Hallucinations Essays and Research Papers

Instructions for Hallucinations College Essay Examples

Title: A beautiful mind John Nash schizophrania

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 561
  • References:2
  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay
Essay Instructions: Based on "A Beautiful Mind- John Nash
and the article The Schizophrenic Mind found at http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2002/03/10/the-schizophrenic-mind.html
Please answer the following questions. Answer separately. I have provided you with as much as I could. Number 1 I need help with, as well as number 2. John Nash symptoms illness, ect...The number 3 and number 6.

I wil provide you with my book notes so you have reference as well as the movie. I was absent for movie so I ned help with relating all this to what ever the movie had in it.

1. Discuss John Nash's illness in terms of general symptoms as described in the text (BELOW). Use examples from the film.
a) Paranoid Schizophrenia ??" delusions or frequent auditory hallucinations relating to a single theme. Become convince people are plotting against the,
b) Disorganized Schizophrenia ??" incoherent in their thoughts and speech and disorganized in their behavior. Typically they act giddy, cannot control themselves.
c) Catatonic Schizophrenia ??" disturbance of movement or marked slowed motor activity. hold positions for long period of time

2. What specific symptoms are apparent in John Nash behavior? (use examples) Based on these examples, what type of schizophrenia best describes him?
from book A mental illness, a condition of losing touch with reality accompanied by reduced ability to function.
Symptoms include- hallucinations, delusions, thought disorders, beliefs in super natural, may believe they are famous, problems organizing of mental processes, may experience a catatonic stupor- mobile expressionless.

3. According to the article "The Schizophrenics Mind, there are at least three misconceptions portrayed by the film relative to most schizophrenics. Describe each of these misconceptions.(CAN BE FOUND AT THIS LINK http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2002/03/10/the-schizophrenic-mind.html

4. How are new drugs used to treat schizophrenia different than early antipsychotics?

FROM NOTES- YOU CAN USE add to clean up what ever you ned but this all from notes so okay to use.There is no cure for schizophrenia, for drugs cannot unscramble tangled neuronal circuits. But some drugs can quiet the, Those that give rise to the delusions and hallucinations of schizophrania are awash in the neurochemical dopamine. Early antiipsychotics blocked dopamine receptors, with the result that dopamine had no effect i=on neurons. But new research believes dopamine lays an important role in circuits responsible for attention and pleasure. The new drugs called "atypicals" are more like smart bombs. The new drugs target mainly the dopamine flooded regions, so patients no longer feel as if the voices of 40 radio stations are talking to them. Instead the volume is softer, speed slower, making more sense. These new jobs allow people to hold jobs, have families, and increase their appetites.

5. What two forms of schizophrenia does Andrea Yates appear to suffer from? What motivated her to drown her children? Are most schizophrenics a threat to others? (notes below okay to use)
She had the inability to distinguish reality from imagination. she had combination of schizophrenia and depression and heard "satan"s voice telling her to "get a knife_ and hurt baby Noah. Andrea Yates may have has paranoid as well as catatonic schizophrenia.

6. Would you trade your ability to distinguish reality from fantasy in order to envision things no one else can?

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  • Total Pages: 4
  • Words: 1309
  • Works Cited:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Consider the selections we have read from Rumi's poetry in light of the other, "theoretical" texts we have looked at by Zaehner, De Certeau, and Steal Then, write a 4 to 5 page essay answering the question: To what extent are mystical experiences comparable to experiences of madness, and to what extent are they different? As we
have seen in class, "madness" does not have one meaning, but rather, many meanings depending on the context. So be careful to draw distinctions between how each writer is using the term. Focus on how this word - or other related words for that matter, such as "irrationality" or "insanity" - are used to get at certain aspects of the mystical experience. Your essay should have a coherent thesis that states not just your own opinion, but also how you intend to organize your thoughts.

