Hannah Arendt Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Hannah Arendt College Essay Examples

Title: Hannah Arendt and Jews and politics

  • Total Pages: 8
  • Words: 3522
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  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Explain in what way the plight of the Jews in the 19th and the 20th century is paradigmatic, in Hannah Arendt's view, for the political condition of modern human beings.

More precisely, explain in what sense the situation of the Jews in the 19th and the 20th century, as reflected, for example by the Jewish Question, but also by the socio-economic position that the Jews occupied in many European countries, helps one understand what went wrong, in Arendt's view, with European modern politics, thus contributing to the crystallization of the unprecedented phenomenon of totalitarianism.

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Works Cited:


Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. London: Andre Deutsch, 1951.

Brzezinski, Zbigniew, and Carl Friedrich. Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965.

Dennett, Bruce, and Stephen Dixon. Key Features of Modern History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

McCallum, Anne. Germany: 1918-1945 . Port Melbourne: Rigby Heinemann, 1992.

Phillips, Peter. The Tragedy of Nazi Germany. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1970.

Shirer, Willam L. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Pan Books Ltd., 1959; 1981; 1990.

The lack of a mass media limited the influence of rulers, and the social hierarchy in place limited the visibility of the ruling class or at least the higher echelons of the ruling class.

Brzezinski, Zbigniew and Friedrich, Carl -- Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy, (Harvard University Press, 1965) p22.

This is due to the fact that Hitler did not immediately decree the 'final solution'. If he hated the Jews as much as party members must have, he would have decreed it immediately. He didn't. It was a gradual process of escalating violence which was ordered by the cabinet rather than Hitler himself.

Arendt, Hannah -- The Origins of Totalitarianism (Andre Deutsch, 1951) p465.

Brzezinski, Zbigniew and Friedrich, Carl -- ob cit p22.

McCallum, Anne -- Germany: 1918-1945 (Rigby Heinemann, 1992) p73.

Dennett, Bruce and Dixon, Stephen -- Key Features of Modern History, (Oxford University press, 2000) p263.

To be effective the leader must listen to the party at least in an advisory capacity, but the last Nazi cabinet meeting was in February 1938.

Arendt, Hannah -- ob cit p325.

This concept is entirely theoretical as in reality it would not remain a democracy for long.

The results are likely to have been falsified, but the 'outcome' was widely used to substantiate the Fuhrer myth.

Arendt, Hannah -- ob cit p325.

Although the latter is unlikely given that he honestly believed in his all or nothing strategy. If cornered, it is very likely he would struggle until the very last; as he did.

Brzezinski, Zbigniew and Friedrich, Carl -- ob cit p22.

The SA was the Nazi private army, which grew to far surpass the Reichswehr (Germany Army), which was limited to 100,000 as per the Treaty of Versailles. With Rohm in command of such a force Hitler knew a power struggle would result, especially given that Rohm detested Hitler.

Shirer, Willam L -- The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (Pan Books Ltd., 1959, reprinted 1981) p323.

Arendt, Hannah -- ob cit p419.

Brzezinski, Zbigniew and Friedrich, Carl -- ob cit p22.

McCallum, Anne -- ob cit p96.

Arendt, Hannah -- ob cit p416f.

Phillips, Peter -- The Tragedy of Nazi Germany, (Praeger Publishers, 1970) p88.

Brzezinski, Zbigniew and Friedrich, Carl -- ob cit p22.

Dennent, Bruce and Dixon, Stephen -- ob cit p 269; this was actually the highest level throughout the world and anyone who was found to be listening to foreign radio stations would be charged with treason. This would mean either death or extreme prison sentences.

Shirer, William L -- ob cit p305.

Gobbels realized that constant and direct propaganda efforts would only lead to unrest as the public -who simply wish to be entertained- begin boycotting the cinemas.

McCallum, Anne -- ob cit p109.

ib id p107.

The clergy itself felt differently. Both the Catholic and the Protestant Church in Germany split apart, some sects supported Hitler and others did not. Those who did not ran secret anti-Nazi meetings and helped dissenters escape. Some even involved themselves in active attempts to assassinate Hitler, Dietrich Bonhoffer and Pastor Niemoller were two such priests and both were part of a Protestant sect called the "Confessing Church." Bonhoffer was involved in the July plot to kill Hitler. He was subsequently caught and executed by firing squad.

McCallum, Anne -- ob cit, p107.

Brzezinski, Zbigniew and Friedrich, Carl -- ob cit p22.

This special decree could only be ordered by the President, who happened to be Hitler after he combined the offices of Chancellor and President with the death of President Hindenburg.

There was one cosmetic restriction attached whereby the police are supposed to use the powers impartially were ordered by Goring to apply the decree to leftists only. Police were told to shoot first and ask questions later and that discipline would be applied to any officer who was perceived to be slow on the trigger.

