Essay Instructions: Written Assignment
SPSS Output Summary: Descriptive Statistics, Correlation, and Regression
Study Description: A school educator is interested in determining the relationships between grade point average (GPA) and IQ scores among ninth graders.
The educator takes a random sample of 40 ninth graders aged 14 years old and administers the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV).
The WISC-IV includes a Full Scale IQ (FSIQ; however for this assignment we will just call it IQ) that comprises verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed skills.
Output file: See SPSS Output.pdf file.
Answer the following Questions:
a. Hypothesis - Formulate a hypothesis about the two variables. What do you think is the relationship between IQ scores and GPA?
b. Variables - Identify the variables and each of their attributes: discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and independent or dependent.
c. Descriptive statistics - Write an overview of the descriptive statistics (at least two paragraphs), including the appropriate and necessary statistical results within sentences and in proper APA formatting. Be sure to provide sufficient explanation for any numbers presented. Include the following in your discussion:
? How do the measures of central tendency and variability provide us with an overview of the characteristics and shape of the distribution of each variable? What are these statistics?
? Keeping in mind that the WISC-IV has a mean of 100 and Standard Deviation of 15, what assumptions could you make about the IQ scores and suitability of this IQ test for the group of students sampled?
? Keeping in mind that the WISC-IV has a mean of 100 and Standard Deviation of 15, how many students? IQ scores in this sample are within one standard deviation below the test?s mean? Two standard deviations below the test?s mean? What percentage of students in this sample had an IQ score less than or equal to 70? An IQ score greater or equal to 100?
d. Correlation ? Write an overview of the results of the correlation (at least two paragraphs), including the appropriate and necessary statistical results within sentences and in proper APA formatting. Be sure to provide sufficient explanation for any numbers presented. Consider the following in your overview and conclusions:
? Is there a significant correlation between IQ scores and GPA? If so, what does a significant correlation mean?
? Using the correlation table and scatterplot, explain whether the relationship is positive, negative, or no correlation.
? Describe the strength of the relationship (e.g. very strong, moderate, weak, etc.).
? What do the results tell us about our hypotheses?
? What conclusions can we draw from these results? What conclusions can we NOT make using these results?
? What issues regarding the sample used or how the data was collected should be considered in the interpretation of the data?
e. Regression ? Write an overview of the results of the regression (1 paragraph), including the appropriate and necessary statistical results within sentences and in proper APA formatting. Be sure to provide sufficient explanation for any numbers presented. Consider the following in your overview and conclusions:
? In the regression, what variable is the dependent variable and what variable is the independent variable?
What do the regression results tell us about IQ scores and GPA?
Students should consider the following questions before and during the reading and assignments this week:
1. What does correlation mean? What do the different types of correlations tell us about our variables?
2. How can scatterplots be used to graphically represent a correlation? How is a correlation coefficient calculated and tested for statistical significance?
3. How can I create a regression equation and use it to make predictions? What role does prediction error (i.e., standard error of estimate) play in these predictions?
4. What does reliability mean?
5. What type of factors can affect the reliability of a test?
6. What is the difference between reliability and validity?
7. Why are validity and reliability important in the assessment of tests and test scores?
Huck, S. W. (2012). Reading statistics and research (6th ed.).Columbus, OH: Allyn & Bacon.
Chapter 3: Bivariate Correlation
Chapter 4: Reliability and Validity
Thorndike, R. M. & Thorndike-Christ, T. M. (2009). Measurement and evaluation in psychology and education (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Chapter 2: Measurement and Numbers (pp. 53-65)
Chapter 4: Qualities Desired in Any Measurement Procedure: Reliability
Chapter 5: Qualities Desired in Any Measurement Procedure: Validity
Muchinsky, P. M. (2004). When the psychometrics of test development meets organizational realities: A conceptual framework for organizational change, examples, and recommendations. Personnel Psychology, 57(1), 175-209. Doi: 220138784
Newton, P. E. & Shaw, S. D. (2013) Standards for talking and thinking about validity. Psychological Methods, 18(3), 301-319. Doi: 10.1037/a0032969
Sireci, S. G. (2007). On validity theory and test validation. Educational Researcher, 36(8), 477-481. (ProQuest Document ID: 1403803131).