(1) How does Rumi attempt to distinguish between different types of "ecstasies"? Are all
types of experiences involving a loss of self-control of equal value for the development
of the soul? How does Zaehner try to discriminate between these different ways of losing
(2) How is intoxication connected to communication for Rumi? Why, for him, do we
need to let go of the ordinary way we use language to be able to really talk to one another
(consider his story of the drunks and the police)? Is Staal's idea that mantras, music, and
birdcalls are types of communication the same, or is he talking about another type of
(3) How is desire connected to a loss of self for Rumi? What, if any, are the limits of this loss of self? Are these the same limits discussed by Zaehner in his comments on manic depression? How does De Certeau's idea of mystics being selfless in a way that can only exist in fables relate to Rumi's idea of emptying the self of self?
(4) Why does Rumi believe mystics need to have disguises? How does his idea of the mystic secret relate to DE Certeau's own idea of how mystics need society in order to be truly incomprehensible? Does De Certeau's idea of the "abject" have resonances in Rumi?
(5) When Rumi says that a mystic must always guard against ending up as a character in
his own story, what does he mean? Do you see resonances in De Certeau's idea of
mysticism as a literary reality, not a social one? Is Zaehner saying something similar
when he describes manic depressives as being "afflicted" with the feeling that they are
the authors of their own experiences?
(6) Is Rumi's idea of intoxication really based on irrationality? What do think of Staal's idea that emotional experiences can be rational, and what does this say about Rumi's portrait of the mystic?

Mysticism and madness
(a) lack of verbar and reson ( poetry)
the things that he is describing in words are not there
(b) love
-when you love somebody it does not matter how that person really is.
-When you love somebody there is a difference between emotions and external realities.
-drunks are scare of police because they are drunk, but police are drunk too.
-feelings matter when you are on the inside of it, when you are drunk you are on the inside of your feelings.
-for Rumi the worst thing you could do is step outside of yourself.
- police think they are powerful because they are police. They are not honest , they should become themselves.
- you are more yourself when u are unconscious
-The metaphor of the Reed- it is an instrument, you play it with your breath, it is nothingness.
-Music- it is feeling not sound. There is an interaction between spirit and matter.
-According to Rumi poetry means silence.
-People write poetry to put into words their desires, people want a language to be able to say what they want.
-There is an origin of desire which is Silence.

Michel De Certeau
-The soul is everything you got to transfer to desire.
-energy is what links the soul and the body.
-society is the sum of individuals that make that desire
-the idea that society manufacture the great divorce desire.
-there is a paradox between fear and hope-they have to be experienced at the same time and yet have to be separated.
-the idea that I am god is dangerous
-the mystic fable- stories gives us our identities.
-Mystics are not rational, because they are people with nameless desires.
- nameless is a form of silence.
-mystics are the desire itself this is why they are not rational.
-the moment you name desire, there is no desire, it is not really desire.
-mysticism is not a personal experience, it takes the whole society to make everything work.
- Mystics are literary figures. Mystics have to be unconscious.
-Mystics appear to be alive but they are really not.
-Abject- is an experience that cannot be assimilated to reason
-Cancer is a form of abject-it is something living inside of you that is not suppose to be there.
-abject is connected with desire
-according to him, mystics have no voices themselves, so they need other people.
-Mystics have to deal with a language they did not create
-For Rumi Madness means something completely different than for De Certeau.

First Staal
-Mantra- means repeating something over and over again(ex: OM..OM?)
-Irrationality according to Staal is a Christian idea.
-Adam and Eve wanted to have Gods knowledge.
-Prometheus gave fire to the Greece, he disobeyed God.
-you should stay away from knowledge it will get u further away.
-Religious Pursuit will lead to belief in Irrationality(based on Christianity)
-without irrationality Christianity is impossible.
-Christianity has to be completely true irrational or completely false irrational.
-language is therapy, you feel better by having it in the open.
-Birds singing is a form of communication, the pattern does not mean anything.
-according to Staal Religion is non-propositional, there is no way to prove it.
-according to Staal, think of language as music.
-Illusion-seeing reality from this point of view is different form seeing it form Gods view.
-Snake and Rope- all of our life we walk around thinking we see snakes when they are really not there, they are just harmless ropes.

