypes, and enhance training of police. One of the positive potential solutions to the issue is educational and awareness efforts to dispel stereotypes and discrimination. These efforts would be effective because they will deal with one of the major causes of these crimes by addressing concerns of potential perpetrators and protecting minority groups. The second approach is to enhance the training of law enforcement personnel to effectively prevent and lessen the prevalence of hate crimes. Police officers and agencies are currently inadequately prepared to deal with these crimes. Therefore, enhancing their training would help enhance their effectiveness in addressing these crimes.
In conclusion, hate crimes are one of the major problems in today?s society because of the increased discrimination of various groups due to their religion, race, color, disability, and sexual orientation. These offenses are primarily conducted on the basis of bias motivation though the perpetrator must not necessarily hate his/her target. The impact of these crimes is two-fold i.e. psychological distress on victims and sending a message to a group on how they are unsafe or unwanted in a specific neighborhood. These crimes differ from other violent crimes since they tend to increase, escalate, and spiral. Some of the major ways of addressing the issue include enhancing the training of police officers and conducting awareness initiatives.
Baker, N. & Green, D. (2013, October 7). Policy ? Reducing and Preventing Crime. Retrieved
from UK Government Digital Service website: https://www.gov.uk/government/policies/reducing-and-preventing-crime--2/supporting-pages/hate-crime
?The Psychology of Hate Crimes.? (n.d.). University Counseling & Testing Center. Retrieved
from University of Oregon website: http://counseling.uoregon.edu/dnn/SelfhelpResources/ThePsychologyofHateCrimes/tabid/420/Default.aspx
?Understanding Hate Crimes.? (2010). A Handbook for Bosnia and Herzegovina. Retrieved from
Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights website: http://www.osce.org/odihr/104165
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: The research paper will be based on a fictional scenario. My role is that of the police-munity relations officer. It is my job to provide the missioner with an informational report about the increase of hate crimes nationally, statewide and locally. The questions I need to answer are the prevalence of the problem nationwide and statewide, current trends in prevalence (is the problem growing or maintaining at the current level of incidence?), and which individuals or groups are involved and/or concerned. The information should be accurate, prehensive, and because the issue is currently a concern and may still be evolving, the sources need to be timely and up-to-date. The report should only include factual information not opinions or remendations. This kind of research is often called a "white paper" or in public relations, a "backgrounder."
The research should locate and document at least 8 internet sources. The research should also include an executive summary, which is called an "abstract in academic writing. For the research the regions that should be researched are the United States, Pennsylvania, and Lying county in Pennsylvania. If you have questions I can be emailed at
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: 2.0 Historical Origins of Hate Crimes
2.2 Slavery and Lynching
2.3 Civil Rights Movement and Race Motivated Violence
5.0 Hate Speech, Hate Crimes and the Constitution
5.1 Hate Speech: First Amendment Protection
5.2 Non-Verbal Symbols of Hate (i.e. Cross Burning & Swastikas)
5.3 Are Hate Crimes Constitutional
6.0 Pros and Cons of Hate Crime Legislation
6.1 Supporting View
6.2 Opposing View
Excerpt From Essay:
Total Pages: 2 Words: 730 Sources: 2 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: In many cities throughout the United States, the prevalence of hate crimes has increased. You have been asked to provide your insight into this and recommend ways to decrease the occurrence of these types of crimes.
Research the topic of hate crimes and address the following:
*Create a profile of the typical individual who commits hate crimes.
*Who are some targets and/or victims of hate crimes?
*What are some of the causes and effects of these crimes?
*What actions can be taken to minimize the occurrence of hate crimes?
Note: Do not use wikipedia or the like to cite resources.
Excerpt From Essay:
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