Arkkelin, D. (n. d.). Chapter 6.3: The frequencies procedure ? Interpreting the output. Available: http://wwwstage.valpo.edu/other/dabook/ch6/c6-3.htm
Johnston, I. (2000). I?ll give you a definite maybe: An introductory handbook on probability, statistics and excel. Section 4: Correlation. Available:http://records.viu.ca/~johnstoi/maybe/maybe4.htm
Lane, D. M. (2007). HyperStat online statistics textbook. Available: http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/
Psych Stats. (n.d.). Correlations and regression. Available: http://www.psych.utoronto.ca/courses/c1/spss/page5.htm
Sinn, J. (n.d.). SPSS guide: Correlation and regression. Available: http://faculty.winthrop.edu/sinnj/
Stockburger, D. W. (1998). Correlation. Available: http://www.psychstat.missouristate.edu/introbook/sbk17m.htm
Trochim, W. M. K. (2006). Research methods: Knowledge base. Available: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/
UCLA. (2010). Probability and statistics ebook. Available: http://wiki.stat.ucla.edu/socr/index.php/Probability_and_statistics_EBook
UCLA (n.d.). Annotated SPSS output: Correlation. Available: http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/spss/output/corr.htm
VCU (2010). SPSS help sheets: Simple linear regression. Available: www.or.vcu.edu/help/SPSS/SPSS.Regression.pdf
Cengage Learning (2005). Statistics workshops. Available: http://www.wadsworth.com/psychology_d/templates/student_resources/workshops/stats_wrk.html
Consortium for Mathematics and its Applications & Chedd-Angier (Producers). (1989). Against all odds: Inside statistics. Available:http://www.learner.org/resources/series65.html?pop=yes&pid=142#
The Question of Causation
Unknown. (n.d.). Correlation, scatterplots, and regression: Generating results in SPSS, reading SPSS output. Available:http://www.slideshare.net/edithosb/correlation-and-regression-spss
OUTCOME OF PAPER SHOULD MEET THE FOLLOWING:
Formulates a hypothesis and discusses the relationship between IQ scores and GPA.
Formulates a correct hypothesis and extensively discusses the relationship between IQ scores and GPA.
Identifies the variables and each of their attributes including discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and independent or dependent.
Identifies both variables and all attributes correctly.
Examines the descriptive statistics, including measures of central tendency and variability, and the suitability of the IQ test for this population (including numbers and percentages of student scores below and above the mean).
Provides an extensive description of the statistics, including measures of central tendency and variability, and the suitability of the IQ test for this population (including numbers and percentages of student scores below and above the mean).
Analyzes the results of the correlation, including the nature and strength of the relationship, whether the results support the hypothesis, and what conclusions can be drawn. Identifies issues regarding the sample used or how the data was collected in the interpretation of the data.
Effectively analyzes the results of the correlation, including the nature and strength of the relationship, whether the results support the hypothesis, and what conclusions can be drawn. Thoroughly identifies issues regarding the sample used or how the data was collected in the interpretation of the data.
Analyzes the results of the regression, including the variables and what the results show regarding IQ scores and GPA.
Effectively analyzes results of the regression, and provides a thorough description of the variables and what the results show regarding IQ scores and GPA.
Writing & Organization
Demonstrates exemplary clarity and organization. The paper contains a well-articulated thesis statement, flawless mechanics, and precise APA formatting.
Demonstrates effective clarity and organization. The paper contains a well-articulated thesis statement, proper mechanics, and correct APA formatting.
Demonstrates adequate clarity and organization. The paper contains a clear thesis statement, adequate mechanics, and mostly correct APA formatting.
Demonstrates some clarity and organization. The paper contains an unclear thesis statement, poor mechanics, and improper APA formatting.