Mysticism and Madness- dangerous (not happy)

Mental Illness a problem of:
1: Aidous Huxley-gratuitous grace (something free)
-took drugs to have a mystical experience

2: Rimbaud- "I is another" (can't recognize themselves, when manic)
"derangement of the senses" -how poetry is defined by

3: Al-Qushayri- Sufi(Islam mysticism)

God- compassionate/avenger (punisher who looks down on us)
Compassionate- represents manic depression

hope and fear always relating to the future, hope God will reach down and grab you up, fear that he won't

hope/fear- expansion/contraction
Keep expanding until you crash, people loose touch of

Constraint on way you learned before on mystical experiences

4: Jung- psychologist
self is not the same as your ego
a self inside of you in a mystical way
mysticism is connected with morality-egoless


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Title: Define the following abnormal psychology terms

  • Total Pages: 2
  • Words: 580
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  • Citation Style: APA
  • Document Type: Essay

Chapter 12
• Psychosis = loss of contact with reality
• Downward drift
• Positive vs. negative symptoms
• Delusions of persecution
• Difference between hallucinations and delusions
• Types of schizophrenia (disorganized, catatonic, paranoid, undifferentiated)
• Genetics and schizophrenia (first degree relatives of a schizophrenic person more likely than second or third degree relatives to develop schizophrenia)
• Stress-vulnerability model
• Token economy
• Milieu therapy
Chapter 13
• Personality
• Difference between personality characteristics and personality disorders
• Comorbidity
• Know the predominant features of each personality disorder (e.g. If you were given a short description of a client, you should be able to select which disorder best describes their set of symptoms)
• Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts
• Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder…why?
• Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own?
• Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders
Chapter 14
• Differences between boys and girls ??" who is more likely to have a diagnosable psychological disorder?
• Be able to differentiate between oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder
• How does ADHD change from child to adulthood? Does it go away? Do symptoms change?
• Most effective treatment for ADHD = behavioral treatment and medication
• Enuresis
• Key features of autism
• Echolalia
• What treatment is most effective for treating autism?
• Fetal alcohol syndrome
• Normalization programs for people with mental retardation
Chapter 15
• Geropsychology
• Dementia is the most feared psychological problem among the elderly
• How does drug treatment for depression differ for the elderly?
• Substance abuse in the elderly ??" prescription abuse
• Normal vs. abnormal changes in memory that occur with aging
• Alzheimer’s disease
o Onset
o Progression
o What causes it?
o How effective is treatment?
o Caretakers of Alzheimer’s patients
Chapter 16
• Forensic psychologists ??" what types of roles do they have?
• What must be true before a person may be tried for a crime and potentially found guilty?
• Durham test
• M’naghten rule
• What is the most common objection to the insanity plea?
• Relationship between sexual offenses and mental health disorders
• Managed care
• Difference between psychologist and psychiatrist
• Code of ethics
• Confidentiality

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Title: psychiatric evaluation on a 14years old male

  • Total Pages: 3
  • Words: 1059
  • Sources:0
  • Citation Style: MLA
  • Document Type: Research Paper
Essay Instructions: Above, there is psychiatric evaluation and a questionary is fallowed by, the questions has to be answered after reading the evaluation:


Name: Adam Smithone
DOB: 06/14/94
DOE: 06/12/08 and 06/17/08
Location: Vernia Treatment Facility

Adam is a 14 year old Caucasian male who lives in Penn City with his biological parents. He is an only child. Adam was transferred to the Vernia Treatment Facility from the Penn City Shelter on 5/04/08.

Adam was admitted to Green Glen Behavioral Hospital on 3/14/08 after he had a severe tantrum at home which ended up with Adam becoming physically aggressive with his father. He hit his father in the face. Adam’ mother did not agree with the discharge planning recommended by the psychiatrist at Green Glen Hospital, and Children and Youth Services took temporary legal and physical custody of Adam.