Phillips, Peter -- ob cit p90.

Shirer, William L -- ob cit p288. It helped that the Gestapo were legally above the law.

Phillips, Peter -- ob cit p82.

Arendt, Hannah -- ob cit p457.

Nye, Russel B. -- History, Meaning and Method, Scott, Foresman and Co., 1975

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Title: Totalitarianism

  • Total Pages: 8
  • Words: 2361
  • Bibliography:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Below are topics covering material from Hannah Arendt, The origins of Totalitarianism. Select one topic and write an informal essay. Essay should carefully and thoroghly consider the issues raised. Essay may be expositional, interpretative, or critical, as you choose.
1. Race is a relatively new concept, dating only to the late eighteenth century. Racism, likewise, is a relatively recent development. Discuss the origins of racism and its varieties that can now be seen as the forerunners of the Nazi's ideology of the pure aryan race. Discuss racism's effect upon ideas such as humanity, justice, and equality.
2. The rise of totalitarian depended upon societies of masses, isolated people no matter how crowded together, bound together by no interest, class, or other ground for solidarity. Explain how mass society arose in Europe during the first decades of the twentieth centruy and describe at least one method by which totalitarians(Nazi) maintained and expanded the society of mass men. Why was such a mass of isolated men and women susceptible to totalitarian propaganda.

Reference: Use the book The origins of Totalitarianism, by Hannah Arendt to answer questions and give own thoughts on Hannah's writing.

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Arnedt, Hannah. (1973) The Origins of Totalitarianism. Paperback, new edition. Harvest Books

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Title: Hannah Arendt's Eichmann and the Holocaust

  • Total Pages: 3
  • Words: 766
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  • Citation Style: Chicago
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Write an analytical essay assignment on "Eichmann and the Holocaust" by Hannah Arendt. Choose on of the two topic for the analytical essay.

1. On page 60 Arendt writes that "as Eichmann told it, the most potent factor in the soothing of his conscience was the simple fact that he could see no one, no one at all, who actually was against the Final Solution." What are some of the examples she cites? Were any of these examples Jewish? Why was this such a "potent factor?"

2. The claim that they were simply following the orders of their superiors is at the heart of many accused Nazi was criminals' defenses of their actions, including Eichmann's. Another is that the actions of states cannot or should not be judged by other states. In what ways does Arendt examine these issue in the latter chapters of the book?

Do provide direct citations from the text. Do not merely summarize the text. It must be a clear, concise thesis statement and a consistent argument.

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Based on this thinking, one would think that Arendt would conclude that all Nazis were guilty of crimes against humanity due to their direct role in carrying out the final solution and murder of the one and only victims of the Holocaust- the Jews and others persecuted by the Nazi regime. However, this in fact is not the conclusion reached by Arendt, at least as to the Nazi leader Eichmann.

Arendt was actually present at Eichmann's trial held in Jerusalem. According to her account of the trial and Eichmann's testimony, it is her conclusion that Eichmann in fact is not a murder but, more appropriately, an innocent bystander and thus not guilty of the Nazi crimes against humanity. Arendt's thinking is that Eichmann, at heart, was not a Nazi and thus did not really know of Hitler's program when he joined the Nazi party. Further, she argues that he had nothing to do with the death camps, which in fact grew out of Hitler's euthanasia program and that, all in all, Eichmann was a modest and innocent bystander. (Arendt, 2006; et. al.)

In conclusion, Arendt essentially argrees with the Nazi arguments for their innocence, that in fact they had no choice due to the political pressures of the era and that, regardless of their actual actions, they did not agree with the goal internally. Unless they were internally in agreement with their actions, according to Arendt, Nazis such as Eichmann are innocent bystanders and the only true murderer is Hitler himself.

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Title: Politics during Holocost

  • Total Pages: 6
  • Words: 1868
  • References:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Book: Hannah Arendt's: THe human Condition
Book: for reference: Origins of Totalitarianism

Question: An important, although highly controversial, component of Arendts depiction of the modern world is her realm of the "the social." Discuss the origins of the social in Western Histroy as Arendt presents them. Arendt suggests that the social has three manifestations: the salon, classes, and the masses. Drawing upon The Origins of Totalitarianism, give concrete cases of "the social" that correspond to these manifestations. Explain, with reference to your examples from the origins of totalitarianism, how Arendt believes that the social threaten both the public and prevate realms. Is there a defense against the social? Include short summary summary of The Human Condition and how it relates to The origins of totalitarianism. Also include thoughts on topics covered. THis paper does not need to be very in depth but answer questions throughly.

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Works Cited

Arendt, Hannah. The Origins of Totalitarianism. Harcourt and Brace, 1951.

Arendt, Hannah. The Human Condition. U of Chicago Press, 1998. Originally Published 1958.

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