Lacking clarity and organization. The paper lacks a thesis statement, effective mechanics, and proper APA formatting.
Demonstrates exemplary critical analysis of the research materials. The student comprehensively uses varied, scholarly, relevant, and current resources to inform analysis, evaluation, problem-solving, and decision-making.
Demonstrates effective critical analysis of the research materials. The student fully uses varied, scholarly, relevant, and current resources to inform analysis, evaluation, problem-solving, and decision-making.
Demonstrates adequate critical analysis of the research materials. The student adequately uses varied, scholarly, relevant, and current resources to inform analysis, evaluation, problem-solving, and decision-making.
Demonstrates some critical analysis of the research materials. The student partially uses varied, scholarly, relevant, and current resources to inform analysis, evaluation, problem-solving, and decision-making.
Lacking critical analysis of the research materials. The student fails to use varied, scholarly, relevant, and current resources to inform analysis, evaluation, problem-solving, and decision-making
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: It is a statistic analytical paper for my Psy 101 at Uc Berkeley.
I am sending you my paper topic and rubric. I want to choose Question # 2 and I am providing the Data Set and it should be done using R Commander.
Statistics Paper for my psychology class.
We know that the paper is making people nervous. It is a hard assignment. This is the moment when you take all this concrete fact-learning and translate it-- show us that you can work your way through from data to interpretation. We know that is a high demand process, and that for many of you, there will be some tough moments in thinking through all that this will take. Enclosed, please find a bit more of a roadmap. Good luck!
Questions: You can choose one of these questions.
1) Do personality traits predict GPA? Form a hypothesis about 2 personality traits that you believe might influence GPA.
2) Do amount of sleep and bed times correlate with GPA? Form a hypothesis about the nature of the relationship between these sleep habits and GPA. Note that this hypothesis may require recoding variables to consider what is a healthy or unhealthy pattern of sleep.
3) How does narcissism relate to sense of power and self-esteem?
4) Do men and women differ on personality traits? Which ones might you expect them to differ on? Form hypotheses about 2 personality traits and gender, and test those hypotheses.
Variables: Once you’ve selected your research question, think about the variables that will be involved in running analyses that address your question. Included in the data set are the following variables:
Year in school Birth month
Average amount of sleep during the week Typical bedtime during the week
GPA Trait sense of power (personality variable)
Trait need to be belong Trait self-esteem
Trait narcissism Big-five personality traits - extraversion, neuroticism//emotional stability (two ends of same scale), openness, conscientiousness, agreeableness
2) 12 font
3) Times New Roman font
4) 1 inch margins
5) Should include approximately 2 pages of writing and 1 page of graphs. The paper should not exceed three 3 pages in total
Part 1: Hypotheses
1) Write up two testable hypotheses (using bullet points, one succinct sentence per hypothesis) for how these variables might relate to outcome. You are expected to plan for conducting two different statistical analyses (e.g., one t-test and one correlation, or two correlations). That means one analysis per hypothesis, so make sure your hypotheses are simple enough to be addressed by a single statistical analysis.
Part 2: Results Section
1) The nature of univariate distributions
a) Evaluate whether your variables are continuous or discrete,
b) Evaluate the scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio).
c) Describe the nature of the distribution of each, including
i) central tendency ?" mean (note: for some variables this may not be appropriate, and you should explain why. In that case, you should decide what other measure of central tendency is better and use that)
ii) variability ?" standard deviation
iii) shape of the distribution ?" kurtosis, skew, - does it seems normal using visual inspection of graphs
2) Analyses of primary hypotheses
a) Based on the nature of variables, choose statistical tests that allow you to test how your variables relate to each other. See page 406 in your book for a figure that describes how to link your scale of measurement and the type of question to the type of test. (Hint: we have not covered some of these tests, and so you may want to stick to the tests you feel most comfortable with).
b) For each analysis, define the test used, the variables used, and the results of the analyses including the statistic, the degrees of freedom, and the significance level. Use APA format to report these results. For example a t-test result might look like: t (145) = 4.60, p < .001. (check out the back of Goodwin and this Purdue website for ways to correctly report results in APA style: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/).