Adam has severe behavioral problems at home. His behavior has been deteriorating over the past year. Adam is extremely labile, unpredictable and explosive at home. He is constantly on the internet surfing pornographic websites. He used a webcam to expose himself to a girl in Eugene, Oregon. He is sexually inappropriate with his mother. He has tried to fondle her breasts, asked her to help him with sex, and has tried to peek in her bedroom bathroom. Adam masturbates around the house and on top of the stereo.

Thus far at the Vernia Treatment Facility Adam’ behavior has been good. He has achieved the green behavioral level (the highest level of stability). There was one incident where Adam made an inappropriate sexual comment to a peer, but other than that he has done well. Adam is not extremely hyperactive, however, during a family interview Adam was very fidgety and this seemed to be a manipulative act to get his parents to give him candy and attention.

Adam was referred for a psychiatric evaluation to assess his current medications, give diagnostic impressions, treatment recommendations, and to determine whether a residential treatment facility level of care is necessary.

1. Strengths
Adam is a very personable young man.
Adam’ family is supportive and wants him home with them when he leaves Vernia TF.
Adam is of normal intelligence.
Adam is in good physical health.

2. Concerns
As stated above, Adam has severe problems with impulse control at home. He is sexually inappropriate with his mother. He has no respect for elders or authority.

Adam is very manipulative and constantly tries to control people in his environment. He does not take “no” for an answer, will not listen to any feedback, and insists on having his own way at all times.

When Adam was 11 years old he accused his mother of sexual abuse. He was placed in the Sanctuary Foster Home. When he got out of Sanctuary, his mother felt that Adam was sexually inappropriate with her. The family is afraid of Adam and his aggression and mood swings.

Adam has had several inpatient psychiatric admissions, family-based mental health services, wrap-around services, partial hospitalization program admissions, and has had a prior residential placement. Despite this intensive treatment history, Adam continues to have significant behavioral problems.

The mother suffers from Bipolar Disorder. She was involved in a motor vehicle accident which adversely affected her short term memory. The mother also has Crohn’s Disease. The father is physically disabled with pancreatitis and heart and back problems.

3. Family
Adam has controlled his family for years with his behavior, mood swings and manipulation. His parents are both frail physically. As stated above, mother has Crohn’s Disease and brain damage and father has heart disease and pancreatitis. Adam was in control of the household until approximately one year ago when his mobile therapist began working with the parents to gain control and work on parenting skills. When this service began, Adam’ behavior deteriorated in the home. Adam is extremely narcissistic and he believes that everything should be catered to him. This situation deteriorated to the point where Adam became physically aggressive with his father and was placed in Penn City Shelter.

The mother was involved in Adam’ Treatment Team meeting held 5/17/08. She was very affectionate with her son and made sure to tell him that she loved him several times during the meeting. The mother exhibits some memory problems. The mother is treated by Dr. Momsdoc and is on Elavil and Buspar. On her family’s side, her mother reportedly was diagnosed with Mania / Schizophrenia and had several psychiatric admissions. The mother’s father was diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. The biological father is on Trazodone for depression and for help with sleep.

4. Education:
Adam was attending Penn City High School in the 9th grade in emotional support classes prior to his psychiatric admission. He is doing well at the Vernia Treatment Facility Home School. He is not disruptive. He appears able to focus and concentrate, although he complains that he needs medicine to improve his focus and concentration.

5. Community:
As stated previously, Adam spends a lot of time surfing pornographic websites. He used a webcam to expose himself to a girl in Eugene, Oregon. He believes this girl is 14 years old. He calls her, writes letters, and chats with the girl. His mother is concerned that he will run away to Oregon to be with this girl. Other than this relationship, Adam does not have friends and tends to be socially isolated.

6. Drugs and Alcohol:
Adam denies drug or alcohol abuse. Written records do not report any problems with drug or alcohol abuse.