3) Provide a graph for each analysis ?" using a computer program. Use APA style (e.g. all axes are labeled and scaled and there's a title for the graph).
a) Univariate graphs ?" histogram (1/variable for 3 total graphs)
b) Bivariate graphs ?" as appropriate (e.g. scatter plot, bar graph) (1/analysis for 2 total graphs)
4) Check whether assumptions for tests were met (e.g., for correlation or regression analyses, determine whether variables were linearly related. graph your data to check this.)
a) See relevant chapter of text book ( statistical reasoning in th behavioral sciences , Bruce M.King &Edward W.Minium")
****Note: Hypotheses and results should not exceed 1 page in total (not including graphs). Graphs should be stapled at the end of the paper (they can probably fit on 2 additional pages)*****
Part 3: Discussion Section
1) 1 page maximum
2) A summary of the patterns observed in analyses. Be specific about which relationships were significant and which were not, and whether each finding supported hypotheses or not. Do not use numbers in your discussion, but rather tell us what happened for people in your sample (4 sentences or less)
3) Define the 2 chief limitations of your study (This section should be 4 sentences or less)
4) Describe how you might address these 2 chief limitations in a future study. Be very specific?"it is not sufficient to say a better sample is needed?"tell us about your ideal sample or identify a measure in the field. This section should be very concise?"2 sentences.
Section Subcomponents Points
Part 1: Hypotheses 16 total points
Bullet Points 1/hypothesis ?" 2 points total
Succinct Wording 1/hypothesis ?" 2 points total
Hypotheses are about one of the four questions outlined above (unless approved by GSI) 2/hypothesis ?" 4 points total
Are the hypotheses testable? 2/hypothesis ?" 4 points total
Are the hypotheses simple enough to be addressed by a single analysis? 2/hypothesis ?" 4 points total
Part 2: Results 57 total points
Accurately identifying each variable as continuous/discrete 2/variable (with 3 total variables) ?" 6 points total
Accurately identifying the scale of measurement for each variable 2/variable (with 3 total variables) ?" 6 points total
Correctly describing the shape of each variable’s distribution 1/variable (with 3 total variables) ?" 3 points total
Accurate assessment of each variable’s variability 2/variable (with 3 total variables) ?" 6 points total
Accurate and appropriate assessment of the central tendency of each variable 2/variable (with 3 total variables) ?" 6 points total
Identifying the test used 1/test ?" 2 points total
Identifying the variables used 2/test ?" 4 points total
Correct statistic 2/test ?" 4 points total
Correct degrees of freedom 1/test ?" 2 points total
Correct significance level 2/test ?" 4 points total
Correct APA style 2/test ?" 4 points total
Appropriate univariate graph 1/variable ?" 3 points total
Appropriate bivariate graph 1.5/test ?" 3 points total
Assumptions of the test described 2/test ?" 4 points total
Part 3: Discussion 24 total points
Correctly determines whether the results were significant 3/test ?" 6 points total
Correctly determines whether the results support the hypothesis 3/test ?" 6 points total
Describes a reasonable limitation of the study 3/test ?" 6 points total
Describes good ways to address the limitation 3/test ?" 6 points total
Other 3 points total
Quality of scientific writing throughout the paper. Writing should be clear, linear, focused, and simple 3 points total
Total points =
16 (hypotheses) + 57 (results) + 24 (discussion) + 3 (other)
Point Deductions Sections should not exceed given length. However, there is a buffer of a ¼ page. Beyond the ¼ page buffer points are lost (e.g in sections supposed to be 1 page long - if 1.5 pages are written -1 point) -1/section
Subsection surpasses maximum length given - sentence number guidelines (e.g. in subsections that should only be 2 sentences - if 4 sentences are written ?" 1 point) -1/subsection
Grammatical errors, typos, and errors in APA style (aside from APA formatting of the results themselves which are already accounted for) -1/error ?" up to 10 points total"
There are faxes for this order.
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: Why Junior High Students Only Maintain C or better during eligibility season?
What is the average GPA in the United States for Junior High Athletes?
Why does the education system think this is happening?
Excerpt From Essay:
Essay Instructions: 3 Essay Questions (Two pages for each essay)
There are three essay questions for this.
The length of each essay should be one to two double-spaced pages (excluding title and reference pages). Use 12-point font and format your paper with regular 1-inch margins.
A group of researchers conducted an experiment to determine which vaccine is more effective for preventing getting the flu. They tested two different types of vaccines: a shot and a nasal spray. To test the effectiveness, 1000 participants were randomly selected with 500 people getting the shot and 500 the nasal spray. Of the 500 people were treated with the shot, 80 developed the flu and 420 did not. Of the people who were treated with the nasal spray, 120 people developed the flu and 380 did not. The level of significance was set at .05. The proportion of people who were treated with the shot who developed the flu = .16, and the proportion of the people who were treated with the nasal spray was .24. The calculated p value = .0008.
For this essay, describe the statistical approaches (e.g., identify the hypotheses and research methods) used in this excerpt from a research study. Interpret the statistical results and examine the limitations of the statistical methods. Finally, evaluate the research study as a whole and apply what you have learned about hypothesis testing and inferential statistics by discussing how you might conduct a follow-up study.
Your essay must address the following points:
• Describe the research question for this experiment.
o What were the null and alternative hypotheses?
o Were the results of this test statistically significant?
o If so, why were they significant?
• Would the researchers reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis?
• Do the results provide sufficient evidence to support the alternative hypothesis?
• Was the sample appropriate for this study? Explain your answer.
• What are some possible limitations to this study?
• Discuss how you would conduct a follow up study to this one. Explain your answer.
• Describe the difference between practical and statistical significance.
A researcher has investigated the relationship between IQ and grade point average (GPA) and found the correlation to be .75.
For this essay, critique the results and interpretation of a correlational study.
• Evaluate the correlational result and identify the strength of the correlation.
• Examine the assumptions and limitations of the possible connection between the researcher’s chosen variables.
• Identify and describe other statistical tests that could be used to study this relationship.
Your essay response must address the following questions:
• How strong is this correlation?
o Is this a positive or negative correlation?
o What does this correlation mean?
• Does this correlation imply that individuals with high Intelligence Quotients (IQ) have high Grade Point Averages (GPA)?
• Does this correlation provide evidence that high IQ causes GPA to go higher?
o What other variables might be influencing this relationship?
• What is the connection between correlation and causation?
• What are some of the factors that affect the size of this correlation?
• Is correlation a good test for predicting GPA?
o If not, what statistical tests should a researcher use, and why?
A researcher has recorded the reaction times of 20 individuals on a memory assessment. The following table indicates the individual times:
2.2 4.7 7.3 4.1
9.5 15.2 4.3 9.5
2.7 3.1 9.2 2.9
8.2 7.6 3.5 2.5
9.3 4.8 8.5 8.1
In this essay, demonstrate your ability to organize data into meaningful sets, calculate basic descriptive statistics, interpret the results, and evaluate the effects of outliers and changes in the variables. You may use Excel, one of the many free online descriptive statistics calculators, or calculate the values by hand and/or with a calculator.
Next, separate the data into two groups of 10; one group will be the lower reaction times, and the second group will be the higher reaction times. Then, address the following points in your essay response:
• Calculate the sum, mean, mode, median, standard deviation, range, skew, and kurtosis for each group.
• How do the two groups differ?
• Are there any outliers in either data group?
• What effect does an outlier have on a sample?
Lastly, double each sample by repeating the same 10 data points in each group. You will have a total of 20 data points for each group. After completing this, address the following in your essay response:
• Calculate the following for the new data groups: sum, mean, mode, median, standard deviation, range, skew, and kurtosis.
• Did any of the values change?
• How does sample size affect those values?
Excerpt From Essay:
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