7. Services and Service History:
Adam has had outpatient counseling, family-based mental health services, wrap-around services, inpatient admissions, partial hospitalization program admissions, and residential placement in 2007.

Adam has been diagnosed with ADHD, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Bipolar Disorder.

8. Medical:
Adam has no significant medical problems and no known drug allergies.

9. Legal:
Adam is currently under the custody of Vernia Treatment Facility.

Adam is a slightly disheveled 14 year old Caucasian male who looks his stated age. He is cooperative with the interview. He maintains good eye contact. For the first part of the interview Adam is somewhat guarded. He then becomes extremely talkative and euphoric. He states that his mood is “fine”. He denies depression. He denies suicidal or homicidal ideation.

Adam speaks quickly. His thought processes are tangential. He mumbles.

Adam fidgets in his seat. He is somewhat distractible. Adam notices everything in the office. For example, when this examiner calls his mother for permission to start a new psychotropic medication, Adam notices that she did not press a “1” on the telephone.

Adam tries his best to be ingratiating. He appears to be of normal intelligence. Adam denies auditory or visual hallucinations. His sleep and appetite are normal. His judgment is poor.

Adam is a 14 year old boy with a history of severe mood swings, hyper-sexuality, and explosiveness consistent with Bipolar Disorder. In addition to this, there is a family history of Bipolar Disorder.

Adam’ manipulation, inability to listen to rules, and aggressiveness are consistent with Conduct Disorder.

Adam’ fidgetiness and distractibility as well as his impulsivity are consistent with ADHD.

Adam’ hyper-sexuality, sexual molestation of his mother, and sexual preoccupation is extremely concerning. He seems to be on his way to becoming a sexual predator.

Axis I: 1. Bipolar Disorder, NOS 296.80
3. Conduct Disorder
4. Sexual Abuse of a Child (perpetrator)

Axis II: Deferred

Axis III: Noncontributory

Axis IV: Stress Level of 5 due to removal from home and chaotic environment, poor social skills, and conflicts with adults.

Axis V: GAF: Current: 45 Past: GAF: 43

1. Pharmacotherapy. I would recommend starting Adam on Straterra 40 mgs. PO QAM for one week and then 80 mgs. PO QAM thereafter. In approximately one month after the Straterra has begun working I would recommend stopping his Concerta due to concerns that stimulant medication can destabilize Bipolar Disorder.

I would recommend checking a Tegretol level to determine whether Adam’ is within high therapeutic range.

I would recommend increasing Adam’ Geodon to 40 mgs. PO QHS and titrating it upward to help him with aggression and impulse control.

2. Sexuality Evaluation and Treatment. Adam has severe sexual problems and requires an evaluation and treatment of these difficulties.

3. Individual Therapy. Adam requires individual therapy to help him develop coping skills and to stop his constant attempts at manipulating others.

4. Family Therapy. Adam requires family therapy to help his parents take back control of the household and learn how to set reasonable limits and structure without having episodes escalate into violence.

5. Residential treatment facility placement. Adam has severe problems with aggression, impulse control, hyper-sexuality, and oppositionality. Adam requires a residential treatment facility for the safety of himself and others. I would recommend that he remain in The Vernia Treatment Facility program for the next 90 days. This is medically necessary for Adam’ treatment.


1.) First, describe what is the primary problem. Don't us labels, use descriptions.
What stands out for you in the client's behaviors, thinking, and affect (feelings).

2.) Look at the Axis 1 diagnosis. Does it match your description of what you believe is
the problem. Do you agree with the diagnosis?

3.) Look at the medications; look them up on line. Do they fit the symptoms?

4.) If you were the clinician, counselor, or therapist, what would be the primary issue
you would want to address?

5.) Are there any discrepencies, contradictions, or concerns that stand out for you?

There is no RIGHT answer. This is an exercise in looking at real psychological disorders,
gaining experience in analyzing psycholgical reports, viewing them critically, and
proposing a remedial plan - it always comes down to: "what will you do with the client?"


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